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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792846/adenosine-receptor-distribution-in-rhesus-monkey-ocular-tissue
#1
Krista M Beach, Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Earl L Smith, Lisa A Ostrin
Adenosine receptor (ADOR) antagonists, such as 7-methylxanthine (7-MX), have been shown to slow myopia progression in humans and animal models. Adenosine receptors are found throughout the body, and regulate the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. However, the role of adenosine in eye growth is unclear. Evidence suggests that 7-MX increases scleral collagen fibril diameter, hence preventing axial elongation. This study used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to examine the distribution of the four ADORs in the normal monkey eye to help elucidate potential mechanisms of action...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791852/melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells-regulate-cone-photoreceptor-lamination-in-the-mouse-retina
#2
Adele R Tufford, Jessica R Onyak, Katelyn B Sondereker, Jasmine A Lucas, Aaron M Earley, Pierre Mattar, Samer Hattar, Tiffany M Schmidt, Jordan M Renna, Michel Cayouette
Newborn neurons follow molecular cues to reach their final destination, but whether early life experience influences lamination remains largely unexplored. As light is among the first stimuli to reach the developing nervous system via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), we asked whether ipRGCs could affect lamination in the developing mouse retina. We show here that ablation of ipRGCs causes cone photoreceptors to mislocalize at different apicobasal positions in the retina. This effect is partly mediated by light-evoked activity in ipRGCs, as dark rearing or silencing of ipRGCs leads a subset of cones to mislocalize...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691928/circadian-rhythms-refractive-development-and-myopia
#3
Ranjay Chakraborty, Lisa A Ostrin, Debora L Nickla, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, Richard A Stone
PURPOSE: Despite extensive research, mechanisms regulating postnatal eye growth and those responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. With the marked recent increases in myopia prevalence, robust and biologically-based clinical therapies to normalize refractive development in childhood are needed. Here, we review classic and contemporary literature about how circadian biology might provide clues to develop a framework to improve the understanding of myopia etiology, and possibly lead to rational approaches to ameliorate refractive errors developing in children...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508439/dopamine-d1-receptor-mediated-upregulation-of-bk-ca-currents-modifies-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-gliosis-in-a-rat-chronic-ocular-hypertension-model
#4
Hang-Jing Wu, Xue-Yan Li, Wen-Jing Qian, Qian Li, Shu-Yue Wang, Min Ji, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Feng Gao, Xing-Huai Sun, Xin Wang, Yanying Miao, Xiong-Li Yang, Zhongfeng Wang
Müller cell gliosis is a common response in many retinal pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of Kir channels contributes to Müller cell gliosis in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model. Here, the possible involvement of outward K+ currents in Müller cell gliosis was investigated. Outward K+ current densities in Müller cells isolated from COH rats, as compared with those in normal rats, showed a significant increase, which was mainly contributed by large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (BKCa ) channels...
March 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481975/neuroprotective-strategies-for-retinal-disease
#5
REVIEW
Machelle T Pardue, Rachael S Allen
Diseases that affect the eye, including photoreceptor degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, affect 11.8 million people in the US, resulting in vision loss and blindness. Loss of sight affects patient quality of life and puts an economic burden both on individuals and the greater healthcare system. Despite the urgent need for treatments, few effective options currently exist in the clinic. Here, we review research on promising neuroprotective strategies that promote neuronal survival with the potential to protect against vision loss and retinal cell death...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476450/dopamine-promotes-ascorbate-release-from-retinal-neurons-role-of-d-1-receptors-and-the-exchange-protein-directly-activated-by-camp-type-2-epac2
#6
Thaísa Godinho da Encarnação, Camila Cabral Portugal, Caio Eduardo Nogueira, Felipe Nascimento Santiago, Renato Socodato, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho
Ascorbate, the reduced form of vitamin C, is highly concentrated in the central nervous system (CNS), including the retina, where it plays important physiological functions. In the CNS, the plasma membrane transporter sodium vitamin C co-transporter 2 (SVCT2) is responsible for ascorbate transport in neurons. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), acting through D1 - and D2 -like receptor subfamilies and classically coupled to adenylyl cyclase, is known to modulate synaptic transmission in the retina. Here, we reveal that DA controls the release of ascorbate from retinal neurons...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475464/optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Turkoglu Sule Aydin, Dogan Umit, Ogun Muhammed Nur, Ulas Fatih, Keles Asena, Ozturk Yavas Nefise, Yildiz Serpil
The aim of this study is to compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of retinal thickness (RT) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients to those of healthy subjects, and to investigate whether there is any relationship between the severity of the disease and the RNFLT values. This prospective study was included 25 IPD patients and 29 healthy controls. In the IPD group, the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) were performed...
