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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081164/economic-evaluation-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-reducing-cardiovascular-risk-from-health-system-and-private-payer-perspectives
#1
Alejandro Arrieta, Timothy F Page, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078495/economic-context-and-hiv-vulnerability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-in-urban-slums-in-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis-based-on-scarcity-theory
#2
Larissa Jennings, Muthoni Mathai, Sebastian Linnemayr, Antonio Trujillo, Margaret Mak'anyengo, Brooke E E Montgomery, Deanna L Kerrigan
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology...
January 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078082/core-components-for-effective-infection-prevention-and-control-programmes-new-who-evidence-based-recommendations
#3
Julie Storr, Anthony Twyman, Walter Zingg, Nizam Damani, Claire Kilpatrick, Jacqui Reilly, Lesley Price, Matthias Egger, M Lindsay Grayson, Edward Kelley, Benedetta Allegranzi
Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063135/cost-effectiveness-of-insulin-degludec-plus-liraglutide-ideglira-in-a-fixed-combination-for-uncontrolled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-sweden
#4
Åsa Ericsson, Adam Lundqvist
BACKGROUND: Patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a priority group for intensified therapy without weight gain and with low risk of hypoglycaemia. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the cost effectiveness of insulin degludec plus liraglutide (IDegLira, Xultophy(®)) compared with six potential intensification treatment options for patients with T2DM that is uncontrolled with basal insulin. METHODS: The Swedish Institute for Health Economics (IHE) Cohort Model of Type 2 Diabetes was used with Swedish input data, a 40-year time frame and a societal perspective...
January 6, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063134/how-can-pricing-and-reimbursement-policies-improve-affordable-access-to-medicines-lessons-learned-from-european-countries
#5
REVIEW
Sabine Vogler, Valérie Paris, Alessandra Ferrario, Veronika J Wirtz, Kees de Joncheere, Peter Schneider, Hanne Bak Pedersen, Guillaume Dedet, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
This article discusses pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in European countries with regard to their ability to ensure affordable access to medicines. A frequently applied pricing policy is external price referencing. While it provides some benchmark for policy-makers and has been shown to be able to generate savings, it may also contribute to delay in product launch in countries where medicine prices are low. Value-based pricing has been proposed as a policy that promotes access while rewarding useful innovation; however, implementing it has proven quite challenging...
January 6, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061492/the-korean-spinal-neurosurgery-society-are-we-reimbursed-properly-for-spinal-neurosurgical-practices-under-the-korean-resource-based-relative-value-scale-service
#6
Woo-Keun Kwon, Joo Han Kim, Hong Joo Moon, Youn-Kwan Park
OBJECTIVES: The Korean Resource Based Relative Value Scale (K-RBRVS) was introduced in 2001 as an alternative of the previous medical fee schedule. Unfortunately, most neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the details of the K-RBRVS and how it affects the reimbursement rates for the surgical procedures we perform. We summarize the K-RBRVS in brief, and discuss on how the relative value (RV) of the spinal neurosurgical procedures have changed since the introduction in 2001. METHODS: We analyzed the change of spinal procedure RVs since 2001, and compared it with the change of values in the brain neurosurgical procedures...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057166/similar-biologics-global-opportunities-and-issues
#7
Prasanta Kumar Ghosh
The invention and use of a large number of biologics during the last three decades for treating various deficiencies and chronic disorders has resulted in great benefit to human health. Abundant use of these biologics has been considerably constrained due to the reasons of their increased prices, charged by the inventors up to the time up to which their use were/are protected by intellectual property rights (IPR).Some of these biologics are presently being manufactured by the existing and newer companies as "similar biologics" after the IPR on these products have expired and as a result the prices of several such medicines are coming down...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050974/modifying-optical-properties-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-controlled-ozone-and-thermal-treatment-in-aqueous-suspensions
#8
Md Tanvir Hasan, Brian J Senger, Price Mulford, Conor Ryan, Hung Doan, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Anton V Naumov
Graphene possesses a number of advantageous properties, however, does not exhibit optical emission, which limits its use in optoelectronics. Unlike graphene, its functional derivative, graphene oxide (GO) exhibits fluorescence emission throughout the visible. Here, we focus on controlled methods for tuning the optical properties of GO. We introduce ozone treatment of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in order to controllably transform it from non-emissive graphene-like material into GO with a specific fluorescence emission response...
