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Advanced lung cancer

Feridun Akkafa, İsmail Koyuncu, Ebru Temiz, Hasan Dagli, Fuat Dïlmec, Halit Akbas
Lung has critic function in gas exchange, supplying oxygen to all cells. Rapid metastasis and the high rate of mortality characterises lung cancer. There are two types of this disease, small cell and non-small cell, which differs from each other according to histopathologic features. To date, many therapeutic approaches have been developed to destroy this deadly type of cancer, which one of them is mRNA targeted therapies through miRNA. miRNAs are 19-25 base paired molecules be able to suppress and destruct mRNA and found to be involved in development and progression of lung cancer...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Guillaume Chassagnon, Souhail Bennani, Gael Freche, Pierre Magdeleinat, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Marie-Pierre Revel
OBJECTIVES: Increased FDG uptake in morphologically normal adrenal glands on PET-CT is a diagnostic challenge with major implications on treatment. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report our experience of CT-guided percutaneous core biopsy of morphologically normal adrenal glands showing increased FDG uptake in a context of lung cancer. METHODS: Biopsies for non-enlarged adrenal glands showing increased FDG uptake in lung cancer patients performed at our institution from December 2014 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Matthias Villalobos, Piotr Czapiewski, Niels Reinmuth, Jürgen R Fischer, Stefan Andreas, Cornelius Kortsik, Monika Serke, Martin Wolf, Petra Neuser, Alexander Reuss, Philipp A Schnabel, Michael Thomas
Prior studies have demonstrated an association between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression level and outcomes in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ERCC1 on survival for patients with stage IIIB/IV non-squamous NSCLC (NS-NSCLC) enrolled in the INNOVATIONS trial, thus receiving as treatment either erlotinib/bevacizumab (EB) or cisplatin/gemcitabine/bevacizumab (PGB)...
June 15, 2018: Medical Oncology
P D Bonomi, D Gandara, F R Hirsch, K M Kerr, C Obasaju, L Paz-Ares, C Bellomo, J D Bradley, P A Bunn, M Culligan, J R Jett, E S Kim, C J Langer, R B Natale, S Novello, M Pérol, S S Ramalingam, M Reck, C H Reynolds, E F Smit, M A Socinski, D R Spigel, J F Vansteenkiste, H Wakelee, N Thatcher
Background: Upregulated expression and aberrant activation of the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) are found in lung cancer, making EGFR a relevant target for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is associated with modest improvement in overall survival in patients with squamous cell lung cancer (SqCLC) who have a significant unmet need for effective treatment options. While there is evidence that using EGFR gene copy number, EGFR mutation, and EGFR protein expression as biomarkers can help select patients who respond to treatment, it is important to consider biomarkers for response in patients treated with combination therapies that include EGFR mAbs...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Nicole F Laslett, SuJung Park, Gregory A Masters, David D Biggs, Charles J Schneider, Jamal G Misleh, Kathir Suppiah, Pamela S Simpson, Stephen Grubbs, Timothy F Wozniak, Michael Guarino
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death throughout the world. Despite new chemotherapeutic, immunomodulating and molecularly targeted agents, patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease still have a poor prognosis. This trial looked to combine antiangiogenic therapy with a first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy doublet, hoping to extend median progression-free survival (PFS) while minimizing toxicity in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this single institution, single-arm study, 51 patients (age >18 yo) were followed from 2007 to 2012...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Yusuke Kimura, Takafumi Machimoto, Daiki Yasukawa, Yuki Aisu, Tomohide Hori
BACKGROUND: Appendiceal metastasis from lung cancer is rare. However, it often causes acute appendicitis that requires emergency surgery. We herein report a thought-provoking case of appendiceal metastasis from lung cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced lung cancer with multiple metastases and underwent chemotherapy. One month later, he developed acute appendicitis, and laparoscopic appendectomy was promptly performed. A swollen appendix and pus collection were observed during surgery...
