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Visual perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220312/-l_-0-regularized-image-downscaling
#1
Junjie Liu, Shengfeng He, Rynson W H Lau
In this paper, we propose a novel -regularized optimization framework for image downscaling. The optimization is driven by two -regularized priors. The first prior, gradient-ratio prior, is based on the observation that the number of edges in the downscaled image is approximately inverse square proportional to the downscaling factor. By introducing norm sparsity to the gradient ratio, the downscaled image is able to preserve the most salient edges as well as the visual perception of the original image. The second prior, downsampling prior, is to constrain the downsampling matrix so that pixels of the downscaled image are estimated according to those optimal neighboring pixels...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219953/specific-retinal-phenotype-in-early-iqcb1-related-disease
#2
A Vincent, A AlAli, H MacDonald, C VandenHoven, E Héon
PurposeTo describe the ocular and systemic phenotype in IQCB1-related disease.MethodsFour cases (3 males, 1 female) with molecularly confirmed IQCB1-related disease underwent ophthalmological examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, fundus evaluation, electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation including abdominal ultrasound was performed in all cases.ResultsBCVA ranged from perception of light (Case-2; 1 year) to 20/125 (Case-1; 9 years)...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219748/symmetric-objects-become-special-in-perception-because-of-generic-computations-in-neurons
#3
R T Pramod, S P Arun
Symmetry is a salient visual property: It is easy to detect and influences perceptual phenomena from segmentation to recognition. Yet researchers know little about its neural basis. Using recordings from single neurons in monkey IT cortex, we asked whether symmetry-being an emergent property-induces nonlinear interactions between object parts. Remarkably, we found no such deviation: Whole-object responses were always the sum of responses to the object's parts, regardless of symmetry. The only defining characteristic of symmetric objects was that they were more distinctive compared with asymmetric objects...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219185/the-development-and-validation-of-the-speech-quality-instrument
#4
Stephanie Y Chen, Brianna M Griffin, Dean Mancuso, Stephanie Shiau, Michelle DiMattia, Ilana Cellum, Kelly Harvey Boyd, Charlotte Prevoteau, Gavriel D Kohlberg, Jaclyn B Spitzer, Anil K Lalwani
OBJECTIVE: Although speech perception tests are available to evaluate hearing, there is no standardized validated tool to quantify speech quality. The objective of this study is to develop a validated tool to measure quality of speech heard. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective instrument validation study of 35 normal hearing adults recruited at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Participants listened to 44 speech clips of male/female voices reciting the Rainbow Passage...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219173/parenting-stress-anxiety-and-depression-in-mothers-with-visually-impaired-infants-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cohort-analysis
#5
Elena Sakkalou, Hanna Sakki, Michelle A O'reilly, Alison T Salt, Naomi J Dale
AIM: This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of parenting stress, adult anxiety, and depression in mothers of children with profound or severe visual impairment (PVI or SVI) at 1 year and 2 years of age. METHOD: Mothers of a national longitudinal cohort (OPTIMUM Project) of infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and PVI (light perception at best) or SVI (basic 'form' vision of non-light reflecting objects) participated...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217949/the-effect-of-psychosocial-factors-and-patients-perception-of-tuberculosis-treatment-non-adherence-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#6
Habteyes Hailu Tola, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Davoud Shojaeizadeh, Azar Tol, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Luche Tadesse Ejeta, Abebaw Kebede, Desta Kassa
Background: Although there are several studies reported on factors affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment non-adherence, there is information gap on psychosocial and patients' perceptions aspects. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perceptions on TB treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Thirty one health facilities were randomly selected and 698 TB patients, who had been on treatment, were enrolled consecutively using patient registration number...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217945/a-3-year-review-of-the-outcome-of-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-dropped-lens-fragments-after-cataract-surgery-in-a-tertiary-eye-hospital-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#7
Lateefat Olokoba, Tajul Islam, Nazmun Nahar, Abdulraheem Mahmoud, Abdulfatai Olokoba