January 4, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048602/su-f-t-262-commissioning-varian-portal-dosimetry-for-epid-based-patient-specific-qa-in-a-non-aria-environment
#9
M Schmidt, N Knutson, J Herrington, M Price
PURPOSE: Development of an in-house program facilitates a workflow that allows Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) patient specific quality assurance (QA) measurements to be acquired and analyzed in the Portal Dosimetry Application (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) using a non-Aria Record and Verify (R&V) system (MOSAIQ, Elekta, Crawley, UK) to deliver beams in standard clinical treatment mode. METHODS: Initial calibration of an in-house software tool includes characterization of EPID dosimetry parameters by importing DICOM images of varying delivered MUs to determine linear mapping factors in order to convert image pixel values to Varian-defined Calibrated Units (CU)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047780/we-fg-207b-04-noise-suppression-for-energy-resolved-ct-via-variance-weighted-non-local-filtration
#10
J Harms, L Zhu
PURPOSE: The photon starvation problem is exacerbated in energy-resolved CT, since the detected photons are shared by multiple energy channels. Using pixel similarity-based non-local filtration, we aim to produce accurate and high-resolution energy-resolved CT images with significantly reduced noise. METHODS: Averaging CT images reconstructed from different energy channels reduces noise at the price of losing spectral information, while conventional denoising techniques inevitably degrade image resolution...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047768/th-ab-207a-06-the-use-of-realistic-phantoms-to-predict-ct-dose-to-pediatric-patients
#11
D Carver, S Kost, P Segars, N Fraser, D Pickens, R Price, M Stabin
PURPOSE: To predict pediatric patient dose from diagnostic CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation of realistic reference phantoms of various ages, weights, and heights. METHODS: A series of deformable pediatric reference phantoms using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) was developed for a large range of ages, percentiles, and reference anatomy. Individual bones were modeled using age-dependent factors, and red marrow was modeled as functions of age and spatial distribution based on Cristy1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046422/su-f-t-601-equivalence-of-cyberknife-and-truebeam-stx-for-spine-irradiation
#12
J Herrington, M Price, M Schmidt, J Brindle, N Knutson
PURPOSE: To evaluate the equivalence of spine SBRT treatment plans created in Eclipse for the TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) compared to plans using CyberKnife and MultiPlan (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). METHODS: CT data and contours for 23 spine SBRT patients previously treated using CyberKnife (CK) were exported from MultiPlan treatment planning system into Eclipse where they were planned using static IMRT 6MV coplanar beams. Plans were created according to the original prescription dose and fractionation schedule while limiting spinal dose according to the RTOG 0631 protocol and maintaining target coverage comparable to the original CK plans...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029298/unintended-consequences-in-cancer-care-delivery-created-by-the-medicare-part-b-proposal-is-the-clinical-rationale-for-the-experiment-flawed
#13
Lucio Gordan, Amy Grogg, Marlo Blazer, Barry Fortner
PURPOSE: Medicare currently enrolls ≥ 45 million adults, and by 2030 this is projected to increase to ≥ 80 million beneficiaries. With this growth, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) issued a proposal, the Medicare Part B Drug Payment Model, to shrink drug expenditures, a major contributor to overall health care costs. For this to not adversely affect patient outcomes, lower-cost alternative medications with equivalent efficacy and no increased toxicity must be available...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027666/distress-tolerance-treatment-for-weight-concern-in-smoking-cessation-among-women
#14
Erika Litvin Bloom, Rena R Wing, Christopher W Kahler, J Kevin Thompson, Sari Meltzer, Jacki Hecht, Haruka Minami, Lawrence H Price, Richard A Brown
Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W)...
December 1, 2016: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027661/economic-evaluation-of-hiv-testing-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-community-based-organizations-results-from-six-european-cities
#15
Julian Perelman, Ricardo Rosado, Omar Amri, Stéphane Morel, Daniela Rojas Castro, Sophocles Chanos, Bojan Cigan, Miha Lobnik, Ricardo Fuertes, François Pichon, Per Slaaen Kaye, Cristina Agustí, Laura Fernàndez-López, Nicolas Lorente, Jordi Casabona
The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience...
December 27, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027288/cost-effectiveness-comparison-of-monovalent-c-versus-quadrivalent-acwy-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-canada
#16
Philippe De Wals, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: In Quebec, one dose of monovalent C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Men-C-Con) is offered at 12 months of age and a booster dose in grade 9 (14-15 years of age). In other Canadian provinces, a quadrivalent ACWY vaccine (Men-4-Con) is increasingly used for adolescents. An economic analysis was performed to assess the value of a switch from Men-C-Con to Men-4-Con. METHODS: A compartmental static simulation model was developed to assess the burden of AWY invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in a cohort of 100,000 persons with different vaccination programs...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006740/scenario-analysis-of-carbon-emissions-anti-driving-effect-on-qingdao-s-energy-structure-adjustment-with-an-optimization-model-part-ii-energy-system-planning-and-management
#17
C B Wu, G H Huang, Z P Liu, J L Zhen, J G Yin
In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998471/-economic-burden-of-cancer-in-china-during-1996-2014-a-systematic-review
#18
J F Shi, C L Shi, X P Yue, H Y Huang, L Wang, J Li, P A Lou, A Y Mao, M Dai
Objective: To explore the current status of research on economic burden of cancer in China from 1996 to 2014. Methods: The key words including cancer, economic burden, expenditure, cost were used to retrieve the literatures published in CNKI and Wanfang (the two most commonly used databases for literature in Chinese) and PubMed during 1996-2014. A total of 91 studies were included after several exclusionary procedures. Information on subjects and data source, methodology, main results were structurally abstracted...
December 23, 2016: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992772/the-role-of-imperfect-surrogate-endpoint-information-in-drug-approval-and-reimbursement-decisions
#19
Katalin Bognar, John A Romley, Jay P Bae, James Murray, Jacquelyn W Chou, Darius N Lakdawalla
Approval of new drugs is increasingly reliant on "surrogate endpoints," which correlate with but imperfectly predict clinical benefits. Proponents argue surrogate endpoints allow for faster approval, but critics charge they provide inadequate evidence. We develop an economic framework that addresses the value of improvement in the predictive power, or "quality," of surrogate endpoints, and clarifies how quality can influence decisions by regulators, payers, and manufacturers. For example, the framework shows how lower-quality surrogates lead to greater misalignment of incentives between payers and regulators, resulting in more drugs that are approved for use but not covered by payers...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981476/disability-adjusted-life-years-and-economic-cost-assessment-of-the-health-effects-related-to-pm2-5-and-pm10-pollution-in-mumbai-and-delhi-in-india-from-1991-to-2015
#20
Kamal Jyoti Maji, Anil Kumar Dikshit, Ashok Deshpande
Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes...
December 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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