June 15, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Hanne A Eide, Ingerid Skjei Knudtsen, Vandana Sandhu, Ayca M Løndalen, Ann Rita Halvorsen, Azadeh Abravan, Elin H Kure, Trond V Bogsrud, Odd Terje Brustugun, Jon Amund Kyte, Eirik Malinen, Åslaug Helland
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Vera Hirsh, Yin Wan, Fang-Ju Lin, Sandra Margunato-Debay, Teng Jin Ong, Marc Botteman, Corey Langer
BACKGROUND: First-line nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin was associated with a significantly improved overall response rate (primary endpoint) versus paclitaxel/carboplatin in a phase III trial of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of an analysis evaluating the correlation of response and the time to response with survival and quality-adjusted outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a landmark approach, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity (Q-TWiST) were compared between patients with a confirmed partial or complete response at or before 6 weeks (≤ 6-week responders) and those without (≤ 6-week nonresponders)...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Srinivas Raman, Jean-Pierre Bissonnette, Andrew Warner, Lisa Le, Scott Bratman, Natasha Leighl, Andrea Bezjak, David Palma, Devin Schellenberg, Alexander Sun
We explain the rationale for metabolically adaptive radiation dose escalation in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer and describe the design of a Canadian phase II randomized trial investigating this approach. In the trial, patients are randomized to either conventional chemoradiation treatment (60 Gy in 30 fractions) or metabolically adaptive chemoradiation, where fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumor sub-volumes receive an integrated boost dose to a maximum of 85 Gy in 30 fractions. The trial sample size is 78 patients, and the target population is patients with newly diagnosed, inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radical intent chemoradiation...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Sophia Doll, Maximilian C Kriegmair, Alberto Santos, Michael Wierer, Fabian Coscia, Helen Michele Neil, Stefan Porubsky, Philipp E Geyer, Andreas Mund, Philipp Nuhn, Matthias Mann
Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies are now set to transform translational cancer proteomics from an idea to a practice. Here, we present a robust proteomic workflow for the analysis of clinically relevant human cancer tissues that allows quantitation of thousands of tumor proteins in several hours of measuring time and a total turnaround of a few days. We applied it to a chemorefractory metastatic case of the extremely rare urachal carcinoma. Quantitative comparison of lung metastases and surrounding tissue revealed several significantly upregulated proteins, among them lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A)...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Brett C Bade, J Madison Hyer, Benjamin T Bevill, Alex Pastis, Alana M Rojewski, Benjamin A Toll, Gerard A Silvestri
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is a potential therapy to improve quality of life in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer (LC), but no PA regimen has been shown to be beneficial, clinically practical, and sustainable. We sought to test the hypothesis that a patient-centered activity regimen (PCAR) will improve patient participation and PA more effectively than weekly phone calls. METHODS: In patients with advanced-stage LC, we implemented a walking-based activity regimen and motivated patients via either weekly phone calls (n = 29; FitBit Zip accelerometer) or PCAR (n = 15; FitBit Flex, an educational session, and twice-daily gain-framed text messages)...
June 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Jan Nyrop Jakobsen, Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Morten Grauslund, Linea Melchior, Jens Benn Sørensen
Background: Patients with EGFR -mutated non-small-cell lung cancer benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like erlotinib. However, the efficacy may be impaired by driver mutations in other genes. Methods: Five hundred and fourteen consecutive patients with NSCLC of all stages were tested for EGFR -mutations by cobas® EGFR Mutation Test. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for MET -amplification, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MET- and ALK-expression, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for concomitant driver mutations were performed on EGFR -mutated tumor samples from erlotinib-treated patients...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Youjin Kim, Se-Hoon Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Myung-Ju Ahn, Keunchil Park, Jong-Mu Sun
Purpose: We tried to evaluate whether there is any specific features in treatment outcomes of first-line afatinib in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), compared with gefitinib or erlotinib. Materials and Methods: We analyzed patients treated with first-line afatinib, gefitinib, or erlotinib for advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC at Samsung Medical Center between 2014 and 2016. Results: In total, 467 patients received first-line afatinib (n=165), gefitinib (n=230), or erlotinib (n=72)...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
So Won Lee, Hyunjin Park, Ho Yun Lee, Insuk Sohn, Seung-Hak Lee, Jun Kang, Jong-Mu Sun, Myung-Ju Ahn
