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Retinal dopamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829784/irbp-deficiency-permits-precocious-ocular-development-and-myopia
#1
Shanu Markand, Natecia L Baskin, Ranjay Chakraborty, Erica Landis, Sara A Wetzstein, Kevin J Donaldson, Priyanka Priyadarshani, Shannon E Alderson, Curran S Sidhu, Jeffrey H Boatright, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, John M Nickerson
PURPOSE: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is abundant in the subretinal space and binds retinoids and lipophilic molecules. The expression of IRBP begins precociously early in mouse eye development. IRBP-deficient (KO) mice show less cell death in the inner retinal layers of the retina before eyelid opening compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) controls and eventually develop profound myopia. Thus, IRBP may play a role in eye development before visually-driven phenomena...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788033/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-haloperidol-and-clozapine-on-visual-responses-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#2
Ralph J Jensen
PURPOSE: In the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride appear to improve visual responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by increasing light sensitivity of RGCs and transforming abnormal, long-latency ON-center RGCs into OFF-center cells. Antipsychotic drugs are believed to mediate their therapeutic benefits by blocking D2 receptors. This investigation was conducted to test whether haloperidol (a typical antipsychotic drug) and clozapine (an atypical antipsychotic drug) could similarly alter the light responses of RGCs in the P23H rat retina...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750284/altered-refractive-development-in-mice-with-reduced-levels-of-retinal-dopamine
#3
Michael A Bergen, Han Na Park, Ranjay Chakraborty, Erica G Landis, Curran Sidhu, Li He, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Purpose: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the prevention of excessive ocular elongation and myopia in various animal models. This study used retina-specific DA knockout mice to investigate the role of retinal DA in refractive development and susceptibility to experimental myopia. Methods: Measurements of refractive error, corneal curvature, and ocular biometrics were obtained as a function of age for both untreated and form-deprived (FD) groups of retina-specific tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (rTHKO) and control (Ctrl) mice...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737460/the-role-of-retinal-dopamine-in-c57bl-6-mouse-refractive-development-as-revealed-by-intravitreal-administration-of-6-hydroxydopamine
#4
Xiao-Hua Wu, Kang-Wei Qian, Guo-Zhong Xu, Yun-Yun Li, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Furong Huang, Yan-Qing Wang, Xiangtian Zhou, Jia Qu, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong, Shi-Jun Weng
Purpose: Although retinal dopamine (DA) has been long implicated in myopia development, current studies demonstrate that retinal DA levels are unaltered in C57BL/6 mice with form-deprivation myopia. This work was undertaken to explore whether and how refractive development is perturbed in this mouse strain when retinal DA levels are reduced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration. Methods: On two successive days, 6-OHDA was injected into the vitreous of P18 mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618415/development-of-experimental-myopia-in-chicks-in-a-natural-environment
#5
Richard A Stone, Yuval Cohen, Alice M McGlinn, Sherrill Davison, Susan Casavant, James Shaffer, Tejvir S Khurana, Machelle T Pardue, P Michael Iuvone
PURPOSE: The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. METHODS: Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560692/animal-studies-and-the-mechanism-of-myopia-protection-by-light
#6
Regan Ashby
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that spending time outdoors during your childhood is protective against the development of myopia. It has been hypothesized that this protective effect is associated with light-induced increases in retinal dopamine levels, a critical neuromodulator that has long been postulated to be involved in the regulation of ocular growth. This paper, along with the paper entitled "What do animal studies tell us about the mechanism of myopia-protection by light?" discusses the evidence provided by animal models for this hypothesis...
