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Markers, biomarkers, cancer markers

Yourae Hong, Choa Park, Nayoung Kim, Juyeon Cho, Sung Ung Moon, Jongmin Kim, Euna Jeong, Sukjoon Yoon
BACKGROUND: Cell surface proteins have provided useful targets and biomarkers for advanced cancer therapies. The recent clinical success of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) highlights the importance of finding selective surface antigens for given cancer subtypes. We thus attempted to develop stand-alone software for the analysis of the cell surface transcriptome of patient cancer samples and to prioritize lineage- and/or mutation-specific over-expression markers in cancer cells. RESULTS: A total of 519 genes were selected as surface proteins, and their expression was profiled in 14 cancer subtypes using patient sample transcriptome data...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Costi Alifrangis, Philip Carter, Biancastella Cereser, Pramodh Chandrasinghe, Lisa Del Bel Belluz, Eric Lim, Nina Moderau, Fotini Poyia, Neha Tabassum, Hua Zhang, Jonathan Krell, Justin Stebbing
In this study we utilized data on patient responses to guided treatments, and we evaluated their benefit for a non-small cell lung cancer cohort. The recommended therapies used were predicted using tumor molecular profiles that involved a range of biomarkers but primarily used immunohistochemistry markers. A dataset describing 91 lung non-small cell lung cancer patients was retrospectively split into two. The first group's drugs were consistent with a treatment plan whereby all drugs received agreed with their tumor's molecular profile...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Ping Luo, Chunzi Liang, Xianwei Zhang, Xuefang Liu, Yingchao Wang, Mengmeng Wu, Xiaobo Feng, Jiangcheng Tu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third major cause of cancer related death. Abundant researches show that lncRNAs play critical roles in the initiation and progression of HCC and may serve as diagnostic markers for HCC. In the present study, 6 lncRNAs were chosen as candidate genes on the basis of previous literature to evaluate their diagnostic value on HCC by qRT-PCR. Experiment was first carried out in 22 pairs of tissues from HCC and then those differently expressed in tissues were further tested in plasma from 20 HCC patients and 20 control cases...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Carol J Fabian, Bruce F Kimler
Marine omega-3 fatty acids promote resolution of inflammation and have potential to reduce risk of obesity-related breast cancer. For prevention trials in obese women, inflammatory cytokines, aromatase, and measures of breast immune cell infiltration are logical, as are biomarkers of growth factor, adipokine, and estrogen signaling. Where best to look for marker change: in the circulation (easiest), in benign breast tissue (most relevant), or in visceral adipose (inflammation often most marked)? A null biomarker modulation trial may reflect limitations in design, source and dose of fatty acids, or biomarkers and should not lead to premature abandonment of marine omega-3 fatty acids for cancer prevention...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Anna C Wilkins, Barry Gusterson, Zsolt Szijgyarto, Joanne Haviland, Clare Griffin, Christine Stuttle, Frances Daley, Catherine M Corbishley, David P Dearnaley, Emma Hall, Navita Somaiah
PURPOSE: To assess whether the cellular proliferation marker Ki67 provides prognostic information and predicts response to radiation therapy fractionation in patients with localized prostate tumors participating in a randomized trial of 3 radiation therapy fractionation schedules (74 Gy/37 fractions vs 60 Gy/20 fractions vs 57 Gy/19 fractions). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A matched case-control study design was used; patients with biochemical/clinical failure >2 years after radiation therapy (BCR) were matched 1:1 to patients without recurrence using established prognostic factors (Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, tumor stage) and fractionation schedule...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jamie Mong, Min-Han Tan
Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream can predict prognosis and survival in cancer patients. However, CTC rarity and heterogeneity pose challenges in using them as biomarkers. Recent publications have reported new classes of circulating, non-cancerous tumor-derived cells present in cancer patients but not in healthy controls; these include cancer-associated macrophages, tumor-endothelial clusters (TECs), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Well-established marker-dependent CTC enrichment technologies will miss this group of circulating cells...
