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Visual perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906070/subretinal-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-implantation-in-advanced-stage-retinitis-pigmentosa-a-phase-i-clinical-safety-study
#1
Ayse Oner, Z Burcin Gonen, Neslihan Sinim, Mustafa Cetin, Yusuf Ozkul
BACKGROUND: This prospective clinical case series aimed to investigate the safety of subretinal adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) implantation in advanced stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: This study included 11 patients with end-stage RP who received subretinal implantation of ADMSCs. All patients had a total visual field defect and five of them only had light perception. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the study was 20/2000...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905070/visual-speech-influences-speech-perception-immediately-but-not-automatically
#2
Holger Mitterer, Eva Reinisch
Two experiments examined the time course of the use of auditory and visual speech cues to spoken word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. Results of the first experiment showed that the use of visual speech cues from lipreading is reduced if concurrently presented pictures require a division of attentional resources. This reduction was evident even when listeners' eye gaze was on the speaker rather than the (static) pictures. Experiment 2 used a deictic hand gesture to foster attention to the speaker...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904513/relationship-between-visual-status-and-functional-status-and-the-risk-of-falls-in-women-the-rac-ost-pol-study
#3
Wojciech Rokicki, Bogna Drozdzowska, Aleksandra Czekajło, Władysław Grzeszczak, Katarzyna Wiktor, Wojciech Majewski, Wojciech Pluskiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Falls in elderly women producing fractures are a public health problem that could be largely preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of visual impairment on functional status, falls and fractures in women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 623 women aged ≥ 55 years in order to assess the association between visual status and functional status and the risk of falls and fractures. Distance, near visual acuity, and depth perception were examined...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903922/facilitating-effects-of-emotion-on-the-perception-of-biological-motion-evidence-for-a-happiness-superiority-effect
#4
Hannah Lee, Jejoong Kim
It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect...
November 29, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903005/vanishing-point-attracts-gaze-in-free-viewing-and-visual-search-tasks
#5
Ali Borji, Mengyang Feng, Huchuan Lu
Several structural scene cues such as gist, layout, horizontal line, openness, and depth have been shown to guide scene perception (e.g., Oliva & Torralba, 2001); Ross & Oliva, 2009). Here, to investigate whether vanishing point (VP) plays a significant role in gaze guidance, we ran two experiments. In the first one, we recorded fixations of 10 observers (six male, four female; mean age 22; SD = 0.84) freely viewing 532 images, out of which 319 had a VP (shuffled presentation; each image for 4 s). We found that the average number of fixations at a local region (80 × 80 pixels) centered at the VP is significantly higher than the average fixations at random locations (t test; n = 319; p < 0...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#6
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902677/perception-of-fechner-illusory-colors-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#7
Gintaras Kaubrys, Vera Bukina, Ieva Bingelytė, Vladas Taluntis
BACKGROUND Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects cognition. A variety of visual disorders was established in AD. Fechner illusory colors are produced by a rotating disk with a black and white pattern. The purpose of our research was to explore the perception of illusory colors in AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS W recruited 40 AD patients (MMSE ≥14) and 40 normal controls (CG group) matched by age, education, gender in this prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. An achromatic Benham's disk attached to a device to control the speed and direction of rotation was used to produce illusory colors...
November 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901334/differential-efficacy-of-methylcobalamin-and-alpha-lipoic-acid-treatment-on-negative-and-positive-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#8
Yajuan Han, Min Wang, Jie Shen, Zhen Zhang, Min Zhao, Jing Huang, Youming Chen, Zhi Chen, Yulan Hu, Yubing Wang
BACKGROUND: Diabetic hyperglycemia damages peripheral nerves by triggering ischemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and methylcobalamin (MC) are known to improve signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), possibly by enhancing neural and vascular endothelial cell metabolism and antioxidant capacity. We evaluated differences in efficacy following short-term MC or ALA treatment on DPN symptoms to guide clinical drug selection. METHODS: Forty DPN patients were randomly divided into MC and ALA treatment groups (n=20/20) and assessed by the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System (TCSS), total symptom score (TSS), visual analog scale (VAS) of positive symptoms, and easy sensory test (EST) for negative symptoms before and after 2 weeks of treatment...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901230/esthetic-perception-of-orthodontic-appliances-by-brazilian-children-and-adolescents
#9
Deise Caldas Kuhlman, Tatiana Araújo de Lima, Candice Belchior Duplat, Jonas Capelli
Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale...