We aimed to identify predictive clinicoradiologic characteristics of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression status in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients. We reviewed clinicoradiologic features of 169 patients stratified into TS-negative (n = 84) and TS-positive (n = 85) groups, including quantitative CT radiomic features of both primary lung and metastatic lesions from initial CT and PET. Clinical factors including age and smoking history were significantly associated with TS as well as radiomic features...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gary Hong Chun Chung, Marie Charlotte Domart, Christopher Peddie, Judith Mantell, Kieran Mclaverty, Angela Arabiotorre, Lorna Hodgson, Richard D Byrne, Paul Verkade, Kenton Arkill, Lucy M Collinson, Banafshe Larijani
Dysregulation of nuclear envelope (NE) assembly results in various cancers; for example, renal and some lung carcinomas ensue due to NE malformation. The NE is a dynamic membrane compartment and its completion during mitosis, is a highly regulated process but the detailed mechanism still remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have found isolated diacylglycerol (DAG) containing vesicles are essential for completing the fusion of NE in non-somatic cells. We investigated the impact of DAG depletion from cis-Golgi in mammalian cells on NE reassembly...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Francesca Mazzoni, Paolo Petreni, Marco Perna, Vieri Scotti, Stefano Bongiolatti, Lorenzo Livi, Francesco Di Costanzo, Luca Voltolini
Afatinib, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective as first-line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report 2 cases of EGFR-mutated locally advanced NSCLC treated in neoadjuvant setting with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor at University of Florence/Careggi Hospital. In both cases, afatinib was used for up to 3 months, until 1 week before surgery. Both patients achieved significant reduction (downstaging) of the pulmonary mass and lymphadenopathies and after surgery, it was decided for both cases to restore afatinib treatment up to a further 4 months...
June 1, 2018: Tumori
C R Lindsay, M Jamal-Hanjani, M Forster, F Blackhall
Despite being the most frequent gain-of-function genetic alteration in human cancer, KRAS mutation has to date offered only limited potential as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. Results from the phase III SELECT-1 trial in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recently added to a number of historical and more contemporary disappointments in targeting KRAS mutant disease, including farnesyl transferase inhibition and synthetic lethality partners such as STK33. This narrative review uses the context of these previous failures to demonstrate how the knowledge gained from these experiences can be used as a platform for exciting advances in NSCLC on the horizon...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Takaaki Hasegawa, Tetsuya Oguri, Tomohiro Osawa, Toshiyuki Sawa, Satoshi Osaga, Toru Okuyama, Megumi Uchida, Ken Maeno, Satoshi Fukuda, Hirotada Nishie, Akio Niimi, Tatsuo Akechi
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies show that opioids promote angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis, resulting in shorter survival. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether opioids are associated with the overall survival (OS) of patients with incurable nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of patients with NSCLC. SETTING: We investigated patients newly diagnosed with advanced or post-operative recurrent NSCLC between April 2013 and December 2015 at a single institute...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Mohammad Amin Hosseini, Mohammad Mohamadianpanah, Mohammad Zare-Bandeamiri, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi
Hadron therapy (HT) with protons and carbon ions is an advanced radiotherapy technique. As the first report addressing this topic, the present study aimed to estimate the number of patients eligible for HT in Fars province and the whole of Iran. The data were collected through direct inspection of medical records of the patients treated at the Radiotherapy Department, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran in 2014. The patients who were treated with external-beam radiotherapy and declared to be a resident of Fars province were extracted from the medical records...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Tokihiro Yamamoto, Sven Kabus, Matthieu Bal, Karl Bzdusek, Paul J Keall, Cari Wright, Stanley H Benedict, Megan E Daly
PURPOSE: Lung functional image guided radiation therapy (RT) that avoids irradiating highly functional regions has potential to reduce pulmonary toxicity following RT. Tumor regression during RT is common, leading to recovery of lung function. We hypothesized that computed tomography (CT) ventilation image-guided treatment planning reduces the functional lung dose compared to standard anatomic image-guided planning in 2 different scenarios with or without plan adaptation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: CT scans were acquired before RT and during RT at 2 time points (16-20 Gy and 30-34 Gy) for 14 patients with locally advanced lung cancer...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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