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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346373/harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-shadow-over-sub-saharan-africa-in-need-of-workable-solutions
#1
Carina Ferreira-Borges, Charles D H Parry, Thomas F Babor
Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345729/medication-adherence-among-cardiac-patients-in-khartoum-state-sudan-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Abdelmoneim Awad, Nahid Osman, Siham Altayib
INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to medication among cardiac patients is often the major risk factor for poor clinical outcomes, increased mortality rates and higher healthcare costs. The literature evaluating the prevalence of and reasons for non-adherence in resource-poor settings is extremely limited compared to resource-rich settings. There is a scarcity of data about medication adherence in Sudan hence this study was performed to identify prevalence, predictors and barriers of non-adherence to medication among cardiac patients in Khartoum State...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344695/are-we-adequately-preparing-the-next-generation-of-physicians-to-prescribe-exercise-as-prevention-and-treatment-residents-express-the-desire-for-more-training-in-exercise-prescription
#3
Kara Solmundson, Michael Koehle, Donald McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is a key intervention for chronic disease, yet few physicians provide exercise prescription (EP). EP is an important component in larger strategies of reducing non-communicable disease (NCD). Our objective was to assess Family Medicine Residents (FMR) knowledge, competence, and perspectives of EP to help inform future curriculum development. METHODS: A 49-item cross-sectional survey was administered to 396 University of British Columbia FMR...
October 2016: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343901/gper-blockers-as-nox-downregulators-a-new-drug-class-to-target-chronic-non-communicable-diseases
#4
Matthias R Meyer, Matthias Barton
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of chronic non-communicable diseases such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Cardiovascular diseases are characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAPDH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and additional Nox isoforms among other sources. Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) can mediate multiple salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. However, GPER also has constitutive activity, e.g. in the absence of specific agonists, that was recently shown to promote hypertension and aging-induced tissue damage by enabling Nox1-derived production of ROS...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343246/sex-differences-and-predictors-of-changes-in-body-weight-and-noncommunicable-diseases-in-a-random-newly-arrived-group-of-refugees-followed-for-two-years
#5
K-L Catherine Jen, Hikmet Jamil, Kequan Zhou, Karen Breejen, Bengt B Arnet
We have reported that none of the psychological/mental variables examined predicted the increase in BMI and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Iraqi refugees after 1 year resettlement in Michigan. We continuously followed the same cohort of refugees for 2 years (Y2 FU) to further determine the gender difference in predicting of increased BMI and NCDs. Only 20% of the BMI variability could be accounted for by the factors examined. Number of dependent children and depression were positively and stress negatively associated with BMI in male refugees but not in females...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342083/classification-of-advanced-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease-translation-into-stratified-treatments
#6
REVIEW
Rejko Krüger, Jochen Klucken, Daniel Weiss, Lars Tönges, Pierre Kolber, Stefan Unterecker, Michael Lorrain, Horst Baas, Thomas Müller, Peter Riederer
Advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (advPD) still impose a challenge in terms of classification and related stage-adapted treatment recommendations. Previous concepts that define advPD by certain milestones of motor disability apparently fall short in addressing the increasingly recognized complexity of motor and non-motor symptoms and do not allow to account for the clinical heterogeneity that require more personalized approaches. Therefore, deep phenotyping approaches are required to characterize the broad-scaled, continuous and multidimensional spectrum of disease-related motor and non-motor symptoms and their progression under real-life conditions...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340138/a-life-without-worms
#7
Richard E Sanya, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Irene Andia Biraro, Harriet Mpairwe, Alison M Elliott
Worms have co-evolved with humans over millions of years. To survive, they manipulate host systems by modulating immune responses so that they cause (in the majority of hosts) relatively subtle harm. Anthelminthic treatment has been promoted as a measure for averting worm specific pathology and to mitigate subtle morbidities which may include effects on anaemia, growth, cognitive function and economic activity. With our changing environment marked by rapid population growth, urbanisation, better hygiene practices and anthelminthic treatment, there has been a decline in worm infections and other infectious diseases and a rise in non-communicable diseases such as allergy, diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339883/interventions-to-improve-immigrant-health-a-scoping-review
#8
Esperanza Diaz, Gaby Ortiz-Barreda, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Michelle Holdsworth, Bukola Salami, Anu Rammohan, Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Sabu S Padmadas, Thomas Krafft