September 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559292/diabetic-retinopathy-alters-light-induced-clock-gene-expression-and-dopamine-levels-in-the-mouse-retina
#7
Hasna Lahouaoui, Christine Coutanson, Howard M Cooper, Mohamed Bennis, Ouria Dkhissi-Benyahya
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common consequences of diabetes that affects millions of working-age adults worldwide and leads to progressive degeneration of the retina, visual loss, and blindness. Diabetes is associated with circadian disruption of the central and peripheral circadian clocks, but the mechanisms responsible for such alterations are unknown. Using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of diabetes, we investigated whether diabetes alters 1) the circadian regulation of clock genes in the retina and in the central clocks, 2) the light response of clock genes in the retina, and/or 3) light-driven retinal dopamine (DA), a major output marker of the retinal clock...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525728/evaluation-of-retinal-vessel-morphology-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#8
Robert Kromer, Carsten Buhmann, Ute Hidding, Matthias Keserü, Diana Keserü, Andrea Hassenstein, Birthe Stemplewitz
PURPOSE: The retina has been found affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unclear if this is due to neurodegeneration of local dopamine-dependent retinal cells, a result of central nervous degeneration including the optic nerve or retinal small vessel disease. This study aimed to detect changes of the retinal vasculature in PD patients compared to controls. METHODS: We examined 49 PD patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with a circular scan centred at the optic disc...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460988/synergistically-acting-agonists-and-antagonists-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-prevent-photoreceptor-cell-degeneration
#9
Yu Chen, Grazyna Palczewska, Ikuo Masuho, Songqi Gao, Hui Jin, Zhiqian Dong, Linn Gieser, Matthew J Brooks, Philip D Kiser, Timothy S Kern, Kirill A Martemyanov, Anand Swaroop, Krzysztof Palczewski
Photoreceptor cell degeneration leads to visual impairment and blindness in several types of retinal disease. However, the discovery of safe and effective therapeutic strategies conferring photoreceptor cell protection remains challenging. Targeting distinct cellular pathways with low doses of different drugs that produce a functionally synergistic effect could provide a strategy for preventing or treating retinal dystrophies. We took a systems pharmacology approach to identify potential combination therapies using a mouse model of light-induced retinal degeneration...
2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383593/m1-iprgcs-influence-visual-function-through-retrograde-signaling-in-the-retina
#10
Cameron L Prigge, Po-Ting Yeh, Nan-Fu Liou, Chi-Chan Lee, Shih-Feng You, Lei-Lei Liu, David S McNeill, Kylie S Chew, Samer Hattar, Shih-Kuo Chen, Dao-Qi Zhang
UNLABELLED: Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, with five subtypes named M1-M5) are a unique subclass of RGCs with axons that project directly to many brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Recent evidence suggests that melanopsin-based signals also influence image-forming visual function, including light adaptation, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Intriguingly, a small population of M1 ipRGCs have intraretinal axon collaterals that project toward the outer retina...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367505/is-retinal-dopamine-involved-in-the-loss-of-visual-function-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#11
P Michael Iuvone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362614/what-do-animal-studies-tell-us-about-the-mechanism-of-myopia-protection-by-light
#12
Thomas T Norton
: Human studies have provided strong evidence that exposure to time outdoors is protective against the onset of myopia. A causal factor may be that the light levels outdoors (30,000-130,000 lux) are much higher than light levels indoors (typically less than 500 lux). Studies using animal models have found that normal animals exposed to low illuminance levels (50 lux) can develop myopia. The myopia and axial elongation, produced in animals by monocular form deprivation, is reduced by light levels in the 15,000 to 25,000 range...
