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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098895/microrna-133b-is-regulated-by-tap63-while-no-gene-mutation-is-present-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Yifei Chen, Yi Zhang, Jianhuai He, Ying Fu, Changwei Lin, Xiaorong Li
Downregulation of miR-133b has been reported in multiple types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously confirmed that TAp63 actively translates microRNA-133b (miR-133b) transcripts. While the presence of miRNA mutations have frequently been described in CRC, most CRCs do not show any variation in the miR‑133b coding sequence. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the relationship between TAp63 and miR-133b, and identify other mediators of miR-133b downregulation in CRC. The expression of TAp63 was detected by RT-qPCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and densitometric analysis using Image-Pro Plus 6...
January 16, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098866/in-vitro-long-term-treatment-with-mapk-inhibitors-induces-melanoma-cells-with-resistance-plasticity-to-inhibitors-while-retaining-sensitivity-to-cd8-t-cells
#2
Florencia Paula Madorsky Rowdo, Antonela Barón, Erika María von Euw, José Mordoh
The development of BRAF V600 and MEK inhibitors constitutes a breakthrough in the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. However, although there is an increase in overall survival, these patients generally confront recurrence, and several resistance mechanisms have already been described. In the present study we describe a different resistance mechanism. After several weeks of long‑term in vitro treatment of two different V600E BRAF‑mutated melanoma cell lines with MARK inhibitors, PLX4032 and/or GDC-0973, the majority of the cells died whereas some remained viable and quiescent (SUR)...
January 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098864/victor-vinflunine-in-advanced-metastatic-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-the-urothelium-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-use-of-vinflunine-in-multi-centre-real-life-setting-as-second-line-chemotherapy-through-free-of-charge-programme-for-patients-in-the-uk-and
#3
Syed A Hussain, Jawaher Ansari, Robert Huddart, Derek G Power, Jeanette Lyons, James Wylie, Maria Vilarino-Varlela, Nils O Elander, Rhona McMenemin, Lisa M Pickering, Guy Faust, Seema Chauhan, Richard J Jackson
There is no standard of care in the UK or Ireland for second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCCU). Vinflunine is approved for TCCU patients who have failed a platinum-based regimen, and is standard of care in Europe but is not routinely available in the UK. Data were collected retrospectively on patients who received vinfluine as a second-line treatment. The aims were to document the toxicity and efficacy in a real life setting. Data were collected on 49 patients from 9 sites across the UK and Ireland [median age, 64 (IQR, 57-70) years, 33 males]...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098771/breast-cancer-brain-metastases-clonal-evolution-in-clinical-context
#4
REVIEW
Jodi M Saunus, Amy E McCart Reed, Zhun Leong Lim, Sunil R Lakhani
Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098572/metastatic-organotropism-an-intrinsic-property-of-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#5
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
January 16, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098400/role-of-contrast-enhanced-sonography-in-the-evaluation-of-axillary-lymph-nodes-in-breast-carcinoma-a-monocentric-study
#6
Giacomo Agliata, Gianluca Valeri, Giulio Argalia, Elisa Tarabelli, Gian Marco Giuseppetti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced sonography for characterization of the lymph node status (metastatic or not) in patients with breast carcinomas by comparison with sentinel lymph node biopsy. METHODS: From January to August 2015, 50 female patients with a histologic diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma were prospectively examined by ipsilateral axillary contrast-enhanced sonography. The test was performed by a single radiologist using an ultrasound system with a broadband 8-12-MHz, 38-mm high-resolution linear transducer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098340/inhibitory-effect-of-blue-light-emitting-diode-on-migration-and-invasion-of-cancer-cells
#7
Phil-Sun Oh, Hyun-Soo Kim, Eun-Mi Kim, Hyosook Hwang, Hyang Hwa Ryu, SeokTae Lim, Myung-Hee Sohn, Hwan-Jeong Jeong
The aim of this study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanism of blue light emitting diode (LED) in tumor cells. A migration and invasion assay for the metastatic behavior of mouse colon cancer CT-26 and human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells was performed. Cancer cell migration-related proteins were identified by obtaining a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in total cellular protein profile of blue LED-irradiated cancer cells, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of proteins...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097802/genomic-analysis-and-clinical-management-of-adolescent-cutaneous-melanoma
#8
Roy Rabbie, Mamun Rashid, Ana M Arance, Marcelo Sánchez, Gemma Tell-Marti, Miriam Potrony, Carles Conill, Remco van Doorn, Stefan Dentro, Nellele A Gruis, Pippa Corrie, Vivek Iyer, Carla Daniela Robles-Espinoza, Joan A Puig-Butille, Susana Puig, David J Adams
Melanoma in young children is rare, however its incidence in adolescents and young adults is rising. We describe the clinical course of a 15-year-old female diagnosed with AJCC stage IB non-ulcerated primary melanoma, who died from metastatic disease four years after diagnosis despite three lines of modern systemic therapy. We also present the complete genomic profile of her tumour and compare this to a further series of 13 adolescent melanomas, and 275 adult cutaneous melanomas. A somatic BRAF(V)(600E) mutation and a high mutational load equivalent to that found in adult melanoma, and composed primarily of C>T mutations was observed...
