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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437638/motor-expertise-and-performance-in-spatial-tasks-a-meta-analysis
#1
Daniel Voyer, Petra Jansen
The present study aimed to provide a summary of findings relevant to the influence of motor expertise on performance in spatial tasks and to examine potential moderators of this effect. Studies of relevance were those in which individuals involved in activities presumed to require motor expertise were compared to non-experts in such activities. A final set of 62 effect sizes from 33 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed an overall advantage in favor of motor experts in spatial tasks (d=0...
April 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437623/selective-scene-perception-deficits-in-a-case-of-topographical-disorientation
#2
Jessica Robin, Matthew X Lowe, Sara Pishdadian, Josée Rivest, Jonathan S Cant, Morris Moscovitch
Topographical disorientation (TD) is a neuropsychological condition characterized by an inability to find one's way, even in familiar environments. One common contributing cause of TD is landmark agnosia, a visual recognition impairment specific to scenes and landmarks. Although many cases of TD with landmark agnosia have been documented, little is known about the perceptual mechanisms which lead to selective deficits in recognizing scenes. In the present study, we test LH, a man who exhibits TD and landmark agnosia, on measures of scene perception that require selectively attending to either the configural or surface properties of a scene...
April 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436881/modulating-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-neuronal-firing-for-visual-prostheses-a-kalman-filter-based-strategy
#3
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly
Developing visual prostheses that target inner brain structures along the visual pathway represent a new hope for patients with completely damaged early visual pathway sites. One of the major challenges in the development of subcortical and cortical visual prostheses is tuning electrical stimulation that could optimally induce desired visual percepts. In this paper, we propose a Kalman filter-based strategy that could be used to identify electrical stimulation patterns that mimic a specific visual input for thalamic visual prostheses...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436735/risk-and-safety-perception-on-urban-and-rural-roads-effects-of-environmental-features-driver-age-and-risk-sensitivity
#4
Jolene A Cox, Vanessa Beanland, Ashleigh J Filtness
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment...
February 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435816/a-risk-assessment-comparison-of-breast-cancer-and-factors-affected-to-risk-perception-of-women-in-turkey-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Serpil Yüksel, Gülay Altun Uğraş, İkbal Çavdar, Atilla Bozdoğan, Sibel Özkan Gürdal, Neriman Akyolcu, Ecem Esencan, Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu, Vahit Özmen
BACKGROUND: The increase in breast cancer incidence has enhanced attention towards breast cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of breast cancer and risk perception of women, factors that affect risk perception, and to determine differences between absolute risk and the perception of risk. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 346 women whose score in the Gail Risk Model (GRM) was ≥ 1.67% and/or had a 1(st) degree relative with breast cancer in Bahçeşehir town in Istanbul, Turkey between Jul 2012 and Dec 2012...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435216/pain-perception-description-after-advanced-surface-ablation
#6
Eva M Sobas, Sebastián Videla, Amanda Vázquez, Itziar Fernández, Miguel J Maldonado, José-Carlos Pastor
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to characterize the evolution of ocular pain after advanced surface ablation (ASA) to improve strategies in postoperative pain management. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive, cohort study. The inclusion criteria were healthy individuals ≥18 years old receiving bilateral alcohol-assisted surface ablation with epithelial removal. Pain intensity was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS) and the numeric pain rating scale before and after surgery...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435122/global-motion-perception-is-related-to-motor-function-in-4-5-year-old-children-born-at-risk-of-abnormal-development
#7
Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Linda L LaGasse, Barry M Lester, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding, Trecia A Wouldes, Benjamin Thompson
Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed...
April 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434862/consequences-of-the-oculomotor-cycle-for-the-dynamics-of-perception
#8
Marco Boi, Martina Poletti, Jonathan D Victor, Michele Rucci
Much evidence indicates that humans and other species process large-scale visual information before fine spatial detail. Neurophysiological data obtained with paralyzed eyes suggest that this coarse-to-fine sequence results from spatiotemporal filtering by neurons in the early visual pathway. However, the eyes are normally never stationary: rapid gaze shifts (saccades) incessantly alternate with slow fixational movements. To investigate the consequences of this oculomotor cycle on the dynamics of perception, we combined spectral analysis of visual input signals, neural modeling, and gaze-contingent control of retinal stimulation in humans...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434425/augmented-reality-in-neurosurgery-a-review-of-current-concepts-and-emerging-applications
#9
Daipayan Guha, Naif M Alotaibi, Nhu Nguyen, Shaurya Gupta, Christopher McFaul, Victor X D Yang
Augmented reality (AR) superimposes computer-generated virtual objects onto the user's view of the real world. Among medical disciplines, neurosurgery has long been at the forefront of image-guided surgery, and it continues to push the frontiers of AR technology in the operating room. In this systematic review, we explore the history of AR in neurosurgery and examine the literature on current neurosurgical applications of AR. Significant challenges to surgical AR exist, including compounded sources of registration error, impaired depth perception, visual and tactile temporal asynchrony, and operator inattentional blindness...
April 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432743/global-and-local-visual-processing-in-autism-an-objective-assessment-approach
#10
Kritika Nayar, Angela C Voyles, Lynne Kiorpes, Adriana Di Martino
We examined global and local visual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via a match-to-sample task using Kanizsa illusory contours (KIC). School-aged children with ASD (n = 28) and age-matched typically developing controls (n = 22; 7-13 years) performed a sequential match-to-sample between a solid shape (sample) and two illusory alternatives. We tracked eye gaze and behavioral performance in two task conditions: one with and one without local interference from background noise elements. While analyses revealed lower accuracy and longer reaction time in ASD in the condition with local interference only, eye tracking robustly captured ASD-related global atypicalities across both conditions...
