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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#1
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334302/olfaction-warps-visual-time-perception
#2
Bin Zhou, Guo Feng, Wei Chen, Wen Zhou
Our perception of the world builds upon dynamic inputs from multiple senses with different temporal resolutions, and is threaded with the passing of subjective time. How time is extracted from multisensory inputs is scantly known. Utilizing psychophysical testing and electroencephalography, we show in healthy human adults that odors modulate object visibility around critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF)-the limit at which chromatic flickers become perceived as a stable color-and effectively alter CFF in a congruency-based manner, despite that they afford no clear environmental temporal information...
March 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#3
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334175/attenuated-fast-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-human-sleep
#4
Omer Sharon, Yuval Nir
During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude "K-complex" responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333632/enhanced-just-noticeable-difference-model-for-images-with-pattern-complexity
#5
Jinjian Wu, Leida Li, Weisheng Dong, Guangming Shi, Weisi Lin, C-C Jay Kuo
The just noticeable difference (JND) in an image, which reveals the visibility limitation of the human visual system (HVS), is widely used for visual redundancy estimation in signal processing. To determine the JND threshold with the current schemes, the spatial masking effect is estimated as the contrast masking, and this cannot accurately account for the complicated interaction among visual contents. Research on cognitive science indicates that the HVS is highly adapted to extract the repeated patterns for visual content representation...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333509/how-perception-guides-action-figure-ground-segmentation-modulates-integration-of-context-features-into-s-r-episodes
#6
Christian Frings, Klaus Rothermund
Perception and action are closely related. Responses are assumed to be represented in terms of their perceptual effects, allowing direct links between action and perception. In this regard, the integration of features of stimuli (S) and responses (R) into S-R bindings is a key mechanism for action control. Previous research focused on the integration of object features with response features while neglecting the context in which an object is perceived. In 3 experiments, we analyzed whether contextual features can also become integrated into S-R episodes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333493/bayesian-approaches-to-autism-towards-volatility-action-and-behavior
#7
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Jakob Hohwy
Autism spectrum disorder currently lacks an explanation that bridges cognitive, computational, and neural domains. In the past 5 years, progress has been sought in this area by drawing on Bayesian probability theory to describe both social and nonsocial aspects of autism in terms of systematic differences in the processing of sensory information in the brain. The present article begins by synthesizing the existing literature in this regard, including an introduction to the topic for unfamiliar readers. The key proposal is that autism is characterized by a greater weighting of sensory information in updating probabilistic representations of the environment...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332919/the-attention-window-a-narrative-review-of-limitations-and-opportunities-influencing-the-focus-of-attention
#8
Stefanie Hüttermann, Daniel Memmert
PURPOSE: Visual attention is essential in many areas ranging from everyday life situations to the workplace. Different circumstances such as driving in traffic or participating in sports require immediate adaptation to constantly changing situations and frequently the conscious perception of 2 objects or scenes at the same time. METHOD: The attention window task, a measure of attentional breadth, in which people must attend to 2 equally attention-demanding stimuli simultaneously, was introduced...
March 23, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332557/differential-effects-of-face-realism-and-emotion-on-event-related-brain-potentials-and-their-implications-for-the-uncanny-valley-theory
#9
Sebastian Schindler, Eduard Zell, Mario Botsch, Johanna Kissler
Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the "uncanny valley" effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331120/color-functionality-used-in-visual-display-for-occupational-and-environmental-safety-and-managing-color-vision-deficiency
#10
Nobuhisa Ochiai, Hiroyuki Kondo
The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330878/linear-summation-of-repulsive-and-attractive-serial-dependencies-orientation-and-motion-dependencies-sum-in-motion-perception
#11
David Alais, Johahn Leung, Erik Van der Burg
Recent work from several groups has shown that perception of various visual attributes in human observers at a given moment is biased towards what was recently seen. This positive serial dependency is a kind of temporal averaging which exploits short-term correlations in visual scenes to reduce noise and stabilise perception. To date this stabilising 'continuity field' has been demonstrated on stable visual attributes such as orientation and face identity, yet it would be counterproductive to apply it to dynamic attributes where change sensitivity is needed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330382/algorithm-based-motion-magnification-for-video-processing-in-urological-laparoscopy
#12
Fabian Adams, Reto Schoelly, Daniel Schlager, Martin Schoenthaler, Dominik Stefan Schoeb, Konrad Wilhelm, Simon Hein, Ulrich Wetterauer, Arkadiusz Miernik
PURPOSE: Minimally invasive surgery is in constant further development and has replaced many conventional operative procedures. If vascular structure movement could be detected during these procedures, it could reduce the risk of vascular injury and conversion to open surgery. The recently proposed motion-amplifying algorithm Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM) has been shown to substantially enhance minimal object changes in digitally recorded video that is barely perceptible to the human eye...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329868/the-roles-for-prior-visual-experience-and-age-on-the-extraction-of-egocentric-distance
#13
Courtney P Wallin, Daniel A Gajewski, Rebeca W Teplitz, Sandra Mihelic Jaidzeka, John W Philbeck
Objectives: In a well-lit room, observers can generate well-constrained estimates of the distance to an object on the floor even with just a fleeting glimpse. Performance under these conditions is typically characterized by some underestimation but improves when observers have previewed the room. Such evidence suggests that information extracted from longer durations may be stored to contribute to the perception of distance at limited time frames. Here, we examined the possibility that this stored information is used differentially across age...