January 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097656/palliation-and-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Cheng-Har Yip
Metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease. With improvement in systemic therapy, survival has improved over the past few years. Removing the primary tumor has shown improved survival in retrospective studies, but this may be due to selection bias. The first reported randomized controlled trial (RCT) from India showed no difference in survival with surgery. However another RCT from Turkey showed that a select group of patient with bone-only metastases have a survival benefit.
January 18, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097652/mdm4-is-a-rational-target-for-treating-breast-cancers-with-mutant-p53
#10
Panimaya Jeffreena Miranda, Daniel Buckley, Dinesh Raghu, Jia-Min B Pang, Elena A Takano, Reshma Vijayakumaran, Amina F A S Teunisse, Atara Posner, Tahlia Procter, Marco J Herold, Cristina Gamell, Jean-Christophe Marine, Stephen B Fox, Aart Jochemsen, Sue Haupt, Ygal Haupt
Mutation of the key tumour suppressor p53 defines a transition in the progression toward aggressive and metastatic breast cancer (BC) with the poorest outcome. Specifically, p53 mutation frequency exceeds 50% in Triple Negative BC (TNBC). Key regulators of mutant p53 that facilitate its oncogenic functions are potential therapeutic targets. We report here that the MDM4 protein is frequently abundant in the context of mutant p53 in basal-like BC samples. Importantly, we show that MDM4 plays a critical role in the proliferation of these BC cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097325/imaging-locally-advanced-recurrent-and-metastatic-prostate-cancer-a-review
#11
Maria L Lindenberg, Baris Turkbey, Esther Mena, Peter L Choyke
Importance: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. The course of prostate cancer is highly variable, and timely and accurate detection of clinically significant cancer is critical in positively affecting outcomes. Observations: Molecular imaging methods and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most promising new developments for prostate tumor visualization. While the benefits of MRI are many, positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers are still available only as research tools...
January 12, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097317/surrogate-end-points-for-all-cause-mortality-in-men-with-localized-unfavorable-risk-prostate-cancer-treated-with-radiation-therapy-vs-radiation-therapy-plus-androgen-deprivation-therapy-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Trevor J Royce, Ming-Hui Chen, Jing Wu, Marian Loffredo, Andrew A Renshaw, Philip W Kantoff, Anthony V D'Amico
Importance: Several surrogates for prostate cancer-specific mortality satisfying the Prentice criteria exist, but whether these are surrogates for all-cause mortality, and how their performance compares, is unknown. Objective: To ascertain and compare the performance of 4 candidate surrogates (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] failure, PSA nadir >0.5 ng/mL, PSA doubling time <9 months, and interval to PSA failure <30 months) for all-cause mortality using the proportion of treatment-effect metric...