April 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432316/how-visual-experience-impacts-the-internal-and-external-spatial-mapping-of-sensorimotor-functions
#11
Virginie Crollen, Geneviève Albouy, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Tactile perception and motor production share the use of internally- and externally-defined coordinates. In order to examine how visual experience affects the internal/external coding of space for touch and movement, early blind (EB) and sighted controls (SC) took part in two experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to perform a Temporal Order Judgment task (TOJ), either with their hands in parallel or crossed over the body midline. Confirming previous demonstration, crossing the hands led to a significant decrement in performance in SC but did not affect EB...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432188/magnetic-resonance-neurography-visualizes-abnormalities-in-sciatic-and-tibial-nerves-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-neuropathy
#12
Michael Vaeggemose, Mirko Pham, Steffen Ringgaard, Hatice Tankisi, Niels Ejskjaer, Sabine Heiland, Per L Poulsen, Henning Andersen
This study evaluates whether diffusion-tensor-imaging MR-Neurography (DTI-MRN), T2-relaxation-time and proton-spin-density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes.Forty-nine patients with type 1 diabetes (11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN) and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)) and 30 healthy controls (HC) were included. Clinical examinations, nerve-conduction-studies and vibratory-perception-thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430890/acceptability-comparison-between-hawley-retainers-and-vacuum-formed-retainers-in-orthodontic-adult-patients-a-single-centre-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Mohammed Saleh, Mohammad Y Hajeer, Dieter Muessig
Background: Hawley retainers (HRs) and vacuum formed retainers (VFRs) are the most commonly used removable retainers in the orthodontic practice. Patients' cooperation in wearing these appliances is affected by the levels of discomfort and oral impairment. The evidence regarding their acceptably among orthodontic patients is limited. Aims: To compare the acceptability of HRs and VFRs over a 6-month period in a group of fixed orthodontic patients. Trial Design: Two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430546/overall-preference-of-running-shoes-can-be-predicted-by-suitable-perception-factors-using-a-multiple-regression-model
#14
Cheryl Sihui Tay, Thorsten Sterzing, Chen Yen Lim, Rui Ding, Pui Wah Kong
OBJECTIVE: This study examined (a) the strength of four individual footwear perception factors to influence the overall preference of running shoes and (b) whether these perception factors satisfied the nonmulticollinear assumption in a regression model. BACKGROUND: Running footwear must fulfill multiple functional criteria to satisfy its potential users. Footwear perception factors, such as fit and cushioning, are commonly used to guide shoe design and development, but it is unclear whether running-footwear users are able to differentiate one factor from another...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430334/chondro-keratoprosthesis-an-alternative-to-ookp
#15
Louis Hoffart, Laurent Guyot
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of cartilage as a potential graft material toward osteo-odontal tissue replacement in keratoprosthesis surgery. METHODS: We describe a modification of the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery that involves the use of autologous auricular conchal cartilage graft (ACCG). In stage 1a, a full-thickness cheek mucosa graft was performed over the ocular surface. In stage 1b, ACCG was harvested via a retroauricular approach. An optical polymethyl-methacrylate cylinder was embedded into a double-layered fragment of cartilage and secured by cyanoacrylate glue...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427891/local-global-processing-bias-is-not-a-unitary-individual-difference-in-visual-processing
#16
Rebecca Chamberlain, Ruth Van der Hallen, Hanne Huygelier, Sander Van de Cruys, Johan Wagemans
A large body of research reports individual differences in local and global visual processing in relation to expertise, culture and psychopathology. However, recent research has suggested that various different measures of local-global processing are not strongly associated with one another, calling its construct validity into question. The current study sought to further explore the validity of local-global processing biases in perception by developing three tasks based on two existing paradigms: the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Navon hierarchical letters task...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427295/development-of-visuo-haptic-transfer-for-object-recognition-in-typical-preschool-and-school-aged-children
#17
Giulia Purpura, Giovanni Cioni, Francesca Tinelli
Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age...
April 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427030/the-relationship-between-sign-production-and-sign-comprehension-what-handedness-reveals
#18
Freya Watkins, Robin L Thompson
Unlike the phonological loop in spoken language monitoring, sign language users' own production provides mostly proprioceptive feedback and only minimal visual feedback. Here we investigate whether sign production influences sign comprehension by exploiting hand dominance in a picture-sign matching task performed by left-handed signers and right-handed signers. Should all signers perform better to right-handed input, this would suggest that a frequency effect in sign perception drives comprehension. However, if signers perform better to congruent-handed input, this would implicate the production system's role in comprehension...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426959/ontogenesis-of-lateralization
#19
REVIEW
Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
The brains of humans and other animals are asymmetrically organized, but we still know little about the ontogenetic and neural fundaments of lateralizations. Here, we review the current state of understanding about the role of genetic and non-genetic factors for the development of neural and behavioral asymmetries in vertebrates. At the genetic level, the Nodal signaling cascade is of central importance, but several other genetic pathways have been discovered to also shape the lateralized embryonic brain. Studies in humans identified several relevant genes with mostly small effect sizes but also highlight the extreme importance of non-genetic factors for asymmetry development...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426729/cultural-differences-in-room-size-perception
#20
Aurelie Saulton, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa, Trevor J Dodds
Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio) and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs...
2017: PloS One
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