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Visual perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666760/barefoot-running-does-not-affect-simple-reaction-time-an-exploratory-study
#1
Nicholas J Snow, Jason F L Blair, Graham Z MacDonald, Jeannette M Byrne, Fabien A Basset
Background: Converging evidence comparing barefoot (BF) and shod (SH) running highlights differences in foot-strike patterns and somatosensory feedback, among others. Anecdotal evidence from SH runners attempting BF running suggests a greater attentional demand may be experienced during BF running. However, little work to date has examined whether there is an attentional cost of BF versus SH running. Objective: This exploratory study aimed to examine whether an acute bout of BF running would impact simple reaction time (SRT) compared to SH running, in a sample of runners naïve to BF running...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666361/proscription-supports-robust-perceptual-integration-by-suppression-in-human-visual-cortex
#2
Reuben Rideaux, Andrew E Welchman
Perception relies on integrating information within and between the senses, but how does the brain decide which pieces of information should be integrated and which kept separate? Here we demonstrate how proscription can be used to solve this problem: certain neurons respond best to unrealistic combinations of features to provide 'what not' information that drives suppression of unlikely perceptual interpretations. First, we present a model that captures both improved perception when signals are consistent (and thus should be integrated) and robust estimation when signals are conflicting...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664952/the-effect-of-mood-state-on-visual-search-times-for-detecting-a-target-in-noise-an-application-of-smartphone-technology
#3
Toru Maekawa, Stephen J Anderson, Matthew de Brecht, Noriko Yamagishi
The study of visual perception has largely been completed without regard to the influence that an individual's emotional status may have on their performance in visual tasks. However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that mood may affect not only creative abilities and interpersonal skills but also the capacity to perform low-level cognitive tasks. Here, we sought to determine whether rudimentary visual search processes are similarly affected by emotion. Specifically, we examined whether an individual's perceived happiness level affects their ability to detect a target in noise...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664921/predictors-of-vision-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Bernardo Sanchez-Dalmau, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irati Zubizarreta, Sara Llufriu, Yolanda Blanco, Nuria Sola-Valls, Maria Sepulveda, Ana Guerrero, Salut Alba, Magi Andorra, Anna Camos, Laura Sanchez-Vela, Veronica Alfonso, Albert Saiz, Pablo Villoslada
Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663306/tactile-stimulation-disambiguates-the-perception-of-visual-motion-paths
#5
Hauke S Meyerhoff, Simon Merz, Christian Frings
Although visual perception traditionally has been considered to be impenetrable by non-visual information, there are a rising number of reports discussing cross-modal influences on visual perception. In two experiments, we investigated how coinciding vibrotactile stimulation affects the perception of two discs that move toward each other, superimpose in the center of the screen, and then move apart. Whereas two discs streaming past each other was the dominant impression when the visual event was presented in isolation, a brief coinciding vibrotactile stimulation at the moment of overlap biased the visual impression toward two discs bouncing off each other (Experiment 1)...
April 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663130/differences-in-modal-distortion-in-time-perception-due-to-working-memory-capacity-a-response-with-a-developmental-study-in-children-and-adults
#6
Sylvie Droit-Volet, Quentin Hallez
This study tested the modality effect on time judgment in a bisection task in children and adults when auditory and visual stimuli were presented in the same session. Cognitive capacities of children and adults were assessed with different neuropsychological tests. The results showed a modality effect, with the auditory stimuli judged longer than the visual stimuli. However, this modality distortion in time judgment was higher in the younger children. Statistical analyses revealed that the size of this time distortion was directly related to individual working memory capacities...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662447/neural-mechanisms-underlying-time-perception-and-reward-anticipation
#7
Nihal Apaydın, Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, İpek Çelikağ, Halise D Özgüven, Bora Baskak, Metehan Çiçek
Findings suggest that the physiological mechanisms involved in the reward anticipation and time perception partially overlap. But the systematic investigation of a potential interaction between time and reward systems using neuroimaging is lacking. Eighteen healthy volunteers (all right-handed) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that employs a visual paradigm that consists monetary reward to assess whether the functional neural representations of time perception and reward prospection are shared or distinct...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661612/hearing-self-motion-perception-mobility-and-aging
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Campos, Robert Ramkhalawansingh, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller
Hearing helps us know where we are relative to important events and objects in our environment and it allows us to track our changing position dynamically over space and time. Auditory cues are used in combination with other sensory inputs (visual, vestibular, proprioceptive) to help us perceive our own movements through space, known as self-motion perception. Whether we are maintaining standing balance, walking, or driving, audition can provide unique and important information to help optimize self-motion perception, and consequently to support safe mobility...
