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Visual perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458075/lateral-inhibition-in-the-autism-spectrum-an-ssvep-study-of-visual-cortical-lateral-interactions
#1
Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Myles Jones, Vance Zemon, Elizabeth Milne
Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections in ASD is mixed. Here we employed a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm to further investigate lateral connections within a group of high functioning adults with ASD...
February 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457564/investigating-speech-recognition-and-listening-effort-with-different-device-configurations-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users
#2
Douglas P Sladen, Yingjiu Nie, Katelyn Berg
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate speech recognition in noise and listening effort among a group of adults with cochlear implants (CIs). Two main research questions were addressed. First, what are the effects of omni versus directional microphone configuration on speech recognition and listening effort for noisy conditions? Second, what is the effect of unilateral versus bimodal or bilateral CI listening on speech recognition and listening effort in noisy conditions? DESIGN: Sixteen adults (mean age 58 years) with CIs participated...
May 2018: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457336/high-school-biology-students-use-of-visual-molecular-dynamics-as-an-authentic-tool-for-learning-about-modeling-as-a-professional-scientific-practice
#3
Stephen R Burgin, Jennifer Oramous, Michael Kaminski, Linda Stocker, Mahmoud Moradi
Modeling is a practice of science that is underemphasized in biology classrooms in comparison to its central focus in the physical sciences. Visualizations of the submicroscopic world of molecules are becoming increasingly sophisticated with the evolution of new technologies. With this in mind, we introduced high school biology classrooms to a professional molecular modeling software program used by research biochemists to visualize proteins and other macromolecules. Analysis of surveys completed before and after the use of the program revealed significant student gains in their understandings of the nature of models...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456486/generic-hrtfs-may-be-good-enough-in-virtual-reality-improving-source-localization-through-cross-modal-plasticity
#4
Christopher C Berger, Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Dinei Florencio, Zhengyou Zhang
Auditory spatial localization in humans is performed using a combination of interaural time differences, interaural level differences, as well as spectral cues provided by the geometry of the ear. To render spatialized sounds within a virtual reality (VR) headset, either individualized or generic Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) are usually employed. The former require arduous calibrations, but enable accurate auditory source localization, which may lead to a heightened sense of presence within VR. The latter obviate the need for individualized calibrations, but result in less accurate auditory source localization...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456399/preprocedural-anxiety-and-pain-perception-following-root-surface-debridement-in-chronic-periodontitis-patients
#5
Vanaja Krishna Naik, Aruna Balasundaram, Devapriya Appukuttan, Deepavalli Arumuga Nainar, Michael Robert Milward, Dhayanand John Victor, Mohammed Junaid
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare preprocedural dental anxiety levels and postprocedural pain perception in chronic periodontitis patients during conventional-staged root surface debridement (RSD) and single-stage RSD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven adult generalized chronic periodontitis patients requiring RSD were recruited in this study. Preprocedural anxiety levels were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and postprocedural pain perceptions were assessed using 0-10 cm visual analog scale...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456307/awareness-knowledge-and-attitude-of-patients-toward-dental-implants-a-questionnaire-based-prospective-study
#6
Rajesh Hosadurga, Tenneti Shanti, Shashikanth Hegde, Rajesh Shankar Kashyap, Suryanarayan Maiya Arunkumar
Background: In developing nations like India awareness and education about dental implants as a treatment modality is still scanty. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of patients toward dental implants as a treatment modality among the general population and to assess the influence of personality characteristics on accepting dental implants as a treatment modality in general and as well as treatment group. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 500 randomly selected participants attending the outpatient department...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456139/selective-attention-gates-the-interactive-crossmodal-coupling-between-perceptual-systems
#7
Silvia Convento, Md Shoaibur Rahman, Jeffrey M Yau
Sensory cortical systems often activate in parallel, even when stimulation is experienced through a single sensory modality [1-3]. Co-activations may reflect the interactive coupling between information-linked cortical systems or merely parallel but independent sensory processing. We report causal evidence consistent with the hypothesis that human somatosensory cortex (S1), which co-activates with auditory cortex during the processing of vibrations and textures [4-9], interactively couples to cortical systems that support auditory perception...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455363/predicting-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-domain-adaptive-cross-site-evaluation
#8
Runa Bhaumik, Ashish Pradhan, Soptik Das, Dulal K Bhaumik
The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data sharing projects help us replicating the robustness of these biomarkers in different acquisition conditions or preprocessing steps across larger numbers of individuals or sites. It is necessary to validate the previous results by using data from multiple sites by diminishing the site variations. We investigated partial least square regression (PLS), a domain adaptive method to adjust the effects of multicenter acquisition...
