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Growth hormone deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208663/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-endocrine-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Daisuke Ariyasu, Hiderou Yoshida, Yukihiro Hasegawa
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205281/growth-hormone-modulates-in-vitro-endothelial-cell-migration-and-formation-of-capillary-like-structures
#2
Cícero Fagner Messias de Lima, Maria Danielma Dos Santos Reis, Fernando Wagner da Silva Ramos, Silvana Ayres-Martins, Salete Smaniotto
The generation of new blood vessels is a complex process mediated by a variety of growth factors, and the growth hormone (GH) has been shown to act as a proangiogenic factor. In fact, human GH deficiency or excess are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, mouse models have revealed the action of GH in both tissue repair and in the microvascular circulation of normal tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GH on endothelial cells. Using a murine endothelioma cell line (tEnd...
February 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201598/a-randomized-phase-2-study-of-long-acting-transcon-growth-hormone-vs-daily-gh-in-childhood-gh-deficiency
#3
Pierre Chatelain, Oleg Malievsky, Klaudziya Radziuk, Ganna Senatorova, Magdy O Abdou, Elpis Vlachopapadopolou, Yulia Skorodok, Valentina Peterkova, Jonathan A Leff, Michael Beckert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196799/a-phase-2-trial-of-long-acting-transcon-growth-hormone-in-adult-gh-deficiency
#4
Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens S Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff, Michael Beckert
TransCon growth hormone is a sustained release human growth hormone prodrug in development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope)...
February 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195315/genetic-testing-facilitates-prepubertal-diagnosis-of-congenital-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#5
Cheng Xu, Mariarosaria Lang-Muritano, Franziska Phan-Hug, Andrew A Dwyer, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Daniele Cassatella, James Acierno, Moosa Mohammadi, Nelly Pitteloud
Neonatal micropenis and cryptorchidism raise the suspicion of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), a rare genetic disorder caused by GnRH deficiency. Low plasma testosterone levels and low gonadotropins during minipuberty provide a clinical diagnostic clue, yet these tests are seldomly performed in general practice. We report a male neonate with no family history of reproductive disorders who was born with micropenis and cryptorchidism. Hormonal testing at age 2.5 months showed low testosterone (0...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193628/management-of-endocrine-disease-neuroendocrine-surveillance-and-management-of-neurosurgical-patients-non-pituitary
#6
Aoife Garrahy, Mark Sherlock, Chris J Thompson
Advances in the management of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours have led to improved survival rates and an increased focus on quality of life of survivors. Endocrine sequelae of the acute brain insult and subsequent neurosurgery, peri-operative fluid administration and/or cranial irradiation are now well described. Unrecognized acute hypopituitarism, particularly ACTH/cortisol deficiency and diabetes insipidus, can be life-threatening. While hypopituitarism may be transient, up to 30% of survivors of TBI have chronic hypopituitarism, which can diminish quality of life and hamper rehabilitation...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165551/thyroid-disorders-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
K Kowalczyk, G Franik, D Kowalczyk, D Pluta, Ł Blukacz, P Madej
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), are observed significantly more often in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in the general population - approximately 27% and 8%, respectively. This is extremely important in young women, because both disorders are connected with fertility problems. As HT and PCOS occur together, fertility problems may become a serious clinical issue in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review in PubMed of PCOS- and HT-related articles in English, published until December 2015 was conducted...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164079/short-stature-and-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-a-girl-with-encephalocraniocutaneous-lipomatosis-and-jaffe-campanacci-syndrome-a-case-report
#9
Eun Mi Choi, Nani Jung, Ye Jee Shim, Hee Joung Choi, Joon Sik Kim, Heung Sik Kim, Kwang Soon Song, Hee Jung Lee, Sang Pyo Kim
A 9-year-old Tajikistani girl presented to Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center for evaluation of a skin lesion on her left eyelid, focal alopecia, unilateral ventricular dilatation, and aortic coarctation. She was diagnosed with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) according to Moog's diagnostic criteria. Café-au-lait spots were found on the left side of her trunk. Multiple nonossifying fibromas were found on her left proximal humerus, left distal femur, both proximal tibias, and left proximal fibula, suggesting Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome (JCS), following imaging of the extremities...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161880/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-omnitrope-%C3%A2-in-adults-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-italian-interim-analysis-of-the-patro-adults-study
#10
D Ferone, E Profka, V Gasco, M R Ambrosio, A Colao, C Di Somma, E Puxeddu, G Arnaldi, C Pagano, E Zecchi, A Pietropoli, P Beck-Peccoz
PURPOSE: To report the long-term effectiveness and safety of the recombinant human growth hormone Omnitrope(®), a somatropin biosimilar to Genotropin(®), in Italian patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) enrolled in the PATRO Adults study. METHODS: The PATRO Adults study is an ongoing observational, longitudinal, non-interventional global post-marketing surveillance study, conducted in several European countries. The primary endpoint is long-term safety; secondary endpoints include the effectiveness of Omnitrope(®), which was assessed using serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, body composition, bone mineral density and lipid levels...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150584/treatment-of-pre-pubertal-patients-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-patterns-in-growth-hormone-dosage-and-igf-i-z-scores
#11
Megan Oberle, Adda Grimberg, Vaneeta Bamba
OBJECTIVE: To describe the range of IGF-Iz and GH dose adjustments in pre-pubertal patients with GH deficiency (GHD) treated with GH in a single tertiary care center. METHODS: Retrospective review of GH-treated patients age <9 years with GHD, seen in endocrinology clinic 2013-2014. Patient demographics and pre-treatment anthropometrics, GH treatment duration, IGF-Iz, and GH dosage (mg/kg/week) were extracted. Multi-predictor linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between IGF-Iz and GH dosage and subject gender, race, insurance type, age, and clinical characteristics...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133513/effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-biosynthesis-of-estrogen-in-porcine-granulosa-cells-via-modulation-of-steroidogenic-enzymes