September 2016: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901026/perceptual-training-yields-rapid-improvements-in-visually-impaired-youth
#10
Jeffrey B Nyquist, Joseph S Lappin, Ruyuan Zhang, Duje Tadin
Visual function demands coordinated responses to information over a wide field of view, involving both central and peripheral vision. Visually impaired individuals often seem to underutilize peripheral vision, even in absence of obvious peripheral deficits. Motivated by perceptual training studies with typically sighted adults, we examined the effectiveness of perceptual training in improving peripheral perception of visually impaired youth. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of three training regimens: (1) an action video game, (2) a psychophysical task that combined attentional tracking with a spatially and temporally unpredictable motion discrimination task, and (3) a control video game...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900816/sensorimotor-and-visual-perceptual-functioning-in-school-aged-children-with-williams-syndrome
#11
Y-P Wuang, H-Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to describe sensorimotor profile and visual perceptual performance in school-aged (6-12 years) children with Williams syndrome (WS). The impacts of sensorimotor and visual perception on participation in WS were examined as well to guide research and evidence-based practices. METHODS: A total of 38 children with WS aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated with measures of motor performance (Bruininks-Oseretsky of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition), sensory processing (Sensory Profile), visual perceptual abilities (Test of Visual Perception Skills-Third Edition) and activity participation (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, School Function Assessment)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900725/binocularity-and-visual-search-revisited
#12
Bochao Zou, Igor S Utochkin, Yue Liu, Jeremy M Wolfe
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of visual competition in which perception alternates between two monocular images. When two eye's images only differ in luminance, observers may perceive shininess, a form of rivalry called binocular luster. Does dichoptic information guide attention in visual search? Wolfe and Franzel (Perception & Psychophysics, 44(1), 81-93, 1988) reported that rivalry could guide attention only weakly, but that luster (shininess) "popped out," producing very shallow Reaction Time (RT) × Set Size functions...
November 29, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#13
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900241/changes-in-the-salivary-oxidative-status-in-individuals-with-temporomandibular-disorders-and-pain
#14
Claudyane de Almeida, José Miguel Amenábar
Temporomandibular joint disorders are quite common among the general public. Free radicals may play a role in the pathogenesis of joint diseases, and the oxidative stress is an important aspect in the mechanism of TMDs. The use of new biotechnologies has enabled the use of saliva as a diagnostic method. This is the first paper that aims to investigate changes in the oxidative status, through saliva analysis, in individuals who suffer from temporomandibular disorder and pain. Sixty individuals, 54 women and 06 men, aged between 10 and 60, participated in this research...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900092/primary-orbital-precursor-t-cell-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-report-of-a-unique-case
#15
Lisa Stenman, Marta Persson, Fredrik Enlund, Erik Clasen-Linde, Göran Stenman, Steffen Heegaard
Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in the eye region is very rare. The present study described a unique case of T-LBL involving the extraocular muscles. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of headache, reduced visual acuity and edema of the left eye. Clinical examination revealed left-sided exophthalmus, periorbital edema, chemosis, and reduced motility of the left eye. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed thickening of the left orbital muscles and a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan also demonstrated activity in a subclavicular lymph node...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899837/the-use-of-animated-videos-to-illustrate-oral-solid-dosage-form-manufacturing-in-a-pharmaceutics-course
#16
Venkata Kashyap Yellepeddi, Charles Roberson
Objective. To evaluate the impact of animated videos of oral solid dosage form manufacturing as visual instructional aids on pharmacy students' perception and learning. Design. Data were obtained using a validated, paper-based survey instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of the animated videos in a pharmaceutics course offered in spring 2014 and 2015. Basic demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Assessment data at the end of pharmaceutics course was collected for 2013 and compared with assessment data from 2014, and 2015...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899123/a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation-of-visual-hallucinations-in-the-human-striate-cortex
#17
Hina Abid, Fayyaz Ahmad, Soo Y Lee, Hyun W Park, Dongmi Im, Iftikhar Ahmad, Safee U Chaudhary
PURPOSE: Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins. METHODS: An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual cortical areas including the striate, parastriate and peristriate cortex in the occipital lobe of the human brain...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899086/closantel-a-veterinary-drug-with-potential-severe-morbidity-in-humans
#18
Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Mohammad Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Mansouri, Ahmad Mirshahi, Bahman Inanlou, Mojtaba Abrishami, Ahmad Reza Pakrah, Hamideh Masarat
BACKGROUND: Closantel is a halogenated salicylanilide with a potent anti parasitic activity. It is widely used in management of parasitic infestation in animals, but is contraindicated in humans. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old man with depression was referred to our center with progressive loss of vision in both eyes 10 days after unintentional ingestion of three 500 mg tablets of Closantel. On fundus examination, left optic disc margin was blurred. His bilateral visual acuity was no light perception (NLP) despite prescribed IV erythropoietin injections 20,000 units daily for 3 days and 1gr intravenous methylprednisolone acetate for 3 days followed by 1 mg/kg oral prednisolone...
November 29, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898029/data-driven-multiresolution-camera-using-the-foveal-adaptive-pyramid
#19
Martin González, Antonio Sánchez-Pedraza, Rebeca Marfil, Juan A Rodríguez, Antonio Bandera
There exist image processing applications, such as tracking or pattern recognition, that are not necessarily precise enough to maintain the same resolution across the whole image sensor. In fact, they must only keep it as high as possible in a relatively small region, but covering a wide field of view. This is the aim of foveal vision systems. Briefly, they propose to sense a large field of view at a spatially-variant resolution: one relatively small region, the fovea, is mapped at a high resolution, while the rest of the image is captured at a lower resolution...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896709/learned-value-and-object-perception-accelerated-perception-or-biased-decisions
#20
Jason Rajsic, Harendri Perera, Jay Pratt
Learned value is known to bias visual search toward valued stimuli. However, some uncertainty exists regarding the stage of visual processing that is modulated by learned value. Here, we directly tested the effect of learned value on preattentive processing using temporal order judgments. Across four experiments, we imbued some stimuli with high value and some with low value, using a nonmonetary reward task. In Experiment 1, we replicated the value-driven distraction effect, validating our nonmonetary reward task...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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