March 31, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661378/differential-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-psychedelic-symptoms-induced-by-racemic-ketamine-and-esketamine-in-human-volunteers
#9
K Jonkman, R van der Schrier, M van Velzen, L Aarts, E Olofsen, E Sarton, M Niesters, A Dahan
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and subsequent decline in intracellular nitric oxide (NO) are responsible for development of ketamine-induced psychedelic symptoms. To examine this mechanism in humans, we administered the NO donor sodium nitroprusside during infusion of racemic ketamine (RS-ketamine), containing equal amounts of S(+)- and R(-)-ketamine isomers, or esketamine, containing just the S(+)-isomer. METHODS: In this randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy volunteers were treated with sodium nitroprusside 0...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660563/exploring-the-functional-nature-of-synaesthetic-colour-dissociations-from-colour-perception-and-imagery
#10
Rocco Chiou, Anina N Rich, Sebastian Rogers, Joel Pearson
Individuals with grapheme-colour synaesthesia experience anomalous colours when reading achromatic text. These unusual experiences have been said to resemble 'normal' colour perception or colour imagery, but studying the nature of synaesthesia remains difficult. In the present study, we report novel evidence that synaesthetic colour impacts conscious vision in a way that is different from both colour perception and imagery. Presenting 'normal' colour prior to binocular rivalry induces a location-dependent suppressive bias reflecting local habituation...
April 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658376/a-leftward-perceptual-asymmetry-when-judging-the-attractiveness-of-visual-patterns
#11
Paul Rodway, Astrid Schepman, Becky Crossley, Jennifer Lee
Perceptual judgements concerning the magnitude of a stimulus feature are typically influenced more by the left side of the stimulus than by the right side. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applies to judgements of the attractiveness of abstract visual patterns. Across four experiments participants chose between two versions of a stimulus which either had an attractive left side or an attractive right side. Experiments 1 and 2 presented artworks and experiments 3 and 4 presented wallpaper designs...
April 15, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657743/rapid-recalibration-of-speech-perception-after-experiencing-the-mcgurk-illusion
#12
Claudia S Lüttke, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Floris P de Lange
The human brain can quickly adapt to changes in the environment. One example is phonetic recalibration: a speech sound is interpreted differently depending on the visual speech and this interpretation persists in the absence of visual information. Here, we examined the mechanisms of phonetic recalibration. Participants categorized the auditory syllables /aba/ and /ada/, which were sometimes preceded by the so-called McGurk stimuli (in which an /aba/ sound, due to visual /aga/ input, is often perceived as 'ada')...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656846/development-and-validation-of-a-self-administered-neck-mobility-assessment-tool-s-rom-neck-in-chronic-neck-pain-patients
#13
Anke Langenfeld, Caroline Bastiaenen, Judith Sieben, Jaap Swanenburg
BACKGROUND: Cervical spine (CS) range of motion (ROM) is commonly used to assess neck pain. However, this measurement is often limited by the clinician's experience and perception. Therefore, the integration of perceptual feedback of the patient can optimize and personalize treatment. OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a questionnaire (S-ROM-Neck) to evaluate ROM of the CS from the patient's perspective. DESIGN: Validation study. METHODS: The assessment tool was developed and optimized during pretest sessions...
