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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029103/cardiovascular-disease-prevention-policy-in-hiv-recommendations-from-a-modelling-study
#1
Mikaela Smit, Rosan A van Zoest, Brooke E Nichols, Ilonca Vaartjes, Colette Smit, Marc van der Valk, Ard van Sighem, Ferdinand W Wit, Timothy B Hallett, Peter Reiss
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is expected to contribute a large non-communicable disease burden amongst HIV-positive people. We quantify the impact of prevention interventions on annual CVD burden and costs amongst HIV-positive people in The Netherlands. Methods: We constructed an individual-based model of CVD in HIV-positive people using national ATHENA cohort data on 8,791 patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The model follows patients as they age, develop CVD (by incorporating a CVD risk equation) and start cardiovascular medication...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026406/grappling-with-mother-newborn-and-child-health-mnch-issues-in-a-continent-beset-by-non-communicable-and-infecious-diseases
#2
EDITORIAL
J K Tumwine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025826/patient-characteristics-of-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-kenyatta-national-hospital-nairobi-kenya-a-cross-sectional-prospective-analysis
#3
Justin Guy Myers, Katherine M Hunold, Karen Ekernas, Ali Wangara, Alice Maingi, Vincent Mutiso, Stephen Dunlop, Ian B K Martin
BACKGROUND: Resource-limited settings are increasingly experiencing a 'triple burden' of disease, composed of trauma, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and known communicable disease patterns. However, the epidemiology of acute and emergency care is not well characterised and this limits efforts to further develop emergency care capacity. OBJECTIVE: To define the burden of disease by describing the patient population presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Kenya...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025610/is-endoprosthesis-safer-than-internal-fixation-for-metastatic-disease-of-the-proximal-femur-a-systematic-review
#4
Alberto Di Martino, Nicolò Martinelli, Mattia Loppini, Andrea Piccioli, Vincenzo Denaro
INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the proximal femur are usually managed surgically by tumor resection and reconstruction with an endoprosthesis, or by fixation with osteosynthesis. Still controversy remains regarding the most appropriate surgical treatment. We posed the following questions: (1) Is the frequency of surgical revision greater in patients treated with internal fixation than endoprosthetic reconstruction, and (2) Do complications that do not require surgery occur more frequently in patients treated with internal fixation rather than in those with endoprosthetic reconstruction? MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed of those studies reporting on surgical revision and complication rates comparing the two surgical methods...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025446/inefficient-procurement-processes-undermine-access-to-medicines-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#5
Bvudzai P Magadzire, Kim Ward, Henry M J Leng, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers)...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023919/causal-narratives-in-public-health-the-difference-between-mechanisms-of-aetiology-and-mechanisms-of-prevention-in-non-communicable-diseases
#6
Michael P Kelly, Federica Russo
Research in the health sciences has been highly successful in revealing the aetiologies of many morbidities, particularly those involving the microbiology of communicable disease. This success has helped form a narrative to be found in numerous public health documents, about interventions to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (e.g., obesity or alcohol related pathologies). These focus on tackling the purported pathogenic factors causing the diseases as a means of prevention. In this paper, we argue that this approach has been sub-optimal...
October 11, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021830/emerging-issues-in-public-health-a-perspective-on-ghana-s-healthcare-expenditure-policies-and-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Eric Adua, Kwasi Frimpong, Xia Li, Wei Wang
Ghana's healthcare expenditure has increased over the past two decades. Increased healthcare expenditures are required to enhance the acquisition of better hospital resources that may improve healthcare. This study presents an overview of healthcare expenditures and health outcomes (i.e. infant mortality, under-5 mortality and life expectancy) from 1995 to 2014 in Ghana. Infant and under-5 mortalities have declined by 50 and 25%, respectively, as of 2014, while life expectancy has increased from 60.7 to 64...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021788/micrornas-based-inter-domain-communication-between-the-host-and-members-of-the-gut-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
The gut microbiome is an important modulator of host gene expression, impacting important functions such as the innate immune response. Recent evidence suggests that the inter-domain communication between the gut microbiome and host may in part occur via microRNAs (small, non-coding RNA molecules) which are often differentially expressed in the presence of bacteria and can even be released and taken up by bacteria. The role of microRNAs in microbiome-host communication in intestinal diseases is not fully understood, particularly in diseases impacted by exposure to environmental toxicants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020674/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-two-diseases-with-a-need-for-combined-treatment-strategies-easo-can-lead-the-way
#9
Deborah R Leitner, Gema Frühbeck, Volkan Yumuk, Karin Schindler, Dragan Micic, Euan Woodward, Hermann Toplak
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease affecting adults and children worldwide. It has become one of the leading causes of death, as obesity is known to be the main risk factor for a number of non-communicable diseases, in particular type 2 diabetes. This close relationship led to the connotation 'diabesity', highlighting the fact that the majority of individuals with diabetes are overweight or obese. Until today the BMI is still used to classify overweight and obesity. Since reduced muscle mass is highly prevalent throughout the BMI range, the measurement of body composition is strongly recommended...