: Disparities in health between immigrants and their host populations have been described across countries and continents. Hence, interventions for improving health targeting general populations are not necessarily effective for immigrants. To conduct a systematic search of the literature evaluating health interventions for immigrants; to map the characteristics of identified studies including range of interventions, immigrant populations and their host countries, clinical areas targeted and reported evaluations, challenges and limitations of the interventions identified...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338734/using-remote-sensing-technology-to-measure-environmental-determinants-of-non-communicable-diseases
#9
Peng Jia, Alfred Stein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336386/the-whf-roadmap-for-reducing-cv-morbidity-and-mortality-through-prevention-and-control-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#10
Benjamin Palafox, Ana Olga Mocumbi, R Krishna Kumar, Sulafa K M Ali, Elizabeth Kennedy, Abraham Haileamlak, David Watkins, Kadia Petricca, Rosemary Wyber, Patrick Timeon, Jeremiah Mwangi
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable non-communicable condition that disproportionately affects the world's poorest and most vulnerable. The World Heart Federation Roadmap for improved RHD control is a resource designed to help a variety of stakeholders raise the profile of RHD nationally and globally, and provide a framework to guide and support the strengthening of national, regional and global RHD control efforts. The Roadmap identifies the barriers that limit access to and uptake of proven interventions for the prevention and control of RHD...
March 20, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335746/does-continuous-trusted-adult-support-in-childhood-impart-life-course-resilience-against-adverse-childhood-experiences-a-retrospective-study-on-adult-health-harming-behaviours-and-mental-well-being
#11
Mark A Bellis, Katie Hardcastle, Kat Ford, Karen Hughes, Kathryn Ashton, Zara Quigg, Nadia Butler
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including child abuse and household problems (e.g. domestic violence) increase risks of poor health and mental well-being in adulthood. Factors such as having access to a trusted adult as a child may impart resilience against developing such negative outcomes. How much childhood adversity is mitigated by such resilience is poorly quantified. Here we test if access to a trusted adult in childhood is associated with reduced impacts of ACEs on adoption of health-harming behaviours and lower mental well-being in adults...
March 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332464/distributing-development-assistance-for-health-simulating-the-implications-of-11-criteria
#12
Trygve Ottersen, Suerie Moon, John-Arne Røttingen
After years of unprecedented growth in development assistance for health (DAH), the DAH system is challenged on several fronts: by the economic downturn and stagnation of DAH, by the epidemiological transition and increase in non-communicable diseases and by the economic transition and rise of the middle-income countries. Central to any potent response is a fair and effective allocation of DAH across countries. A myriad of criteria has been proposed or is currently used, but there have been no comprehensive assessment of their distributional implications...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332462/development-assistance-for-health-what-criteria-do-multi-and-bilateral-funders-use
#13
Trygve Ottersen, Aparna Kamath, Suerie Moon, Lene Martinsen, John-Arne Røttingen
After years of unprecedented growth in development assistance for health (DAH), the system is challenged on several fronts: by the economic downturn and stagnation of DAH, by the epidemiological transition and increase in non-communicable diseases, and by the economic transition and rise of the middle-income countries. This raises questions about which countries should receive DAH and how much, and, fundamentally, what criteria that promote fair and effective allocation. Yet, no broad comparative assessment exists of the criteria used today...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331842/estimation-of-burden-of-ischemic-heart-diseases-in-isfahan-iran-2014-using-incompleteness-and-misclassification-adjustment-models
#14
Mehran Shams-Beyranvand, Farshad Farzadfar, Shohreh Naderimagham, Maryam Tirani, Mohammad Reza Maracy
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the leading cause of death in the world. Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are the main form of CVDs and are the most important single cause of death around the world. This study aimed to estimate the burden of IHDs in the city of Isfahan by calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on the population living in the city of Isfahan in 2014...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331245/need-for-strategic-revamping-to-prevent-and-control-non-communicable-diseases-in-india
#15
EDITORIAL
Damodar Bachani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331015/association-between-clinically-recorded-alcohol-consumption-and-initial-presentation-of-12-cardiovascular-diseases-population-based-cohort-study-using-linked-health-records
#16
Steven Bell, Marina Daskalopoulou, Eleni Rapsomaniki, Julie George, Annie Britton, Martin Bobak, Juan P Casas, Caroline E Dale, Spiros Denaxas, Anoop D Shah, Harry Hemingway
Objectives To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease at higher resolution by examining the initial lifetime presentation of 12 cardiac, cerebrovascular, abdominal, or peripheral vascular diseases among five categories of consumption.Design Population based cohort study of linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, and mortality in 1997-2010 (median follow-up six years).Setting CALIBER (ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records)...
