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Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Derya Osmaniye, Betül Kaya Çavuşoğlu, Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Serkan Levent, Ulviye Acar Çevik, Özlem Atlı, Yusuf Özkay, Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı
In the present work, 15 new 1-(4-(1 H -imidazol-1-yl)phenyl)-3-(4-substituedphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives ( 3a – 3o ) were synthesized to evaluate their antifungal activity. Structures of newly synthesized imidazole derivatives ( 3a – 3o ) were characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and LCMSMS spectroscopic methods. The anticandidal activity of compounds ( 3a – 3o ) against C. albicans (ATCC 24433), C. krusei (ATCC 6258), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), and C. glabrata (ATCC 90030) was elucidated according to the EUCAST definitive (EDef 7...
April 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Grethe Å Ueland, Paal Methlie, Marianne Øksnes, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Jørn Sagen, Ralf Kellmann, Gunnar Mellgren, Maria Ræder, Per Dahlqvist, Sandra R Dahl, Per M Thorsby, Kristian Løvås, Eystein S Husebye
Background: The cosyntropin test is used to diagnose adrenal insufficiency (AI) and non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH). Current cutoffs for cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) are derived from non-standardized immunoassays. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) offers direct measurement of steroids, prompting the need to re-establish normal ranges. Aim: Define cutoff values for cortisol and 17-OHP in serum by LCMSMS 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 250 µg tetracosactide acetate (Synachten©) to healthy volunteers, and compare LCMSMS with routine immunoassays...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
A Suganthi, K Bhuvaneswari, M Ramya
A simple, sensitive and inexpensive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for for the simultaneous detection and quantification of (five) neonicotinoid insecticides in sugarcane juice. The juice samples were extracted with acetonitrile and subsequent cleanup was done by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS method). The quantification was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI-MS/MS). After the optimization of the extraction parameters, the method was validated by evaluating linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision (repeatability) and accuracy (recovery)...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Montaha H Yassine, Ahmad Rifai, Maha Hoteit, Patrick Mazellier, Mohammad Al Iskandarani
This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the fate of fluoroquinolone antibacterial ofloxacin (OFX) which is the free available chlorine (FAC) in order to determine its effect during water chlorination process. The Direct reactions of FAC with OFX were quite rapid. A half-life of 7.7 s was measured under pseudo-first order conditions in the presence of an excess of total chlorine ([FAC]0  = 13 μM and [OFX]0  = 0.55 μM at pH 7.2 and 20 °C in buffered reagent water. Free chlorine reactions rates were of first-order type in both substrate and oxidant with specific second-order rate constants of 6...
December 2017: Chemosphere
Caroline Marschner, Damien P Higgins, Mark B Krockenberger
To maintain profitability in Australia's agricultural and urban landscapes pesticides are used throughout the range of koala habitats. The koala is a specialist feeder, reliant on metabolic enzyme capacities to utilise a toxic diet of eucalypt leaves and is potentially prone to adverse effects when xenobiotic interactions between dietary and anthropogenic xenobiotics occur. The aim of this study was to investigate accumulation of frequently used pesticides in wild koalas in 4 areas of New South Wales and Queensland...
September 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rachelle Abouchedid, Simon Hudson, Natalie Thurtle, Takahiro Yamamoto, James H Ho, George Bailey, Michelle Wood, Nele Sadones, Christophe P Stove, Alison Dines, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
CONTEXT: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported in the last decade; in this study we investigated how commonly these drugs are found in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute recreational drug toxicity. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study enrolling consecutive adult patients presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) in London (UK) January-July 2015 (6 months) with acute recreational drug toxicity...
June 2017: Clinical Toxicology
James Chun Yip Chan, Dorinda Yan Qin Kioh, Gaik Chin Yap, Bee Wah Lee, Eric Chun Yong Chan
A novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) method for the quantitative measurement of gut microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in human infant stool has been developed and validated. Baseline chromatographic resolution was achieved for 12 SCFAs (acetic, butyric, caproic, 2,2-dimethylbutyric, 2-ethylbutyric, isobutyric, isovaleric, 2-methylbutyric, 4-methylvaleric, propionic, pivalic and valeric acids) within an analysis time of 15min. A novel sequential derivatization of endogenous and spiked SCFAs in stool via (12)C- and (13)C-aniline respectively, facilitated the accurate quantitation of (12)C-aniline derivatized endogenous SCFAs based on calibration of exogenously (13)C-derivatized SCFAs...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alexandra E Kulle, Thomas Reinehr, Gunter Simic-Schleicher, Nadine C Hornig, Paul-Martin Holterhus
Background: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17OHPreg) are important for understanding the Δ5 pathway (e.g., in adrenarche and obesity). Although mass spectrometry has become the state-of-the-art method for quantifying steroids, there are few comprehensive age-, sex-, and pubertal stage-specific reference ranges for children. Aims: To develop a sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of DHEAS and 17OHPreg and to establish entire age-, sex- and pubertal stage-specific reference ranges in children...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rafidah Hod, Wided Kouidhi, Mustafa Ali Mohd, Ruby Husain
Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS)...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Juthamath Komvongsa, Sukanya Luang, Joaquim V Marques, Kannika Phasai, Laurence B Davin, Norman G Lewis, James R Ketudat Cairns
BACKGROUND: Rice Os9BGlu31 is a transglucosidase that can transfer glucose to phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phytohormones. Os9BGlu31 displays a broad specificity with phenolic 1-O-β-D-glucose esters acting as better glucose donors than glucosides, whereas the free phenolic acids of these esters are also excellent acceptor substrates. METHODS: Based on homology modeling of this enzyme, we made single point mutations of residues surrounding the acceptor binding region of the Os9BGlu31 active site...