July 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329252/clinical-outcomes-of-cervical-laminoplasty-results-at-two-years
#14
Melissa M Stamates, Michael X Cui, Ben Z Roitberg
BACKGROUND: Laminoplasty is an established treatment for cervical myelopathy. Multiple variations have emerged, many advocating the use of allograft, but controversy persists. OBJECTIVE: To assess medium-term clinical outcomes in patients who underwent laminoplasty with autograft at our institution. METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 male, 13 female, average age 66 yr) from our prospective outcome registry that underwent cervical laminoplasty between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed...
December 15, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327354/the-neural-correlates-of-vertical-disparity-gradient-and-cue-conflict-in-panum-s-limiting-case
#15
Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Laipeng Jin, Dongchuan Yu
Although Panum's limiting case has been extensively researched, only recently has it been discovered that in addition to horizontal disparity, the final perception of depth is influenced by (i) the vertical disparity gradient and (ii) the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. The present study examines the neural correlates of the two factors, using EEG while observers viewed several versions of stereoscopic stimuli, which depicted Panum's limiting case. In these patterns the vertical disparity gradient was varied from 0...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327351/parkinson-s-patients-can-rely-on-perspective-cues-to-perceive-3d-space
#16
Alexandra Séverac Cauquil, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Vincent Jardiné, Monique Galitzky, Maxime Rosito, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Simona Celebrini
3D perception, which is necessary for an optimal navigation in our environment, relies on 2 complementary kinds of cues; binocular cues allowing precise depth localization near the point of visual interest and monocular ones that are necessary for correct global perception of visual space. Recent studies described deficient binocular 3D vision in PD patients; here we tested 3D vision in PD patients when based on monocular cues (m3D). Sixteen PD patients and 16 controls had to categorize visual stimuli as perceived in 2D (flat) or 3D (with depth)...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327110/an-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-child-oral-health-in-indonesia-and-associations-with-self-esteem-school-performance-and-perceived-employability
#17
Diah Ayu Maharani, Melissa Adiatman, Anton Rahardjo, Girvan Burnside, Cynthia Pine
BACKGROUND: Previous surveys have indicated that a majority of Indonesian children have poor oral health. However, little detailed information is available on underlying causation and none that examine impacts of oral health on child self-esteem, school performance and perceived employability. The aim of this study was to determine levels of child oral health in primary school children in Indonesia, the prevalence of key causal factors; and, to determine relationships between oral health, self-esteem and school academic performance...
March 21, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326995/multipic-a-standardized-set-of-750-drawings-with-norms-for-six-european-languages
#18
Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Davide Crepaldi, Antje S Meyer, Boris New, Christos Pliatsikas, Eva Smolka, Marc Brysbaert
Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326888/peripersonal-versus-extrapersonal-visual-scene-information-for-egocentric-direction-and-position-perception
#19
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
When perceiving the visual environment, people simultaneously perceive their own direction and position in the environment (i.e., egocentric spatial perception). This study investigated what visual information in a scene is necessary for egocentric spatial perceptions. In two perception tasks (the egocentric direction and position perception tasks), observers viewed two static road images presented sequentially. In Experiment 1, the critical manipulation involved an occluded region in the road image; an extrapersonal region (far-occlusion) and a peripersonal region (near-occlusion)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326440/effects-of-visual-motion-consistent-or-inconsistent-with-gravity-on-postural-sway
#20
Priscilla Balestrucci, Elena Daprati, Francesco Lacquaniti, Vincenzo Maffei
Vision plays an important role in postural control, and visual perception of the gravity-defined vertical helps maintaining upright stance. In addition, the influence of the gravity field on objects' motion is known to provide a reference for motor and non-motor behavior. However, the role of dynamic visual cues related to gravity in the control of postural balance has been little investigated. In order to understand whether visual cues about gravitational acceleration are relevant for postural control, we assessed the relation between postural sway and visual motion congruent or incongruent with gravity acceleration...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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