March 22, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330486/relationships-between-structure-process-and-outcome-to-assess-quality-of-integrated-chronic-disease-management-in-a-rural-south-african-setting-applying-a-structural-equation-model
#17
Soter Ameh, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
BACKGROUND: South Africa faces a complex dual burden of chronic communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In response, the Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model was initiated in primary health care (PHC) facilities in 2011 to leverage the HIV/ART programme to scale-up services for NCDs, achieve optimal patient health outcomes and improve the quality of medical care. However, little is known about the quality of care in the ICDM model. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess patients' and operational managers' satisfaction with the dimensions of ICDM services; and ii) evaluate the quality of care in the ICDM model using Avedis Donabedian's theory of relationships between structure (resources), process (clinical activities) and outcome (desired result of healthcare) constructs as a measure of quality of care...
March 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330453/a-systematic-review-of-primary-care-models-for-non-communicable-disease-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Jennifer Kane, Megan Landes, Christopher Carroll, Amy Nolen, Sumeet Sodhi
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases, primarily cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, diabetes and cancer, are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where communicable disease prevalence still outweighs that of non-communicable disease (NCDs), rates of NCDs are rapidly rising and evidence for primary healthcare approaches for these emerging NCDs is needed. METHODS: A systematic review and evidence synthesis of primary care approaches for chronic disease in SSA...
March 23, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329830/secondhand-smoke-prevalent-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-binary-mixture-induced-specific-mitogenic-and-pro-inflammatory-cell-signaling-events-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#19
Ross S Osgood, Brad L Upham, Pierre R Bushel, Kalpana Velmurugan, Ka-Na Xiong, Alison K Bauer
Low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW PAHs; < 206.3 g/mol) are prevalent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, presenting a human health concern, and have not been as thoroughly studied as the high MW PAHs. LMW PAHs exert their pulmonary effects, in part, through P38-dependent and -independent mechanisms involving cell-cell communication and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators known to contribute to lung disease. Specifically, we determined the effects of two representative LMW PAHs, 1-methylanthracene (1-MeA) and fluoranthene (Flthn), individually and as a binary PAH mixture on the dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and connexin 43 (Cx43), activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), and induction of inflammatory mediators in a mouse non-tumorigenic alveolar type II cell line (C10)...
January 30, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328994/physical-activity-is-independently-associated-with-reduced-mortality-15-years-follow-up-of-the-hordaland-health-study-husk
#20
Øyvind Kopperstad, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Børge Sivertsen, Grethe S Tell, Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Sæther
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for non-communicable diseases and mortality. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between PA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and the impact of other potentially contributing factors. METHOD: Data from the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 1997-99) were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The study included 20,506 individuals born 1950-1957 and 2,225 born in 1925-1927 (baseline age 40-49 and 70-74)...
2017: PloS One
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