Background: Dropped lens fragments into the vitreous are uncommon, but potentially sight threatening complications of cataract surgery. The recommended approach for removal of dropped lens matter is pars plana vitrectomy with or without ultrasonic emulsification with the fragmatome. This study aimed to determine the visual outcome following pars plana vitrectomy for dropped lens fragments complicating cataract surgery at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of patients who had PPV as treatment for dropped lens fragments complicating cataract surgery at Ispahani Islamia Eye hospital and Institute...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217025/correlation-of-novel-pax6-gene-abnormalities-in-aniridia-and-clinical-presentation
#8
Naif S Sannan, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans, Christopher J Lyons, Anna M Lehman, Sylvie Langlois, Simon J Warner, Helen Zakrzewski, Kevin Gregory-Evans
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and genotype of subjects with aniridia with a particular focus on foveal hypoplasia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three Canadian participants with aniridia and of various ethnic backgrounds residing in British Columbia. METHODS: Full ophthalmic examinations and posterior segment spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging were performed...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216730/the-influence-of-cranio-cervical-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-myofascial-temporomandibular-pain-disorders
#9
K Halmova, D Holly, P Stanko
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to prove the causality between the craniocervical dysfunction and myofascial pain in the head and neck and to demonstrate the clinical value and usefulness of physiotherapy as one of the therapeutic options for myofascial pain. METHODS: The group of patients diagnosed with myofascial dysfunctional pain syndrome contained 98 patients out of which 79 patients (81 %) were females and 19 patients (19 %) were males. The majority of the patients were aged between 26 and 35 years; the total age range was 14-77 years with the average of 38 years...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216307/audio-motor-but-not-visuo-motor-temporal-recalibration-speeds-up-sensory-processing
#10
Yoshimori Sugano, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen
Perception of synchrony between one's own action (a finger tap) and the sensory feedback thereof (a visual flash or an auditory pip) can be recalibrated after exposure to an artificially inserted delay between them (temporal recalibration effect: TRE). TRE might be mediated by a compensatory shift of motor timing (when did I tap?) and/or the sensory timing of the feedback (when did I hear/see the feedback?). To examine this, we asked participants to voluntarily tap their index finger at a constant pace while receiving visual or auditory feedback (a flash or pip) that was either synced or somewhat delayed relative to the tap...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216195/reduced-visual-attention-in-heterogeneous-textures-is-reflected-in-occipital-alpha-and-theta-band-activity
#11
Tobias Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Makoto Miyakoshi, Marco Alessandro Petilli, Anna Schubö, Scott Makeig
Increasing context heterogeneity has been found to reduce attention deployment towards an embedded target item. Heterogeneity in visual search tasks is typically induced by segmenting the background into several perceptual groups. In the present study, however, context heterogeneity was induced by varying whole-field heterogeneity, i.e., the degree of distractor variability within the entire context. This allowed us to (i) more gradually vary context heterogeneity, and (ii) investigate attention deployment on a whole-field scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214740/a-prospective-multicentre-randomized-placebo-controlled-superiority-trial-in-patients-with-suspected-bacterial-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery-on-the-adjuvant-use-of-intravitreal-dexamethasone-to-intravitreal-antibiotics
#12
Sonia Manning, Luana C Ugahary, Eric W Lindstedt, René J Wubbels, Jaap T van Dissel, Jan T G Jansen, Ivan Gan, Arnoud T van Goor, Carlien A Bennebroek, Dymph J van der Werf, Annette Ossewaarde-van Norel, Chris C Mayland Nielsen, Mauk Tilanus, Pieter R van den Biesen, Peter A Schellekens, Ellen La Heij, Koorosh Faridpooya, Koen van Overdam, Marc Veckeneer, Jan C van Meurs
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether intravitreal dexamethasone as an adjuvant to intravitreal antibiotics is beneficial in the treatment of suspected bacterial endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled superiority trial in three tertiary referral centres in the Netherlands. Patients with suspected bacterial endophthalmitis within 6 weeks after cataract surgery were eligible. A diagnostic vitreous biopsy was taken for culture, and patients received intravitreal injections of 400 μg dexamethasone (without preservatives) or placebo, in addition to 0...
December 7, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214731/perception-of-human-interaction-based-on-motion-trajectories-from-aerial-videos-to-decontextualized-animations
#13
Tianmin Shu, Yujia Peng, Lifeng Fan, Hongjing Lu, Song-Chun Zhu
People are adept at perceiving interactions from movements of simple shapes, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have often used object movements defined by experimenters. The present study used aerial videos recorded by drones in a real-life environment to generate decontextualized motion stimuli. Motion trajectories of displayed elements were the only visual input. We measured human judgments of interactiveness between two moving elements and the dynamic change in such judgments over time...
