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Growth hormone deficiency

Yanan Shi, Keke Li, Baocheng Tian, Maolei Xu, Qingzhi Lv, Juanjuan Zhao, Jingtian Han, Dongxiao Feng
Daily subcutaneous injection of human growth hormone has been used for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and growth failure but has led to poor patient compliance and renal toxicity. Thus, it is crucial to develop favorable growth hormone delivery systems to improve patient compliance. In the present study, to increase the oral bioavailability of growth hormone and improve patient compliance, enteric-coated capsules filled with monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared to facilitate oral growth hormone delivery...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Matthias M Weber, Beverly Mk Biller, Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen, Effie Pournara, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Charlotte Höybye
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 4 years' GH replacement on glucose homeostasis and evaluate factors affecting glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) in adults with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: NordiNet(®) International Outcome Study, a non-interventional study, monitors long-term effectiveness and safety of GH-replacement (Norditropin(®) [somatropin], Novo Nordisk A/S) in real-life clinical practice. PATIENTS: Non-diabetic patients (n=245) with adult-onset GHD (age ≥20 years at GH start), ≥4 years' GH replacement and HbA1c values at baseline and 4 years were included in the analysis...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Tami Rubinek, Shiri Shahmoon, Ayelet Shabtay-Orbach, Michal Ben Ami, Yael Levy-Shraga, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch, Yonatan Yeshayahu, Ram Doolman, Rina Hemi, Hannah Kanety, Ido Wolf, Dalit Modan-Moses
CONTEXT: Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys, which can be cleaved and shed to act as a circulating hormone. Several lines of evidence suggest a tight interaction between klotho and the GH-IGF-I axis. We showed previously that klotho levels are decreased in pediatric patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Our aim now is to investigate the effect of GH therapy on klotho levels in these patients and to elucidate the role of IGF-1 in mediating secretion of klotho...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Hong-Bo Yang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Hui Pan, Hui-Juan Zhu
<strong>Objective</strong> To evaluate physicians' attitude and knowledge about the management of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and impact factors associated with better decision-making.<strong>Methods</strong> A 21-question anonymous survey was distributed and collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Data of physicians' educational background, clinical training, patient workload per year and continuing medical education in AGHD were collected...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Chiara Diazzi, Giulia Brigante, Giulia Ferrannini, Anna Ansaloni, Lucia Zirilli, Maria Cristina De Santis, Stefano Zona, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vincenzo Rochira
Biochemical growth hormone deficiency is prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, but if this condition is clinically relevant remains challenging. The aim is to prospectively compare the growth hormone deficiency/insulin-like growth factor-1 status of 71 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with impaired growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine with that of 65 hypopituitary patients affected by a true growth hormone deficiency secondary to pituitary disease...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine
Connie Y Chang, Daniel I Rosenthal, Deborah M Mitchell, Atsuhiko Handa, Susan V Kattapuram, Ambrose J Huang
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of diseases that result in abnormalities of (a) bone mass, (b) structure mineral homeostasis, (c) bone turnover, or (d) growth. Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, results in generalized loss of bone mass and deterioration in the bone microarchitecture. Impaired chondrocyte development and failure to mineralize growth plate cartilage in rickets lead to widened growth plates and frayed metaphyses at sites of greatest growth. Osteomalacia is the result of impaired mineralization of newly formed osteoid, which leads to characteristic Looser zones...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jose Bernardo Quintos, Juanita K Hodax, Bryn A Gonzales-Ellis, Chanika Phornphutkul, Michael P Wajnrajch, Charlotte M Boney
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is characterized by external ophthalmoplegia, retinal pigmentation and cardiac conduction defects due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Short stature and growth hormone (GH) deficiency have been reported in KSS, but data on GH treatment is limited. We describe the clinical presentation, phenotype evolution, and response to GH in a patient with KSS and report data on eight additional KSS patients from the KIGS database. Our patient with KSS and GH deficiency achieved a final adult height at -0...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jasmine Chow, Joyeeta Rahman, John C Achermann, Mehul T Dattani, Shamima Rahman
Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Madeleine Themanns, Kristina M Mueller, Sonja M Kessler, Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Thomas Mohr, Doris Kaltenecker, Jerome Bourgeais, Jamile Paier-Pourani, Katrin Friedbichler, Doris Schneller, Michaela Schlederer, Eva Zebedin-Brandl, Luigi M Terracciano, Xiaonan Han, Lukas Kenner, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Wolfgang Mikulits, Andrey V Kozlov, Markus H Heim, Fabrice Gouilleux, Johannes Haybaeck, Richard Moriggl
Genetic deletion of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 or the downstream transcription factor STAT5 in liver impairs growth hormone (GH) signalling and thereby promotes fatty liver disease. Hepatic STAT5 deficiency accelerates liver tumourigenesis in presence of high GH levels. To determine whether the upstream kinase JAK2 exerts similar functions, we crossed mice harbouring a hepatocyte-specific deletion of JAK2 (JAK2(Δhep)) to GH transgenic mice (GH(tg)) and compared them to GH(tg)STAT5(Δhep) mice. Similar to GH(tg)STAT5(Δhep) mice, JAK2 deficiency resulted in severe steatosis in the GH(tg) background...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaozhen Huang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang, Yiting Shi
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating seed germination and post-germination growth. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), an APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, is required for the ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination. Cytokinins promote seed germination and seedling growth by antagonizing ABA signaling. However, the interaction between ABA and cytokinin signaling during seed germination remains unclear. Here, we report that ABA signaling downregulates Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs), a class of cytokinin-inducible genes, during seed germination and cotyledon greening...