March 17, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Masoumeh Nemati, Naser Ajami, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Saleheh Rezapour, Reyhaneh Ravanbakhsh Gavgani, Shahryar Hashemzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Ebrahim Sakhinia
BACKGROUND: To date, 4 classes of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified in humans. Class I HDACs are zinc-dependent and NAD+-independent enzymes, and include 4 isoforms closely related to yeast RPD3: HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to quantitatively evaluate the expression of HDAC3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to correlate its expression levels with clinicopathological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We characterized expression patterns of HDAC3 as class I HDAC isoforms in a cohort of 48 CRC patients by quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Mohammad Saberi Anvar, Zarrin Minuchehr, Mohsen Shahlaei, Samira Kheitan
Gastric cancer is one of the most fatal cancers in the world. Many efforts in recent years have attempted to find effective proteins in gastric cancer. By using a comprehensive list of proteins involved in gastric cancer, scientists were able to retrieve interaction information. The study of protein-protein interaction networks through systems biology based analysis provides appropriate strategies to discover candidate proteins and key biological pathways. In this study, we investigated dominant functional themes and centrality parameters including betweenness as well as the degree of each topological clusters and expressionally active sub-networks in the resulted network...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Mitsuaki Nishioka, Yutaka Suehiro, Kouhei Sakai, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Naoko Okayama, Hidekazu Mizuno, Koji Ueno, Nobuaki Suzuki, Shinichi Hashimoto, Taro Takami, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Isao Sakaida, Takahiro Yamasaki
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 19 ( TROY ) is involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and interacts with leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), which is a well-known biomarker of cancer stem cells and a prognostic marker of colorectal cancer (CRC). Because there have been no studies to evaluate the prognostic significance of TROY , we performed the present study to determine whether TROY can be a prognostic biomarker in CRC patients. We evaluated TROY expression levels in 100 CRC tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and investigated the association of TROY expression levels with clinicopathologic features...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yaqiong Liu, Yi Fan, Xiaoyu Wang, Zijian Huang, Kun Shi, Bei Zhou
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies. Mousasi 2 (Msi2) is a RNA-binding protein that regulates various key cellular functions and has emerged as a crucial regulator of cancer development. However, the clinical significance and biological functions of Msi2 in cervical cancer remain unknown. The current study assessed the expression of Msi2 mRNA using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the expression of Msi2 was examined in 162 cervical cancer samples using immunohistochemistry and the association between Msi2 expression and patient clinicopathological features was analyzed...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Takuma Wada, Takeshi Fukuda, Masahiro Shimomura, Yuta Inoue, Masaru Kawanishi, Reiko Tasaka, Tomoyo Yasui, Kazuo Ikeda, Toshiyuki Sumi
The standard treatment for locally advanced uterine cervical cancer is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Successful neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may reduce tumor size and facilitate a hysterectomy, thereby improving the prognosis for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. In contrast, unsuccessful NAC may worsen the prognosis because if a hysterectomy is not possible, the change in treatment plan may delay the initiation of core treatment. Therefore, there is a need to identify biomarkers that predict the efficacy of NAC in patients with uterine cervical cancer...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
J M Cozar, I Robles-Fernandez, L J Martinez-Gonzalez, M Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodriguez-Martinez, M J Serrano, J A Lorente, M J Alvarez-Cubero
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The observed variability in progression and responses to the same treatment between patients underlie the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Nowadays, screening and follow-up biomarkers in PC are still having a deep lack of information, which makes difficult the cancer diagnosis, prognosis and the selection of the most suitable therapies. This is making that currently unnecessary biopsies, over-treatments and hormonoresistances have high rates of prevalence among patients...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Miao Wang, Yuxi Yang, Jian Xu, Wen Bai, Xueli Ren, Huijian Wu
BACKGROUND: The expression of circular RNA (circRNA) may affect tumor progression. However, there have been no systemic meta-analysis for cancer diagnosis by using circRNAs in clinical till now. Herein, we aimed to collect and examined all the evidence on the potential role of circRNA as novel biomarker in human cancers. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was used to search relevant literatures in the databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science from 2015 to August 2017...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
Puneet, Hasan Raza Kazmi, Soni Kumari, Satendra Tiwari, A Khanna, Gopeshwar Narayan
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide. The various genetic and epigenetic events have been found to be associated with its carcinogenesis. The epigenetic is a heritable and transient/reversible change in the gene expression that is not accompanied by modification in the DNA sequence. This event is characterized by the alteration in the promoter CpG island of the gene or histone modification. These events are associated with silencing of critical tumor suppressor gene and activation of oncogenes leading to carcinogenesis...
