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Cancer, Oncology, Prevention, Markers

M P Economides, P Mahale, A Kyvernitakis, F Turturo, H Kantarjian, A Naing, J Hosry, T L Shigle, A Kaseb, H A Torres
BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy improves hepatic outcomes in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cancer patients. However, such patients are not treated simultaneously with antivirals and chemotherapy, owing to overlapping toxicities with previous standard of care treatment of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. AIM: To examine the safety and clinically-significant drug-drug interactions observed in patients who received simultaneous treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and chemotherapy...
October 11, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Saro H Armenian, Melissa M Hudson, Ming Hui Chen, Steven D Colan, Lanie Lindenfeld, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Sarah Gelehrter, Ha Dang, Wendy Hein, Daniel M Green, Leslie L Robison, F Lennie Wong, Pamela S Douglas, Smita Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of childhood cancer. One of the well-recognized side-effects of anthracycline therapy is dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that may progress to heart failure (HF) years after completion of cancer-directed therapy. This study will evaluate the efficacy of low-dose beta-blocker (carvedilol) for HF risk reduction in childhood cancer survivors at highest risk for HF. The proposed intervention has the potential to significantly reduce chronic cardiac injury via interruption of neurohormonal systems responsible for left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in improved cardiac function and decreased risk of HF...
October 4, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. There is a wide variation in the reported prevalence of platinum-induced ototoxicity and the associated risk factors. More insight into the prevalence of and risk factors for platinum-induced hearing loss is essential in order to develop less ototoxic treatment protocols for the future treatment of children with cancer and to develop adequate follow-up protocols for childhood cancer survivors treated with platinum-based therapy...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bryant W Megna, Patrick R Carney, Manabu Nukaya, Pete Geiger, Gregory D Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Even with colonoscopy screening and preventive measures becoming more commonplace, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third leading cause of oncologic death in the United States as of 2014. Many chemotherapeutics exist for the treatment of colorectal cancer, though they often come with significant side effect profiles or narrow efficacy ranges in terms of patient profile. Dietary phytochemicals such as glucobrassicin and its metabolite indole-3-carbinol (I3C) have been implicated in tumor prevention in many preclinical models across a variety of gastrointestinal tumors and represent an intriguing new class of natural chemotherapeutics for CRC...
July 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Alexandra C Kölbl, Lisa-Marie Victor, Amelie E Birk, Udo Jeschke, Ulrich Andergassen
Endometrial adenocarcinoma is a common malignancy in women worldwide, with formation of remote metastasis occurring following oncological treatment. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are regarded to be the origin of haematogenous metastasis formation. The present study aimed to identify suitable marker genes using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach to detect CTCs from blood samples of patients with endometrial carcinoma. Therefore, RNA was isolated from endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines and from healthy endometrial tissue and reverse transcribed to cDNA, which was then used in qPCR on a number of marker genes...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zachary Nicholas, Michael Sughrue, James Battiste, Ozer Algan
We aimed to evaluate the clinical and pathologic features of two common medical illnesses and their appropriate workup and pathognomonic findings. A 57-year-old white male presented with a new onset expressive aphasia while traveling abroad. He was evaluated at an outside facility and underwent workup for a stroke. The evaluation included a CT and MRI of the brain demonstrating three new enhancing lesions, the largest of which was a 2.5 cm ring-enhancing cystic lesion. A CT of the chest noted a 4-cm cystic thyroid lesion that was diagnosed as a thyroid cancer with brain metastases...
2016: Curēus
M Panova-Noeva, I M Hermanns, A Schulz, D Laubert-Reh, T Zeller, S Blankenberg, H M Spronk, T Münzel, K J Lackner, H Ten Cate, P S Wild
INTRODUCTION: The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of adult cancer survivors over the years. However, due to the long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing in survivors. Identifying risk factors and interventions to reduce the excess burden of CVD in this vulnerable population is urgently needed. AIM: To investigate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in cancer survivors from a large population-based study...
April 2016: Thrombosis Research
Mauro Viganò, Giuseppe Serra, Giovanni Casella, Glenda Grossi, Pietro Lampertico
INTRODUCTION: Targeted therapies have gained popularity in the treatment of several oncologic and immune-mediated diseases. Immunosuppression caused by these drugs has been associated to reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients (overt infection) and HBsAg negative/anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive carriers (resolved infection), leading to premature discontinuation of therapy and potentially fatal hepatitis. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the evidence of HBV reactivation in patients with overt or resolved HBV infection undergoing targeted therapies for cancer or immune-mediated disorders, providing recommendations for the management of these patients...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Z Bielčiková, L Petruželka
Hormonal dependent breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease from a molecular and clinical perspective. The relapse risk of early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy varies. Validated predictive markers concerning adjuvant cytotoxic treatment are still lacking in ER+/ HER2-  breast cancer, which has a good prognosis in general. This can lead to the inefficient chemotherapy indication. Molecular classification of breast cancer reports evidence about the heterogeneity of hormonal dependent breast cancer and its stratification to different groups with different characteristics...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Thilo Hackert, Stefan Fritz, Markus W Büchler
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) requires a differentiated approach regarding indications and extent of resection. METHODS: The review summarizes the current literature on indication, timing, and surgical procedures in IPMN. RESULTS: The most important differentiation has to be made between main-duct and branch-duct IPMN as well as mixed-type lesions that biologically mimic main-duct types. In main-duct and mixed-type IPMN, the resection should be indicated by the time of the diagnosis - in accordance with the international consensus guidelines - and should follow oncological principles...