December 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214728/disruption-of-network-for-visual-perception-of-natural-motion-in-primary-dystonia
#14
Koji Fujita, Wataru Sako, An Vo, Susan B Bressman, David Eidelberg
In healthy subjects, brain activation in motor regions is greater during the visual perception of "natural" target motion, which complies with the two-thirds power law, than of "unnatural" motion, which does not. It is unknown whether motion perception is normally mediated by a specific network that can be altered in the setting of disease. We used block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging and covariance analysis to identify normal network topographies activated in response to "natural" versus "unnatural" motion...
December 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213179/on-the-role-of-body-size-brain-size-and-eye-size-in-visual-acuity
#15
Alberto Corral-López, Maddi Garate-Olaizola, Severine D Buechel, Niclas Kolm, Alexander Kotrschal
Abstract: The visual system is highly variable across species, and such variability is a key factor influencing animal behavior. Variation in the visual system, for instance, can influence the outcome of learning tasks when visual stimuli are used. We illustrate this issue in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size with pronounced behavioral differences in learning experiments and mate choice tests. We performed a study of the visual system by quantifying eye size and optomotor response of large-brained and small-brained guppies...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213104/musical-imagery-involves-wernicke-s-area-in-bilateral-and-anti-correlated-network-interactions-in-musicians
#16
Yizhen Zhang, Gang Chen, Haiguang Wen, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu
Musical imagery is the human experience of imagining music without actually hearing it. The neural basis of this mental ability is unclear, especially for musicians capable of engaging in accurate and vivid musical imagery. Here, we created a visualization of an 8-minute symphony as a silent movie and used it as real-time cue for musicians to continuously imagine the music for repeated and synchronized sessions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The activations and networks evoked by musical imagery were compared with those elicited by the subjects directly listening to the same music...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213067/not-all-observed-actions-are-perceived-equally
#17
Artem Platonov, Guy A Orban
Action observation is the visual process analyzing the actions of others to determine their goals and how the actor's body (part) movements permit attaining those goals. Our recent psychophysical study demonstrated that 1) observed action (OA) perception differs from shape perception in viewpoint and duration dependence, and 2) accuracy and reaction times of OA discrimination are fitted by the proportional-rate diffusion model whereby a sensory stage provides noisy evidence that is accumulated up to a criterion or bound by a decision stage...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213057/a-catch-up-illusion-arising-from-a-distance-dependent-perception-bias-in-judging-relative-movement
#18
Tobias Meilinger, Bärbel Garsoffky, Stephan Schwan
The perception of relative target movement from a dynamic observer is an unexamined psychological three body problem. To test the applicability of explanations for two moving bodies participants repeatedly judged the relative movements of two runners chasing each other in video clips displayed on a stationary screen. The chased person always ran at 3 m/s with an observer camera following or leading at 4.5, 3, 1.5 or 0 m/s. We harmonized the chaser speed in an adaptive staircase to determine the point of subjective equal movement speed between runners and observed (i) an underestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved towards the viewer, and (ii) an overestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved away from the viewer, leading to a catch-up illusion in case of equidistant runners...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210809/evaluation-and-refinement-of-a-handheld-health-information-technology-tool-to-support-the-timely-update-of-bedside-visual-cues-to-prevent-falls-in-hospitals
#19
Ruth C-A Teh, Renuka Visvanathan, Damith Ranasinghe, Anne Wilson
AIM: To evaluate clinicians' perspectives, before and after clinical implementation (i.e. trial) of a handheld health information technology (HIT) tool, incorporating an iPad device and automatically generated visual cues for bedside display, for falls risk assessment and prevention in hospital. METHODS: This pilot study utilized mixed-methods research with focus group discussions and Likert-scale surveys to elicit clinicians' attitudes. The study was conducted across three phases within two medical wards of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209377/pain-in-patients-with-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa-association-with-anxiety-and-depression
#20
Giulio Fortuna, Massimo Aria, Rodrigo Cepeda-Valdes, Maria Guadalupe Moreno Trevino, Julio Cesar Salas-Alanís
Objective: We investigate the presence and the quality of pain in patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB), and its correlation with the level of anxiety and depression. Methods: We collected data from 27 DEB patients and 26 healthy individuals. DEB patients and controls completed 1 scale for the quality of pain, and 1 scale for anxiety and depression. Pain was assessed with the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, whereas anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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