January 12, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097239/metastasis-regulation-by-ppard-expression-in-cancer-cells
#13
Xiangsheng Zuo, Weiguo Xu, Min Xu, Rui Tian, Micheline J Moussalli, Fei Mao, Xiaofeng Zheng, Jing Wang, Jeffrey S Morris, Mihai Gagea, Cathy Eng, Scott Kopetz, Dipen M Maru, Asif Rashid, Russell Broaddus, Daoyan Wei, Mien-Chie Hung, Anil K Sood, Imad Shureiqi
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARD) is upregulated in many major human cancers, but the role that its expression in cancer cells has in metastasis remains poorly understood. Here, we show that specific PPARD downregulation or genetic deletion of PPARD in cancer cells significantly repressed metastasis in various cancer models in vivo. Mechanistically, PPARD promoted angiogenesis via interleukin 8 in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of transcriptome profiling of HCT116 colon cancer cells with or without genetic deletion of PPARD and gene expression patterns in The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal adenocarcinoma database identified novel pro-metastatic genes (GJA1, VIM, SPARC, STC1, SNCG) as PPARD targets...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097098/mir-34a-multiple-opposing-targets-and-one-destiny-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Radwa Alaa Yacoub, Injie Omar Fawzy, Reem Amr Assal, Karim Adel Hosny, Abdel-Rahman Nabawy Zekri, Gamal Esmat, Hend Mohamed El Tayebi, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
Background and Aims: The role of miR-34a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial and several unresolved issues remain, including its expression pattern and relevance to tumor etiology, tumor stage and prognosis, and finally, its impact on apoptosis. Methods: miR-34a expression was assessed in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced non-metastatic HCC tissues by RT-Q-PCR. Huh-7 cells were transfected with miR-34a mimics and the impact of miR-34a was examined on 84 pro-apoptotic/anti-apoptotic genes using PCR array; its net effect was tested on cell viability via MTT assay...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096940/the-next-10-years-challenges-for-the-future-and-overcoming-resistance-to-targeted-therapies-for-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Y C Heng
The introduction of targeted therapies over the past 10 years revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The next 10 years hold promise for even greater expansion of the therapeutic armamentarium for mRCC. A number of recently completed and ongoing trials have explored the use of antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in the adjuvant setting, the use of predictive biomarkers to guide personalized medicine, as well as new systemic treatments and combination therapies for mRCC...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096937/sunitinib-side-effects-as-surrogate-biomarkers-of-efficacy
#16
REVIEW
Christian Kollmannsberger
With the proliferation of treatment options for the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) over the past decade, predictive markers of response to therapy are becoming increasingly important. Sunitinib is commonly used in the first-line treatment of mRCC. Common mechanism-based adverse events, including hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand-foot syndrome, and neutropenia, have been explored as potential biomarkers of the clinical efficacy of sunitinib in mRCC and are reviewed in this article.
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096936/treatment-options-in-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-after-first-line-treatment-with-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Naveen S Basappa
Targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) was introduced a decade ago and since then, a number of therapeutic options have been developed. Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy is the widely accepted first-line option for mRCC. After progression, treatment in the second-line setting has typically been with either axitinib or everolimus. However, with the advent of several new agents demonstrating efficacy in the second-line setting, including nivolumab, cabozantinib, and the combination of lenvatinib and everolimus, the treatment paradigm has shifted toward these novel therapies with improved patient outcomes...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096935/practical-first-line-management-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-community-practice
#18
REVIEW
Henry Conter
Sunitinib is an oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets signalling by vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). The standard sunitinib dosing schedule for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is 50 mg for four weeks (28 days) of treatment, followed by a two-week (14-day) break from treatment (four/two schedule). However, this schedule is associated with toxicities that can limit the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and impede treatment compliance. Given the generally incurable nature of mRCC and the toxicity associated with therapy, treatment strategies should focus on achieving long-term response, preserving HRQOL, and minimizing treatment-related toxicity...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096934/first-line-treatment-options-in-metastatic-renal-cell-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Anil Kapoor
The introduction of targeted therapy a decade ago revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Currently recommended first-line treatments in Canada include sunitinib, pazopanib, and temsirolimus. With the heterogeneity of mRCC disease, the choice of treatment is driven largely by prognostic factors...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096932/contemporary-agents-in-the-management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Anil Kapoor, Christopher Wu, Bobby Shayegan, Adrian P Rybak
Docetaxel-based chemotherapy has been the standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) since 2004. Over the past few years, there has been a significant paradigm shift in the treatment landscape of this disease. A deeper understanding of prostate cancer biology, along with the development of novel agents has created hope towards treating chemotherapy-naïve and resistant disease. Following the implementation of docetaxel as the first-line therapy for mCRPC, five novel therapies have demonstrated survival benefit in mCRPC...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
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