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Steve Hankey, Greg Lindsey, Julian D Marshall
BACKGROUND: Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. OBJECTIVES: To (1) investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and, (2) assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Matthew C Miller, Paul W Macdermid, Phil W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p < .01) when compared with off-road coasting despite no difference in vibration exposure (p > ...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Calvin Kuo, Gerald A Grant, David B Camarillo
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Barbara B Brown, Douglas Tharp, Calvin P Tribby, Ken R Smith, Harvey J Miller, Carol M Werner
Although bicycling has been related to positive health indicators, few studies examine health-related measures associated with non-competitive community cycling before and after cycling infrastructure improvements. This study examined cycling changes in a neighborhood receiving a bike lane, light rail, and other "complete street" improvements. Participants wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data loggers for one week in both 2012 and 2013, pre- and post- construction completion. Participants sampled within 2 km of the complete street improvements had the following patterns of cycling: never cyclists (n=434), continuing cyclists (n= 29), former cyclists (n=33, who bicycled in 2012 but not 2013), and new cyclists (n=40, who bicycled in 2013 but not 2012)...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Ashim Kumar Debnath, Narelle Haworth, Amy Schramm, Amy Williamson
Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed...
September 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jing Gu, Babak Mohit, Peter Alexander Muennig
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of investments in bike lanes using New York City's (NYC) fiscal year 2015 investment as a case study. We also provide a generalizable model, so that localities can estimate their return on bike lane investments. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bike lane construction using a two-stage model. Our regression analysis, to estimate the marginal addition of lane miles on the expansion in bike ridership, reveals that the 45...
September 9, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Jennifer Oxley, Steve O'Hern, Simon Raftery, Jeremy Woolley
OBJECTIVES: With the increasing popularity of cycling generally and availability of new bicycle child carriers, there is an emerging interest in the safety of child bicycle passengers and riders. However, very little is known about the nature and extent of injuries to child bicycle riders and passengers. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of child safety in bike transportation and to identify injury patterns and outcomes. METHOD: Analyses of Victorian hospital data (emergency department presentations and hospital admissions) were undertaken to describe and compare injury outcomes among children aged 0-3 years, 4-6 years, and 7-10 years on bicycles...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ben Beck, Mark Stevenson, Stuart Newstead, Peter Cameron, Rodney Judson, Elton R Edwards, Andrew Bucknill, Marilyn Johnson, Belinda Gabbe
The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Timothy K Behrens, Randa Osman, Paige Whitney, Dick Carpenter, Elizabeth Tucker, Julaine Field, Cheryl Kelly
Active transportation (AT) may represent an ideal opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the AT profile among students from two Colorado school districts. Students completed a survey on AT resulting in a final dataset (n = 3738) from which descriptive and inferential statics were calculated. Respondents were 11.32 ± 2.82 years of age (Boys = 48.27 %; Girls = 51.73 %). Most students (87.29 %) traveled to or from school via automobile, while 11...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Paul W Macdermid, Philip W Fink, Matthew C Miller, Stephen Stannard
Non-propulsive work demand has been linked to reduced energetic economy of cross-country mountain biking. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical, physiological and performance differences and observe economy while riding a downhill section of a cross-country course prior to and following the metabolic "load" of a climb at race pace under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension) expected to alter vibration damping mechanics. Participants completed 1 lap of the track incorporating the same downhill section twice, under two conditions (hardtail and full suspension)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kay Teschke, Jessica Dennis, Conor C O Reynolds, Meghan Winters, M Anne Harris
BACKGROUND: Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. METHODS: We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada...
2016: BMC Public Health
Barbara B Brown, Ken R Smith, Doug Tharp, Carol M Werner, Calvin P Tribby, Harvey J Miller, Wyatt Jensen
BACKGROUND: Complete streets require evaluation to determine if they encourage active transportation. METHODS: Data were collected before and after a street intervention provided new light rail, bike lanes, and better sidewalks in Salt Lake City, Utah. Residents living near (<800 m) and far (≥801-2000 m) from the street were compared, with sensitivity tests for alternative definitions of near (<600 and <1000 m). Dependent variables were accelerometer/global positioning system (GPS) measures of transit trips, non-transit walking trips, and biking trips that included the complete street corridor...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Hassan Mohammadi-Abdar, Angela L Ridgel, Fred M Discenzo, Kenneth A Loparo
Recent studies in rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease (PD) have shown that cycling on a tandem bike at a high pedaling rate can reduce the symptoms of the disease. In this research, a smart motorized bicycle has been designed and built for assisting Parkinson's patients with exercise to improve motor function. The exercise bike can accurately control the rider's experience at an accelerated pedaling rate while capturing real-time test data. Here, the design and development of the electronics and hardware as well as the software and control algorithms are presented...
June 2016: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Theodore J Mansfield, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Manal T Adham, Peter J Bentley
This paper proposes and evaluates a solution to the truck redistribution problem prominent in London's Santander Cycle scheme. Due to the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimisation problem, no efficient optimisation techniques are known to solve the problem exactly. This motivates our use of the heuristic Artificial Ecosystem Algorithm (AEA) to find good solutions in a reasonable amount of time. The AEA is designed to take advantage of highly distributed computer architectures and adapt to changing problems...
August 2016: Bio Systems
Sherry Everett Jones, Sarah Sliwa
INTRODUCTION: Active school transport, such as by walking or biking, increases physical activity levels, which has health and academic benefits for children. We examined school demographic and other characteristics to determine their association with the percentage of students who walk or bike to school. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study. The response rate for the module containing questions about transportation was 70% (N = 577)...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Elizabeth Suzanne Wolfe, Sandra Strack Arabian, Matthew J Salzler, Nikolay Bugaev, Reuven Rabinovici
Bicycling is gaining popularity in the United States, and laws and safety recommendations are being established to keep bicyclists safer. To improve road safety for bicyclists, there is a need to characterize their compliance with road laws and safety behaviors. Adult bicyclists were observed at three high-traffic intersections in Boston, MA, with state recommendations of wearing a helmet and riding in a bike lane. State law compliance for displaying reflectors during the day and of a front light and a rear light/reflector at night, obeying traffic signals, and giving pedestrians the right of way was also observed...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Lucinda Bouillon, Ryan Baker, Chris Gibson, Andrew Kearney, Tommy Busemeyer
BACKGROUND: Stationary equipment devices are often used to improve fitness. The ElliptiGO® was recently developed that blends the elements of an elliptical trainer and bicycle, allowing reciprocal lower limb pedaling in an upright position. However, it is unknown whether the muscle activity used for the ElliptiGO® is similar to walking or cycling. To date, there is no information comparing muscle activity for exercise on the treadmill, stationary upright and recumbent bikes, and the ElliptiGO®...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Katja Schleinitz, Tibor Petzoldt, Josef F Krems, Tina Gehlert
Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts...
July 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ronald Chow, Drew Hollenberg, Alexandru Pintilie, Cooper Midroni, Stuart Cumner
Numerous studies have highlighted that bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head injury; the purpose of this study was to determine the helmet-wearing rate of adolescent boys and the reasons for those who do not wear helmets. A questionnaire was developed and completed by 257 students. A higher percentage of older students reported a long bike commute to school (over 20 min). The frequency of helmet use and awareness of helmet legislation was lower amongst the older students. Common reasons for not using a helmet across all ages included its uncomfortable nature, the confidence of the rider's cycling ability to not crash, and negligence...
March 12, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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