March 19, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Fengyan Deng, Nancy Magee, Yuxia Zhang
Cell-to-cell communication is a fascinating process that is essential for maintaining tissue and whole-body homeostasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound nanoparticles that are a means of communication between cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that EVs can render either beneficial or harmful outcomes, depending on the specific cargos (e.g. proteins, lipids, RNAs) transferred between cells. EVs also have great value as diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease because they are present in a variety of biological fluids and carry bioactive molecules from their cells or tissues of origin...
September 2017: Liver Research
Bo Hu, Yuanyuan Ma, Yue Yang, Lijian Zhang, Haibo Han, Jinfeng Chen
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a marker for cancer stem cells, has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its involvement in tumor growth has not fully been elucidated. The present study explored the associations between CD44 expression and clinicopathological features using immunohistochemistry in 94 NSCLC cases, as well as proliferation in cells with aberrant expression of this protein. Overexpression of CD44 was achieved by transfecting H1299 cells with CD44 expression vectors, and inhibition of CD44 expression was performed by transfecting small interfering RNAs into A549 cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jing-Min Zhong, Jing Li, An-Ding Kang, San-Qian Huang, Wen-Bin Liu, Yun Zhang, Zhi-Hong Liu, Liang Zeng
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females, with metastasis of this type of cancer frequently proving lethal. However, there are still no effective biomarkers to predict breast cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to analyze breast cancer metastasis-associated proteins and evaluate the association between protein S100-A8 and the prognosis of breast cancer. The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic technique was used to analyze the differential expression of proteins between fresh primary breast tumor (PBT) tissue and fresh paired metastatic lymph nodes (PMLN) tissue...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yating Tang, Guang Li, Shan Wu, Lingrong Tang, Ning Zhang, Jinzhao Liu, Shuo Zhang, Lei Yao
Immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) agents has demonstrated promising efficacy for the treatment of various types of malignancies. However, the role of PD-L1 as a tumor prognostic marker remains poorly understood. In the present study, the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in esophageal carcinoma (EC) following definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) was investigated, and its associations with three systemic inflammation biomarkers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were further explored...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Marieke Hogervorst, Marion Rietveld, Frank de Gruijl, Abdoelwaheb El Ghalbzouri
BACKGROUND: Tumour stroma consists of a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts and related mesenchymal cells, collectively dubbed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are key players in cancer invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As we have shown earlier, papillary and reticular fibroblasts (Pfs and Rfs, respectively) have distinct effects on epidermal and dermal homeostasis, but their role in cancer invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains to be determined...
March 19, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Xabier Osteikoetxea, Márton Benke, Marta Rodriguez, Krisztina Pálóczi, Barbara W Sódar, Zsuzsanna Szvicsek, Katalin Szabó-Taylor, Krisztina V Vukman, Ágnes Kittel, Zoltán Wiener, Károly Vékey, László Harsányi, Ákos Szűcs, Lilla Turiák, Edit I Buzás
AIMS: The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer has remained virtually unchanged with a high mortality rate compared to other types of cancers. An earlier detection would provide a time window of opportunity for treatment and prevention of deaths. In the present study we investigated extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by directly assessing EV size-based subpopulations in pancreatic juice samples of patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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