October 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Khalid S Aljabri, Samia A Bokhari, Faisal Y Assiri, Muneera A Alshareef, Patan M Khan
BACKGROUND: Data on pituitary adenoma (PA) prevalence in Saudi Arabia are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the epidemiology of PA in a well-defined population. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Departments of Endocrinology and Radiology at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Radiological and hormonal data of patients with pituitary adenoma by MRI were reviewed for the period January 2008 to December 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Marion Kessler, Michael Tenner, Michael Frey, Richard Noto
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the pituitary volume (PV) in pediatric patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (ISS) and normal controls. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (57 male, 12 female), with a mean age of 11.9 (±2.0), were determined to have IGHD. ISS was identified in 29 patients (20 male, 9 female), with a mean age of 12.7 (±3.7). Sixty-six controls (28 female, 38 male), mean age 9.8 (±4.7) were also included...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Y-X Kang, Y-J Wang, Q Zhang, X-H Pang, W Gu
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Here, we report an unusual case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome accompanied by hypopituitarism (deficiencies in reproductive and growth hormones). A 20-year-old male presented with growth retardation for the last 8 years, as well as the following findings: short stature, delayed puberty, myasthenia, an extraocular movement deficit, drooping eyelids, pectus carinatum and scoliosis. Cerebral enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed dysplasias of the pituitary, white matter and cerebellum...
October 6, 2016: Andrologia
Jun Fan, Cui Zhang, Qi Chen, Jin Zhou, Jean-Louis Franc, Qing Chen, Yunguang Tong
Isolated hormone deficiency might be caused by loss of a specific type of endocrine cells, and regenerating these missing cells may provide a new option for future treatment. It is known that POU1F1 lineage cells can differentiate into thyrotroph, somatotroph, and lactotroph. However, there is no effective way of controlling pituitary stem/progenitor cells to differentiate into a specific type of endocrine cell. We thereby analyzed multiple genomic publications related to POU1F1 and pituitary development in this study to identify genes and agents regulating POU1F1 lineage cell differentiation...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Felipe H Duarte, Raquel S Jallad, Marcello D Bronstein
Despite recent advances in acromegaly treatment by surgery, drugs, and radiotherapy, hormonal control is still not achieved by some patients. The impairment of IGF-1 generation by estrogens in growth hormone deficient patients is well known. Patients on oral estrogens need higher growth hormone doses in order to achieve normal IGF-1 values. In the past, estrogens were one of the first drugs used to treat acromegaly. Nevertheless, due to the high doses used and the obvious side effects in male patients, this strategy was sidelined with the development of more specific drugs, as somatostatin receptor ligands and dopamine agonists...
October 4, 2016: Endocrine
Stephania Casco, Elena Soto-Vega
Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at great risk of developing late adverse effects after treatment, such as, reduced growth, obesity, decreased fertility, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose, another form of cancer, among others organ dysfunctions, some of them are part of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and cancer connection is still not entirely understood, but there are some notions about it. Metabolic alterations produced during childhood cancer are more likely determined by treatments like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, glucocorticoids therapy, and surgery...
October 4, 2016: Hormones & Cancer
Dieter Haffner, Maren Leifheit-Nestler
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, infections, and impaired cognitive function. It is characterized by excessively increased levels of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and a deficiency of its co-receptor Klotho. Despite the important physiological effect of FGF23 in maintaining phosphate homeostasis, there is increasing evidence that higher FGF23 levels are a risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disease. FGF23 directly induces left ventricular hypertrophy via activation of the FGF receptor 4/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Paria Kashani, Madan Roy, Linda Gillis, Olufemi Ajani, M Constantine Samaan
A 19-month-old boy was referred for progressive weight gain. His past medical history included congenital hypothyroidism and developmental delay. Physical examination revealed characteristics of Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy, macrocephaly, and calcinosis cutis. He had hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated Parathyroid Hormone levels. Genetic testing revealed a known mutation of GNAS gene, confirming the diagnosis of Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ia (PHP-Ia) (c.34C>T (p.G1n12X)). He had a normal brain MRI at three months, but developmental delay prompted a repeat MRI that revealed Chiari Malformation Type I (CM-I) with hydrocephalus requiring neurosurgical intervention...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Qian-Feng Li, Min Xiong, Peng Xu, Li-Chun Huang, Chang-Quan Zhang, Qiao-Quan Liu
Brassinosteroids (BRs), essential plant-specific steroidal hormones, function in a wide spectrum of plant growth and development events, including seed germination. Rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant but also one of the most important staple food crops of human beings. Rice seed germination is a decisive event for the next-generation of plant growth and successful seed germination is critical for rice yield. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how BR modulates seed germination in rice...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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