February 17, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454507/pediatric-early-warning-score-systems-nurses-perspective-a-focus-group-study
#9
EDITORIAL
Claus Sixtus Jensen, Pia Bonde Nielsen, Hanne Vebert Olesen, Hans Kirkegaard, Hanne Aagaard
PURPOSE: Pediatric early warning score (PEWS) systems are used to monitor pediatric patients' vital signs and facilitate the treatment of patients at risk of deteriorating. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about nurses' experiences with PEWS and to highlight factors facilitating and impeding the use of PEWS tools in clinical practice. DESIGN AND METHODS: An exploratory qualitative design was chosen using focus group interviews to gain a deeper understanding of nurses' experiences with PEWS...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454335/earliella-scabrosa-associated-postoperative-endophthalmitis-after-phacoemulsification-with-intraocular-lens-implantation-a-case-report
#10
Hong He, Xiaolian Chen, Hongshan Liu, Jiaochan Wu, Xingwu Zhong
BACKGROUND: Postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is a severe eye infection that can lead to irreversible blindness in the affected eye. The characteristics, treatment and prognosis of this disease vary because of its association with different pathogens. Here, we report what is possibly the first case of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery to be associated with the rare pathogen Earliella scabrosa. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man from Hainan Island (China) with a history of phacoemulsification and type II diabetes mellitus underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation...
February 17, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454231/influence-of-heading-perception-in-the-control-of-posture
#11
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Monica Perazzolo, Salvatore Squatrito
The optic flow visual input directly influences the postural control. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between visually induced heading perception and postural stability, using optic flow stimulation. The dots were accelerated to simulate a heading direction to the left or to the right of the vertical midline. The participants were instructed to indicate the perceived optic flow direction by making a saccade to the simulated heading direction. We simultaneously acquired electromyographyc and center of pressure (COP) signals...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453957/automatic-detection-of-the-duration-of-visual-static-and-dynamic-stimuli
#12
Szonya Durant, István Sulykos, István Czigler
The perception of the passing of time is fundamental to conscious experience. The duration of a sensory stimulus is one of its defining attributes, but it is not clear how this is encoded in the brain. This work explores whether the duration of a visual stimulus is an attribute that the brain can automatically adapt to and use to predict future stimulus durations. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is an ERP component elicited, even when the stimuli are unattended, when an 'unexpected' visual stimulus appears amongst a series of expected stimuli in an 'oddball' paradigm...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453490/goal-directed-reaching-the-allocentric-coding-of-target-location-renders-an-offline-mode-of-control
#13
Joseph Manzone, Matthew Heath
Reaching to a veridical target permits an egocentric spatial code (i.e., absolute limb and target position) to effect fast and effective online trajectory corrections supported via the visuomotor networks of the dorsal visual pathway. In contrast, a response entailing decoupled spatial relations between stimulus and response is thought to be primarily mediated via an allocentric code (i.e., the position of a target relative to another external cue) laid down by the visuoperceptual networks of the ventral visual pathway...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453081/sluggish-dorsally-driven-inhibition-of-return-during-orthographic-processing-in-adults-with-dyslexia
#14
S Franceschini, S Mascheretti, S Bertoni, V Trezzi, C Andreola, S Gori, A Facoetti
Dyslexia (D) is a neurodevelopmental reading disorder characterized by phonological and orthographic deficits. Before phonological decoding, reading requires a specialized orthographic system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different spatial locations. The magnocellular-dorsal (MD) stream rapidly process the spatial location of visual stimuli controlling visuo-spatial attention. To investigate the visuo-spatial attention efficiency during orthographic processing, inhibition of return (IOR) was measured in adults with and without D in a lexical decision task...
