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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088011/particulates-and-noise-exposure-during-bicycle-bus-and-car-commuting-a-study-in-three-european-cities
#1
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Taimisto, Arto Pennanen, Ilias Vouitsis, Zissis Samaras, Marita Voogt, Menno Keuken, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. METHODS: We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033138/consequences-of-underestimating-impalement-bicycle-handlebar-injuries-in-children
#2
Carmen T Ramos-Irizarry, Shakeva Swain, Samantha Troncoso-Munoz, Malvina Duncan
Impalement bicycle handlebar trauma injuries are rare; however, on initial assessment, they have the potential of being underestimated. We reviewed our prospective trauma database of 3,894 patients for all bicycle injuries from January 2010 to May 2015. Isolated pedal bike injuries were reported in 2.6% (N = 101) of the patients who were admitted to the trauma service. Fifteen patients suffered direct handlebar trauma. Patients were grouped into blunt trauma (n = 12) and impalement trauma (n = 3). We examined gender, age, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale score, use of protective devices, need for surgical intervention, need for intensive care (ICU), and hospital length of stay...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995048/proposal-for-optimal-placement-platform-of-bikes-using-queueing-networks
#3
Shinya Mizuno, Shogo Iwamoto, Mutsumi Seki, Naokazu Yamaki
In recent social experiments, rental motorbikes and rental bicycles have been arranged at nodes, and environments where users can ride these bikes have been improved. When people borrow bikes, they return them to nearby nodes. Some experiments have been conducted using the models of Hamachari of Yokohama, the Niigata Rental Cycle, and Bicing. However, from these experiments, the effectiveness of distributing bikes was unclear, and many models were discontinued midway. Thus, we need to consider whether these models are effectively designed to represent the distribution system...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940760/risk-factors-for-bicycling-injuries-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Tania E Embree, Nicole T R Romanow, Maya S Djerboua, Natalie J Morgunov, Jacqueline J Bourdeaux, Brent E Hagel
CONTEXT: Child and adolescent bicycling is beneficial, but injuries occur and can be severe and costly. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the individual and environmental factors associated with bicycling injury risk in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: Fourteen electronic databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Two authors independently assessed potentially relevant articles for eligibility. The inclusion criteria were as follows: bicyclists younger than 20 years old; examined individual and environmental characteristics of bicycling crashes; compared injured and uninjured bicyclists or bicyclists with different types or severity of injury; study designs with a predetermined comparison group; and published in English from January 1990 to May 2015...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939970/quantifying-bicycle-network-connectivity
#5
Michael Lowry, Tracy Hadden Loh
The intent of this study was to compare bicycle network connectivity for different types of bicyclists and different neighborhoods. Connectivity was defined as the ability to reach important destinations, such as grocery stores, banks, and elementary schools, via pathways or roads with low vehicle volumes and low speed limits. The analysis was conducted for 28 neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington under existing conditions and for a proposed bicycle master plan, which when complete will provide over 700 new bicycle facilities, including protected bike lanes, neighborhood greenways, and multi-use trails...
December 7, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925109/analysis-of-factors-associated-with-traffic-accidents-of-cyclists-attended-in-brazilian-state-capitals
#6
Carlos Augusto Moreira de Sousa, Camila Alves Bahia, Patrícia Constantino
Introduction: Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. Methodology: VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904756/ct-negative-mri-gre-positive-primary-motor-cortex-contusion-causing-isolated-foot-drop
#7
Alexander M Tucker, Tianyi Niu, Daniel T Nagasawa, Richard Everson, Shaina Sedighim, Manuel M Buitrago Blanco
BACKGROUND: Isolated acute foot drop due to traumatic brain injury is exceedingly rare and is often misdiagnosed during initial evaluation. Here, we present the case of a patient who presented with left foot drop after falling off a bicycle. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 55-year-old male who was mountain biking when he fell, hit his head, and lost consciousness. Neurologic examination of the left leg revealed foot drop, no sensory deficits, and 3+ reflexes at the knee and ankle with clonus...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890161/primary-or-secondary-tasks-dual-task-interference-between-cyclist-hazard-perception-and-cadence-control-using-cross-modal-sensory-aids-with-rider-assistance-bike-computers
#8
Chao-Yang Yang, Cheng-Tse Wu
This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822361/serious-bicycle-crash-injury-in-chiropractic-practice-a-case-report-of-delayed-diagnosis
#9
Lars Uhrenholt
BACKGROUND: Bicyclists are vulnerable road users and are at risk of serious spinal injury if involved in traffic crashes. In Denmark approximately 25 bicyclists are killed each year and some 20.000 bicycle related casualties are registered in the National Patient Registry each year. In addition to these figures, a large number of casualties remain unregistered despite injury. Many of the casualties will consult chiropractors in primary practice with or without preceding evaluation in the established emergency care facilities...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789223/from-sedentary-to-active-school-commute-multi-level-factors-associated-with-travel-mode-shifts
#10
Chanam Lee, Jeongjae Yoon, Xuemei Zhu
Previous research has examined personal, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, but most were cross-sectional and mode choice studies. This exploratory case study utilized a retrospective natural experiment opportunity, where a group of students transferred to a new school, and therefore experienced changes in their home-to-school travel environments. It examined whether such changes led to mode shifts from sedentary (car or school bus) to active (walking and bicycling) and what factors were associated with those shifts...