#12
So-Hye Hong, Jae-Eon Lee, Sung-Min An, Ye Young Shin, Dae Youn Hwang, Seung Yun Yang, Seong-Keun Cho, Beum-Soo An
Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble secosteroid responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and other materials. Vitamin D3 deficiency, therefore, can cause health problems such as metabolic diseases, and bone disorder. Female sex hormones including estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in the granulosa cells of ovary. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovary and cultured for the experiments. In order to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on the ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot assay...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130827/advanced-glycation-end-products-stimulate-gene-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23
#13
Ludmilla Bär, Kristin Wächter, Nicole Wege, Alexander Navarrete Santos, Andreas Simm, Michael Föller
SCOPE: Osteoblasts produce fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption and the formation of biologically active vitamin D, calcitriol. FGF23-deficient mice age rapidly and develop age-associated diseases at least in part due to massive calcification. Elevated FGF23 serum levels are detected in patients suffering from acute and chronic renal, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are sugar-modified proteins, nucleic acid, and lipids which contribute to these disorders...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130091/nitric-oxide-no-mediated-mitochondrial-damage-plays-a-critical-role-in-t-2-toxin-induced-apoptosis-and-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-gh3-cells
#14
Xianglian Liu, Pu Guo, Aimei Liu, Qinghua Wu, Xijuan Xue, Menghong Dai, Haihong Hao, Wei Qu, Shuyu Xie, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
T-2 toxin, a major compound of trichothecenes, induces cell apoptosis and growth hormone (GH) deficiency and causes considerable growth retardation in animals and human cells. However, the mechanism underlying its growth suppression still remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that ROS induced cell apoptosis and animal feed intake reduction, but there are limited reports on the role of RNS in T-2 toxin-mediated mitochondrial damage, cell apoptosis and growth retardation. Herein, T-2 toxin-induced GH3 cell damage and apoptosis were tested by MTT assay, LDH leakage and flow cytometry, respectively...
January 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126912/growth-hormone-with-aromatase-inhibitor-may-improve-height-in-cyp11b1-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#15
Katherine Hawton, Sandra Walton-Betancourth, Gill Rumsby, Joseph Raine, Mehul Dattani
With an estimated prevalence of 1 in 100 000 births, 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and is caused by mutations in CYP11B1 Clinical features include virilization, early gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, hypertension, and reduced stature. The current mainstay of management is with glucocorticoids to replace deficient steroids and to minimize adrenal sex hormone overproduction, thus preventing virilization and optimizing growth. We report a patient with CAH who had been suboptimally treated and presented to us at 6 years of age with precocious puberty, hypertension, tall stature, advanced bone age, and a predicted final height of 150 cm...
January 26, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120721/progranulin-a-new-adipokine-at-the-crossroads-of-metabolic-syndrome-diabetes-dyslipidemia-and-hypertension
#16
Agnieszka Korolczuk, Jerzy Bełtowski
BACKGROUND: Progranulin is a multifunctional regulatory protein with growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antiinflammatory activities. Recent studies indicate that progranulin is one of the adipose tissue hormones (adipokines). Progranulin expression in visceral adipose tissue and circulating progranulin concentration are increased in obesity and hyperprogranulinemia is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Progranulin impairs insulin signaling and reduces insulin-induced glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo whereas progranulin deficiency protects from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115639/combined-effects-of-gestational-phthalate-exposure-and-zinc-deficiency-on-steroid-metabolism-and-growth
#17
J Nuttall, H R Kucera, S Supasai, N W Gaikwad, P I Oteiza
Disruption of steroid hormone signaling has been implicated independently in the developmental abnormalities resulting from maternal phthalate plasticizer exposure and developmental zinc deficiency. This study investigated if secondary zinc deficiency may result from dietary exposure to a low level of DEHP through gestation and if this could be associated with altered steroid metabolism. The interaction between marginal zinc nutrition and DEHP exposure to affect pregnancy outcome, zinc status, and steroid metabolism was also assessed...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114247/neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-a-young-athlete-with-concussion-a-case-report
#18
David M Langelier, Gregory A Kline, Chantel T Debert
An 18-year-old female ringette and basketball player presented to our sport concussion clinic 27 months after concussion with fatigue, headache, exercise intolerance, polyuria, nocturia, and difficulties concentrating. Her history was remarkable for 4 previous concussions. Her neurologic examination was normal. Neuroendocrine screen including thyroid function, morning cortisol, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (screening test for growth hormone deficiency) were normal. Further testing for growth hormone deficiency with an insulin hypoglycemia test revealed severe growth hormone deficiency...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#19
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
January 23, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105090/effects-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-in-the-treatment-of-dwarfism-and-relationship-between-igf-1-igfbp-3-and-thyroid-hormone
#20
Shanxiang Ren, Yuxiang Nie, Aihong Wang
The effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the treatment of dwarfism and the relationship between insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and thyroid hormone were examined in the present study. For this purpose, 66 patients diagnosed with dwarfism were selected retrospectively, with 36 cases of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and 30 cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS). The therapeutic dose of GHD 0.10 IU/kg·day and ISS 0.15 IU/kg·day were injected subcutaneously every night before sleep until adulthood...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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