February 13, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451990/intellectual-efficiency-in-children-and-adolescents-with-spina-bifida-myelomeningocele-and-shunted-hydrocephalus
#15
Francesca Burro, Armando Cama, Vicenza Lertora, Edvige Veneselli, Serena Rossetti, Lina Pezzuti
We studied the intellectual profiles of 13 Italian children diagnosed with spina bifida myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MMC HC) against a control group of children. The results showed that MMC HC group had lower performance in all subtests, four indices, and the FSIQ of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, forth-edition. The MMC HC group showed flat cognitive profiles between subtests within each index and between four core indices. However, the cognitive abilities that were mostly impaired seemed to be related to visual selective and focused attention, to visual acuity, to visuo-perceptive organization and visuomotor integration and to visual short-term memory...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451495/perceptually-aware-image-retargeting-for-mobile-devices
#16
Yinzuo Zhou, Luming Zhang, Chao Zhang, Ping Li, Xuelong Li
Retargeting aims at adapting an original high-resolution photograph/video to a low-resolution screen with an arbitrary aspect ratio. Conventional approaches are generally based on desktop PCs, since the computation might be intolerable for mobile platforms (especially when retargeting videos). Typically, only low-level visual features are exploited, and human visual perception is not well encoded. In this paper, we propose a novel retargeting framework that rapidly shrinks a photograph/video by leveraging human gaze behavior...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451169/patient-perception-and-preference-of-eus-guided-drainage-over-percutaneous-drainage-when-endoscopic-transpapillary-biliary-drainage-fails-an-international-multicenter-survey
#17
Kwangwoo Nam, Dong Uk Kim, Tae Hoon Lee, Takuji Iwashita, Yousuke Nakai, Ahmed Bolkhir, Lara Aguilera Castro, Enrique Vazquez-Sequeiros, Carlos de la Serna, Manuel Perez-Miranda, John G Lee, Sang Soo Lee, Dong-Wan Seo, Sung Koo Lee, Myung-Hwan Kim, Do Hyun Park
Background and Objectives: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is a feasible procedure when ERCP fails, as is percutaneous transhepatic BD (PTBD). However, little is known about patient perception and preference of EUS-BD and PTBD. Patients and Methods: An international multicenter survey was conducted in seven tertiary referral centers. In total, 327 patients, scheduled to undergo ERCP for suspected malignant biliary obstruction, were enrolled in the study. Patients received decision aids with visual representation regarding the techniques, benefits, and adverse events (AEs) of EUS-BD and PTBD...
January 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451074/negative-emotional-face-perception-is-diminished-on-a-very-early-level-of-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Anna Lorenzen, Fabian Grabe, Lioba Baving
Deficits in facial affect recognition (FAR) are often reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) due to inappropriate visual search strategies. It is unclear, however, whether or not deficits in subliminal FAR are still present in autism when visual focus is controlled. Thirteen persons with ASD and 13 healthy participants took part in this experiment. Supraliminal FAR was assessed using a standardized, computer-aided test. Subliminal FAR was obtained by an emotional face priming paradigm. By using an eye-tracking technique, it was assured that the initial visual focus was on the eyes of the prime...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450832/perceptual-modification-of-the-built-environment-to-influence-behavior-associated-with-physical-activity-quasi-experimental-field-studies-of-a-stair-banister-illusion
#19
Rich Masters, Catherine Capio, Jamie Poolton, Liis Uiga
BACKGROUND: Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs...
February 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450542/optical-properties-influence-visual-cortical-functional-resolution-after-cataract-surgery-and-both-dissociate-from-subjectively-perceived-quality-of-vision
#20
Ângela Sofia Cardoso Miranda, Andreia de Faria Martins Rosa, Miguel José Patrício Dias, Ben M Harvey, Maria Fátima Loureiro da Silva, Miguel de Sá E Sousa Castelo-Branco, Joaquim Carlos Neto Murta
Purpose: To investigate the relation between optical properties, population receptive fields (pRFs), visual function, and subjectively perceived quality of vision after cataract surgery. Methods: The study includes 30 patients who had recently undergone bilateral sequential cataract surgery. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and pRF modelling methods to assess pRF sizes across visual cortical regions (V1-V3). Subjects also performed a complete ophthalmologic and psychophysical examination and answered a quality of vision questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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