February 2015: Viszeralmedizin
Viviana Lacava, Giuseppe Coppolino, Elvira Puntorieri, Valeria Cernaro, Rosaria Lupica, Luca Visconti, Antoine Buemi, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
A multidisciplinary approach represents the best method to interact with patients. Neoplastic and renal diseases are closely related to each other because of an increased risk of cancer among individuals with end-stage renal disease and because of the high prevalence of renal failure in cancer patients. Physicians should be able to know how to prevent and treat the possible complications which may appear during the course of neoplastic disease that may lead to kidney damage such as the Acute Tumor Lysis Syndrome, disorders of hydroelectrolitic balance, metabolic alterations in the calcium-phosphorus, anemia, interstitial and glomerular impairment due to chemotherapy...
2015: Renal Failure
E Anton, Natalia Botnariuc, E Ancuta, B Doroftei, A Ciobica, Carmen Anton
Breast cancer is the most common oncology disease in women and is one of the major public health issues. Worldwide, is the second leading cause of cancer death in women and cancer research is a priority in all the laboratories of the world, in terms of uncovering the appearance causes of the malignant process, understanding the mechanisms of development, but most of all, the discovery of early diagnostic methods and effective treatment. Ignorance, fear of diagnosis, lack of health education and of efficient programmes for prevention and screening could cause diagnosis of the disease to be detected in the majority of cases in advanced stages, when treatment remains only palliative and very costly, in this cases the patient's suffering being immense...
April 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Anna Sheahan, Gretchen Copeland, Lauren Richardson, Shelley McKay, Alexander Chou, N Esther Babady, Yi-Wei Tang, Farid Boulad, Janet Eagan, Kent Sepkowitz, Mini Kamboj
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing treatment for cancer with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell recipients are at risk for severe morbidity caused by norovirus (NV). METHODS: We describe a NV outbreak on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's pediatric oncology unit. Stool testing for diagnosis of NV was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Twelve NV cases occurred; 7 were hospital acquired. Twenty-five health care workers reported NV compatible illness...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
Rodrigo Donalisio da Silva, Fernando J Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Raymond J Winquist, Amy B Hall, Brenda K Eustace, Brinley F Furey
Stem cells subserve repair functions for the lifetime of the organism but, as a consequence of this responsibility, are candidate cells for accumulating numerous genetic and/or epigenetic aberrations leading to malignant transformation. However, given the importance of this guardian role, stem cells likely harbor some process for maintaining their precious genetic code such as non-random segregation of chromatid strands as predicted by the Immortal Strand Hypothesis (ISH). Discerning such non-random chromosomal segregation and asymmetric cell division in normal or cancer stem cells has been complicated by methodological shortcomings but also by differing division kinetics amongst tissues and the likelihood that both asymmetric and symmetric cell divisions, dictated by local extrinsic factors, are operant in these cells...
September 15, 2014: Biochemical Pharmacology
Martin Bischoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2014: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Ruth E Langley, Peter M Rothwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to assess recent evidence that demonstrates that aspirin has the potential to be an effective preventive and therapeutic agent in gastrointestinal malignancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up of previous randomized trials of aspirin show that it decreases cancer incidence and mortality with the greatest effects seen on cancers that arise from the gastrointestinal tract. Reduction in distant metastasis and improvements in cancer outcomes appear within 5  years of randomization indicating that aspirin affects tumour growth or the development and spread of metastases from existing cancers or both...
July 2014: Current Opinion in Oncology
Eldamária DE Vargas Wolfgramm, Camila Fátima Biancardi Gavioli, Mayara Lemos Entringer, Lyvia Neves Rebello Alves, Elaine Stur, Allan Kardec DE Castro Neto, Luciene Lage DA Motta, Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira, Iuri Drumond Louro
Breast and ovarian cancers are important public health problems in Brazil. However, in various locations in the Brazilian territory these types of cancer remain poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aimed to compare data collected from the Pathology Services of two Oncology Reference Hospitals in Espirito Santo state (Brazil) with the data in previous Brazilian studies. Histological type frequency and age at diagnosis of breast and ovarian tumors between 2001-2004 and 2009-2010 were analyzed. Tumor size, histological grade, lymph node status, hormone receptor status [estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR)] as well as HER2 and Ki-67 marker status were obtained for the cases of infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast during the period 2009-2010...
March 2013: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Katherine Esposito, Fortunato Ciardiello, Dario Giugliano
The association between metabolic syndrome and cancer continues to be acknowledged. Metabolic syndrome is a common long-term complication in cancer survivors; on the other hand, findings from several recent meta-analyses suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of future cancer at specific sites. Approximately one-third of cancer deaths occurring in the USA each year may be caused by unhealthy lifestyle habits, including poor nutrition. Worldwide, diets low in fruits rank third for deaths attributable to individual risk factors...
May 2014: Endocrine
Aihua Zhang, Hui Sun, Guangli Yan, Ping Wang, Ying Han, Xijun Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC), a major public health concern, is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. There is a need for better preventive strategies to improve the patient outcome that is substantially influenced by cancer stage at the time of diagnosis. Patients with early stage colorectal have a significant higher 5-year survival rates compared to patients diagnosed at late stage. Although traditional colonoscopy remains the effective means to diagnose CRC, this approach generally suffers from poor patient compliance...
April 1, 2014: Cancer Letters
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