September 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358448/retinal-waves-modulate-an-intraretinal-circuit-of-intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cells
#13
David A Arroyo, Lowry A Kirkby, Marla B Feller
UNLABELLED: Before the maturation of rod and cone photoreceptors, the developing retina relies on light detection by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to drive early light-dependent behaviors. ipRGCs are output neurons of the retina; however, they also form functional microcircuits within the retina itself. Whether ipRGC microcircuits exist during development and whether they influence early light detection remain unknown. Here, we investigate the neural circuit that underlies the ipRGC-driven light response in developing mice...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356880/multiple-cone-pathways-are-involved-in-photic-regulation-of-retinal-dopamine
#14
Sheng-Nan Qiao, Zhijing Zhang, Christophe P Ribelayga, Yong-Mei Zhong, Dao-Qi Zhang
Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter in the retina and plays a central role in the light adaptive processes of the visual system. The sole source of retinal dopamine is dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs). We and others have previously demonstrated that DACs are activated by rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) upon illumination. However, it is still not clear how each class of photosensitive cells generates light responses in DACs. We genetically isolated cone function in mice to specifically examine the cone-mediated responses of DACs and their neural pathways...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281270/vulnerability-of-dopaminergic-amacrine-cells-to-chronic-ischemia-in-a-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#15
Nathan J Spix, Lei-Lei Liu, Zhijing Zhang, Joshua P Hohlbein, Cameron L Prigge, Shravan Chintala, Christophe P Ribelayga, Dao-Qi Zhang
PURPOSE: Retinal dopamine deficiency is a potential cause of myopia and visual deficits in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for lowered levels of retinal dopamine in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model of ROP. METHODS: Retinopathy was induced by exposing mice to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12. Oxygen-induced retinopathy and age-matched control mice were euthanized at P12, P17, P25, or P42 to P50...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251103/gomafu-lncrna-knockout-mice-exhibit-mild-hyperactivity-with-enhanced-responsiveness-to-the-psychostimulant-methamphetamine
#16
Joanna Y Ip, Masamitsu Sone, Chieko Nashiki, Qun Pan, Kiyoyuki Kitaichi, Kaori Yanaka, Takaya Abe, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Benjamin J Blencowe, Shinichi Nakagawa
The long noncoding RNA Gomafu/MIAT/Rncr2 is thought to function in retinal cell specification, stem cell differentiation and the control of alternative splicing. To further investigate physiological functions of Gomafu, we created mouse knockout (KO) model that completely lacks the Gomafu gene. The KO mice did not exhibit any developmental deficits. However, behavioral tests revealed that the KO mice are hyperactive. This hyperactive behavior was enhanced when the KO mice were treated with the psychostimulant methamphetamine, which was associated with an increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095816/the-retina-and-other-light-sensitive-ocular-clocks
#17
REVIEW
Joseph C Besharse, Douglas G McMahon
Ocular clocks, first identified in the retina, are also found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), cornea, and ciliary body. The retina is a complex tissue of many cell types and considerable effort has gone into determining which cell types exhibit clock properties. Current data suggest that photoreceptors as well as inner retinal neurons exhibit clock properties with photoreceptors dominating in nonmammalian vertebrates and inner retinal neurons dominating in mice. However, these differences may in part reflect the choice of circadian output, and it is likely that clock properties are widely dispersed among many retinal cell types...
June 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053144/evaluation-of-neurodegeneration-through-visual-evoked-potentials-in-restless-legs-syndrome
#18
Ayşın Kısabay, Ummu Serpil Sarı, Tuğba Korkmaz, Gönül Dinçhorasan, Hikmet Yılmaz, Deniz Selçuki
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disease characterized by some type of dysesthesia, an indescribable abnormal sensation in the extremities. Our objective was to determine whether the visual evoked potentials (VEP) can be used as a quantitative monitoring method to evaluate demyelination-remyelination and neurodegeneration in the patients with RLS. The present study was carried out prospectively. It was planned to determine normal or pathological conditions in the form of increased latency or decreased amplitude of VEP and to evaluate possible pathologies in the visual and retinal pathways at early stages and at months 3 and 6 of follow-up in the patients with RLS (with or without iron deficiency anemia), in those without RLS (at the time of diagnosis prior to any medical therapy) without any visual symptoms...
April 6, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979720/citicoline-retards-myopia-progression-following-form-deprivation-in-guinea-pigs
#19
Junfeng Mao, Shuangzhen Liu, Chunyan Fu
The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups...
June 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820446/eye-growth-and-myopia-development-unifying-theory-and-matlab-model
#20
George K Hung, Kausalendra Mahadas, Faisal Mohammad
The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component...
March 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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