July 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nelly Mauras, Richard J Santen, Gerardo Colón-Otero, Jobayer Hossain, Qingqing Wang, Clementina Mesaros, Ian A Blair
CONTEXT: Estrogen levels and their metabolites are higher in obese vs lean postmenopausal women, and obesity increases breast cancer risk. Quinone derivatives of 4-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites, independently of the estrogen receptor, cause depurination and impaired DNA repair (genotoxic). 16α-Hydroxy (16α-OH)-estrone (E1), eg, promotes tumor proliferation and 2-methoxy-estradiol (E2) may be chemoprotective. Childhood obesity increases breast cancer death risk in women, but levels of estrogen derivatives had not been previously studied in young children...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
M Griffin, J Eyre, S Dack, J Wright
AIMS: The majority of haematology laboratories use automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a primary method in the screening of samples for haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia. HPLC detects adducted fractions, such as HbA1C and other peaks of unknown significance. The National Health Service (NHS) Sickle and Thalassaemia Screening Programme does not mandate further assessment of these unknown peaks, but their presence may cause concern or precipitate detailed investigations...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Tom Preston
This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise...
2014: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Anne Barden, Emilie Mas, Kevin D Croft, Michael Phillips, Trevor A Mori
Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) formed from the n-3 fatty acids. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation and aspirin on plasma SPMs in healthy humans. Healthy volunteers (n = 21) were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (2.4g/day) for 7 days with random assignment to take aspirin (300 mg/day) or placebo from day 5 to day 7. Blood was collected at baseline (day 0), day 5, and day 7. Plasma 18R/S-HEPE, E-series resolvins, 17R/S-HDHA, D-series resolvins, 14R/S-HDHA, and MaR-1 were measured by LC/MS/MS...
November 2014: Journal of Lipid Research
Simon J Salter, Paul Cook, Justin H Davies, Annie E Armston
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of treatment for patients diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) can be performed by measuring the concentration of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in bloodspots collected on filter papers. A method is described here for measuring 17OHP by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). METHODS: 17OHP was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by LCMSMS. The method was validated for sensitivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, ion suppression, precision and bias...
January 2015: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Andreas Austgulen Westin, George Mjønes, Ola Burchardt, Ole Martin Fuskevåg, Lars Slørdal
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether physical exercise or food deprivation may increase cannabinoid levels in serum or urine in abstinent chronic cannabis users. The study took place in a drug detoxification ward parallel to study participants receiving treatment. Six chronic, daily cannabis users (one female, five males, average age 30.0 years; BMI 20.8) were exposed to a 45-min. moderate-intensity workout and a 24-hr period of food deprivation. Serum samples were drawn prior to and after interventions and analysed for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS), and all voided urine was tested for THCCOOH by LCMSMS and normalized to the creatinine levels, yielding ng/mg ratios...
November 2014: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
W J Hunter
Biobarriers remove, via precipitation, the metalloid selenite (SeO₃⁻²) from groundwater; a process that involves the biological reduction of soluble SeO₃⁻² to insoluble elemental red selenium (Se⁰). The enzymes associated with this reduction process are poorly understood. In Rhizobium selenitireducens at least two enzymes are potentially involved; one, a nitrite reductase reduces SeO₃⁻² to Se⁰ but another protein may also be involved which is investigated in this study. Proteins from R. selenitireducens cells were precipitated with ammonium sulfate and run on native electrophoresis gels...
March 2014: Current Microbiology
M Joyce Dinglasan-Panlilio, Shristi S Prakash, Joel E Baker
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are persistent organic contaminants detected in various environmental matrices including sediment, air, biota, and water. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of these contaminants within the surface waters of the Pacific Northwest region and through relative concentrations and ratios, to assess their possible sources. Surface waters were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the most commonly detected PFCs...
January 15, 2014: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Frederic D L Leusch, Stuart J Khan, M Monique Gagnon, Pam Quayle, Trang Trinh, Heather Coleman, Christopher Rawson, Heather F Chapman, Palenque Blair, Helen Nice, Tarren Reitsema
We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an "ecotoxicity toolbox" consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX)...
March 1, 2014: Water Research
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