April 10, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655940/audio-visual-speech-processing-in-age-related-hearing-loss-stronger-integration-and-increased-frontal-lobe-recruitment
#14
Stephanie Rosemann, Christiane M Thiel
Hearing loss is associated with difficulties in understanding speech, especially under adverse listening conditions. In these situations, seeing the speaker improves speech intelligibility in hearing-impaired participants. On the neuronal level, previous research has shown cross-modal plastic reorganization in the auditory cortex following hearing loss leading to altered processing of auditory, visual and audio-visual information. However, how reduced auditory input effects audio-visual speech perception in hearing-impaired subjects is largely unknown...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653377/audio-visual-sensory-deprivation-degrades-visuo-tactile-peri-personal-space
#15
Jean-Paul Noel, Hyeong-Dong Park, Isabella Pasqualini, Herve Lissek, Mark Wallace, Olaf Blanke, Andrea Serino
Self-perception is scaffolded upon the integration of multisensory cues on the body, the space surrounding the body (i.e., the peri-personal space; PPS), and from within the body. We asked whether reducing information available from external space would change: PPS, interoceptive accuracy, and self-experience. Twenty participants were exposed to 15 min of audio-visual deprivation and performed: (i) a visuo-tactile interaction task measuring their PPS; (ii) a heartbeat perception task measuring interoceptive accuracy; and (iii) a series of questionnaires related to self-perception and mental illness...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651233/near-and-far-surround-suppression-in-human-motion-discrimination
#16
Huan Wang, Zhengchun Wang, Yifeng Zhou, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
The spatial context has strong effects on visual processing. Psychophysics and modeling studies have provided evidence that the surround context can systematically modulate the perception of center stimuli. For motion direction, these center-surround interactions are considered to come from spatio-directional interactions between direction of motion tuned neurons, which are attributed to the middle temporal (MT) area. Here, we investigated through psychophysics experiments on human subjects changes with spatial separation in center-surround inhibition and motion direction interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651048/emotion-and-anxiety-potentiate-the-way-attention-alters-visual-appearance
#17
Antoine Barbot, Marisa Carrasco
The ability to swiftly detect and prioritize the processing of relevant information around us is critical for the way we interact with our environment. Selective attention is a key mechanism that serves this purpose, improving performance in numerous visual tasks. Reflexively attending to sudden information helps detect impeding threat or danger, a possible reason why emotion modulates the way selective attention affects perception. For instance, the sudden appearance of a fearful face potentiates the effects of exogenous (involuntary, stimulus-driven) attention on performance...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650471/validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-bladder-pain-interstitial-cystitis-symptom-score-bpic-ss-questionnaire-a-useful-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-bladder-pain-syndrome
#18
S Arlandis, A Franco, A M Mora, P Rebollo
OBJECTIVES: Validation of the Spanish version of the Bladder Pain/Interstitial Cystitis-Symptom Score (BPIC-SS) questionnaire to evaluate its utility for the diagnosis of Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS) patients in the Female and Urodynamics Urology Functional Units in Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Spanish adaptation of the BPIC-SS questionnaire was evaluated in 243 BPS patients. EQ-5D-5L, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and global impression questionnaire (CGI-S) were collected...
April 9, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649652/differentiating-aversive-conditioning-in-bistable-perception-avoidance-of-a-percept-vs-salience-of-a-stimulus
#19
Gregor Wilbertz, Philipp Sterzer
Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings...
April 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649561/real-motion-signals-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#20
Matthias Nau, Andreas Schindler, Andreas Bartels
Eye movements induce visual motion that can complicate the stable perception of the world. The visual system compensates for such self-induced visual motion by integrating visual input with efference copies of eye movement commands. This mechanism is central as it does not only support perceptual stability but also mediates reliable perception of world-centered objective motion. In humans, it remains elusive whether visual motion responses in early retinotopic cortex are driven by objective motion or by retinal motion associated with it...
April 9, 2018: NeuroImage
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