October 24, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713109/population-level-exposure-to-particulate-air-pollution-during-active-travel-planning-for-low-exposure-health-promoting-cities
#11
Steve Hankey, Greg Lindsey, Julian D Marshall
BACKGROUND: Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. OBJECTIVES: To (1) investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and, (2) assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712198/performance-and-physiological-effects-of-different-descending-strategies-for-cross-country-mountain-biking
#12
Matthew C Miller, Paul W Macdermid, Phil W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p < .01) when compared with off-road coasting despite no difference in vibration exposure (p > ...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679447/modeling-and-optimization-of-airbag-helmets-for-preventing-head-injuries-in-bicycling
#13
Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Calvin Kuo, Gerald A Grant, David B Camarillo
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672561/changes-in-bicycling-over-time-associated-with-a-new-bike-lane-relations-with-kilocalories-energy-expenditure-and-body-mass-index
#14
Barbara B Brown, Douglas Tharp, Calvin P Tribby, Ken R Smith, Harvey J Miller, Carol M Werner
Although bicycling has been related to positive health indicators, few studies examine health-related measures associated with non-competitive community cycling before and after cycling infrastructure improvements. This study examined cycling changes in a neighborhood receiving a bike lane, light rail, and other "complete street" improvements. Participants wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data loggers for one week in both 2012 and 2013, pre- and post- construction completion. Participants sampled within 2 km of the complete street improvements had the following patterns of cycling: never cyclists (n=434), continuing cyclists (n= 29), former cyclists (n=33, who bicycled in 2012 but not 2013), and new cyclists (n=40, who bicycled in 2013 but not 2012)...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639193/observational-study-of-compliance-with-queensland-bicycle-helmet-laws
#15
Ashim Kumar Debnath, Narelle Haworth, Amy Schramm, Amy Williamson
Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed...
December 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613434/the-cost-effectiveness-of-bike-lanes-in-new-york-city
#16
Jing Gu, Babak Mohit, Peter Alexander Muennig
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of investments in bike lanes using New York City's (NYC) fiscal year 2015 investment as a case study. We also provide a generalizable model, so that localities can estimate their return on bike lane investments. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bike lane construction using a two-stage model. Our regression analysis, to estimate the marginal addition of lane miles on the expansion in bike ridership, reveals that the 45...
September 9, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586118/how-safe-are-children-when-transported-by-bicycle
#17
Jennifer Oxley, Steve O'Hern, Simon Raftery, Jeremy Woolley
OBJECTIVES: With the increasing popularity of cycling generally and availability of new bicycle child carriers, there is an emerging interest in the safety of child bicycle passengers and riders. However, very little is known about the nature and extent of injuries to child bicycle riders and passengers. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of child safety in bike transportation and to identify injury patterns and outcomes. METHOD: Analyses of Victorian hospital data (emergency department presentations and hospital admissions) were undertaken to describe and compare injury outcomes among children aged 0-3 years, 4-6 years, and 7-10 years on bicycles...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544886/bicycling-crash-characteristics-an-in-depth-crash-investigation-study
#18
Ben Beck, Mark Stevenson, Stuart Newstead, Peter Cameron, Rodney Judson, Elton R Edwards, Andrew Bucknill, Marilyn Johnson, Belinda Gabbe
The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540736/a-profile-of-active-transportation-in-colorado-public-schools-2014-2015
#19
Timothy K Behrens, Randa Osman, Paige Whitney, Dick Carpenter, Elizabeth Tucker, Julaine Field, Cheryl Kelly
Active transportation (AT) may represent an ideal opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the AT profile among students from two Colorado school districts. Students completed a survey on AT resulting in a final dataset (n = 3738) from which descriptive and inferential statics were calculated. Respondents were 11.32 ± 2.82 years of age (Boys = 48.27 %; Girls = 51.73 %). Most students (87.29 %) traveled to or from school via automobile, while 11...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484102/the-impact-of-uphill-cycling-and-bicycle-suspension-on-downhill-performance-during-cross-country-mountain-biking
#20
Paul W Macdermid, Philip W Fink, Matthew C Miller, Stephen Stannard
Non-propulsive work demand has been linked to reduced energetic economy of cross-country mountain biking. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical, physiological and performance differences and observe economy while riding a downhill section of a cross-country course prior to and following the metabolic "load" of a climb at race pace under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension) expected to alter vibration damping mechanics. Participants completed 1 lap of the track incorporating the same downhill section twice, under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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