October 12, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020059/the-relation-between-face-emotion-recognition-and-social-function-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-case-control-study
#10
Anne Lise Høyland, Terje Nærland, Morten Engstrøm, Stian Lydersen, Ole Andreas Andreassen
An altered processing of emotions may contribute to a reduced ability for social interaction and communication in autism spectrum disorder, ASD. We investigated how face-emotion recognition in ASD is different from typically developing across adolescent age groups. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 49 typically developing (age 12-21 years) were included. The ASD diagnosis was underpinned by parent-rated Social Communication Questionnaire. We used a cued GO/ NOGO task with pictures of facial expressions and recorded reaction time, intra-individual variability of reaction time and omissions/commissions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019522/-regional-inequalities-in-mortality-from-diabetes-mellitus-and-access-to-health-in-argentina
#11
María Jimena Marro, Andrey Moreira Cardoso, Iuri da Costa Leite
The aim of this study was to estimate the mortality burden according to major groups of causes, with a focus on diabetes mellitus, as well as differences according to the presence or absence of health coverage for Argentina as a whole and its regions. The study used the mortality database for individuals 30 years or older in 2009-2011, stratified by sex, age bracket, region, underlying cause of death, and health coverage. We calculated the mortality rates and years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs)...
October 9, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018797/micrornas-make-the-call-in-cancer-personalized-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Simone Detassis, Margherita Grasso, Valerio Del Vescovo, Michela A Denti
Since their discovery and the advent of RNA interference, microRNAs have drawn enormous attention because of their ubiquitous involvement in cellular pathways from life to death, from metabolism to communication. It is also widely accepted that they possess an undeniable role in cancer both as tumor suppressors and tumor promoters modulating cell proliferation and migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, microRNAs can even affect the tumor surrounding environment influencing angiogenesis and immune system activation and recruitment...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018410/next-generation-beneficial-microbes-the-case-of-akkermansia-muciniphila
#13
REVIEW
Patrice D Cani, Willem M de Vos
Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiometabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018324/design-and-characterization-of-a-human-monoclonal-antibody-that-modulates-mutant-connexin-26-hemichannels-implicated-in-deafness-and-skin-disorders
#14
Liang Xu, Andrea Carrer, Francesco Zonta, Zhihu Qu, Peixiang Ma, Sheng Li, Federico Ceriani, Damiano Buratto, Giulia Crispino, Veronica Zorzi, Gaia Ziraldo, Francesca Bruno, Chiara Nardin, Chiara Peres, Flavia Mazzarda, Anna M Salvatore, Marcello Raspa, Ferdinando Scavizzi, Youjun Chu, Sichun Xie, Xuemei Yang, Jun Liao, Xiao Liu, Wei Wang, Shanshan Wang, Guang Yang, Richard A Lerner, Fabio Mammano
Background: Mutations leading to changes in properties, regulation, or expression of connexin-made channels have been implicated in 28 distinct human hereditary diseases. Eight of these result from variants of connexin 26 (Cx26), a protein critically involved in cell-cell signaling in the inner ear and skin. Lack of non-toxic drugs with defined mechanisms of action poses a serious obstacle to therapeutic interventions for diseases caused by mutant connexins. In particular, molecules that specifically modulate connexin hemichannel function without affecting gap junction channels are considered of primary importance for the study of connexin hemichannel role in physiological as well as pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018245/transient-postnatal-overfeeding-causes-liver-stress-induced-premature-senescence-in-adult-mice
#15
Catherine Yzydorczyk, Na Li, Hassib Chehade, Dolores Mosig, Mickael Bidho, Basile Keshavjee, Jean Baptiste Armengaud, Katya Nardou, Benazir Siddeek, Mohamed Benahmed, Catherine Vergely, Umberto Simeoni
Unbalanced nutrition early in life is increasingly recognized as an important factor in the development of chronic, non-communicable diseases at adulthood, including metabolic diseases. We aimed to determine whether transient postnatal overfeeding (OF) leads to liver stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hepatocytes in association with liver structure and hepatic function alterations. Litters sizes of male C57BL/6 mice were adjusted to 9 pups (normal feeding, NF) or reduced to 3 pups during the lactation period to induce transient postnatal OF...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016586/preference-of-food-items-and-physical-activity-of-peri-urban-children-in-bhaktapur
#16
Abhinav Vaidya, Natalia Oli, Alexandra Krettek, Gabriele Eiben
BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular diseases are mostly seen in adulthood, the foundation of diet and physical activity is largely formed during childhood. The study aimed to explore children's preference for diet and physical activity in a peri-urban area of Nepal because this is an important dimension to explore in the life-course approach to combat non-communicable diseases. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to enquire young peri-urban children of Duwakot and Jhaukhel villages of Bhaktapur district, Nepal on their preferences for diet and physical activity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#17
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988290/early-microbiota-antibiotics-and-health
#18
REVIEW
Alicja M Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Silvia Arboleya, Marta Suárez, Nuria Fernández, Gonzalo Solís, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Miguel Gueimonde
The colonization of the neonatal digestive tract provides a microbial stimulus required for an adequate maturation towards the physiological homeostasis of the host. This colonization, which is affected by several factors, begins with facultative anaerobes and continues with anaerobic genera. Accumulating evidence underlines the key role of the early neonatal period for this microbiota-induced maturation, being a key determinant factor for later health. Therefore, understanding the factors that determine the establishment of the microbiota in the infant is of critical importance...
October 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986925/cerebral-blood-flow-in-normal-aging-adults-cardiovascular-determinants-clinical-implications-and-aerobic-fitness
#19
REVIEW
Takashi Tarumi, Rong Zhang
Senescence is a leading cause of mortality, disability, and non-communicable chronic diseases in older adults. Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors elevates the incidence of both vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related declines in cardiovascular function may impair cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, leading to the disruption of neuronal micro-environmental homeostasis. The brain is the most metabolically active organ with limited intracellular energy storage and critically depends on CBF to sustain neuronal metabolism...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983432/maternity-leave-policies-trade-offs-between-labour-market-demands-and-health-benefits-for-children
#20
Lucy Strang, Miriam Broeks
Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies...
January 2017: Rand Health Quarterly
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