March 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408880/daily-visual-stimulation-in-the-critical-period-enhances-multiple-aspects-of-vision-through-bdnf-mediated-pathways-in-the-mouse-retina
#8
Amanda M Mui, Victoria Yang, Moe H Aung, Jieming Fu, Adewumi N Adekunle, Brian C Prall, Curran S Sidhu, Han Na Park, Jeffrey H Boatright, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Visual experience during the critical period modulates visual development such that deprivation causes visual impairments while stimulation induces enhancements. This study aimed to determine whether visual stimulation in the form of daily optomotor response (OMR) testing during the mouse critical period (1) improves aspects of visual function, (2) involves retinal mechanisms and (3) is mediated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine (DA) signaling pathways. We tested spatial frequency thresholds in C57BL/6J mice daily from postnatal days 16 to 23 (P16 to P23) using OMR testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372256/dopamine-deficiency-mediates-early-rod-driven-inner-retinal-dysfunction-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Moon K Kim, Moe H Aung, Lukas Mees, Darin E Olson, Nikita Pozdeyev, P Michael Iuvone, Peter M Thule, Machelle T Pardue
Purpose: Electroretinograms (ERGs) are abnormal in diabetic retinas before the appearance of vascular lesions, providing a possible biomarker for diabetic vision loss. Previously, we reported that decreased retinal dopamine (DA) levels in diabetic rodents contributed to early visual and retinal dysfunction. In the current study, we examined whether oscillatory potentials (OPs) could serve as a potential marker for detecting early inner retinal dysfunction due to retinal DA deficiency...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281965/is-dopamine-transporter-mediated-dopaminergic-signaling-in-the-retina-a-noninvasive-biomarker-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-study-in-a-novel-dopamine-transporter-variant-val559-transgenic-mouse-model
#10
Heng Dai, Chad R Jackson, Gwynne L Davis, Randy D Blakely, Douglas G McMahon
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) is a critical neuromodulator in the retina. Disruption of retinal DA synthesis and signaling significantly attenuates light-adapted, electroretinogram (ERG) responses, as well as contrast sensitivity and acuity. As these measures can be detected noninvasively, they may provide opportunities to detect disease processes linked to perturbed DA signaling. Recently, we identified a rare, functional DA transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) coding substitution, Ala559Val, in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), demonstrating that DAT Val559 imparts anomalous DA efflux (ADE) with attendant physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral phenotypes...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273324/temporal-expression-of-c-fos-and-genes-coding-for-neuropeptides-and-enzymes-of-amino-acid-and-amine-neurotransmitter-biosynthesis-in-retina-pineal-and-hypothalamus-of-a-migratory-songbird-evidence-for-circadian-rhythm-dependent-seasonal-responses
#11
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
This study investigated whether, in photoperiodic songbirds, the circadian pacemaker system (CPS) connects to the seasonal photoperiodic responses, by changes at transcriptional level in the level and 24-h rhythm of its constituent neurotransmitters. We used black-headed buntings (Emberiza melanocephala), which exhibit distinct seasonal states in captivity under appropriate photoperiods and hence served as a useful model system. Under short days, buntings remain in the photosensitive state (Pse) (winter phenotype: non-migratory, non-breeding)...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238991/distribution-and-diversity-of-intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-tree-shrew
#12
Elizabeth N Johnson, Teleza Westbrook, Rod Shayesteh, Emily L Chen, Joseph W Schumacher, David Fitzpatrick, Greg D Field
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organization and diversity across species, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine ipRGCs in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews share membership in the same clade, or evolutionary branch, as rodents and primates...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217689/dopamine-dependent-sensitization-of-rod-bipolar-cells-by-gaba-is-conveyed-through-wide-field-amacrine-cells
#13
Amanda M Travis, Stephanie J Heflin, Arlene A Hirano, Nicholas C Brecha, Vadim Y Arshavsky
The vertebrate retina has the remarkable ability to support visual function under conditions of limited illumination, including the processing of signals evoked by single photons. Dim-light vision is regulated by several adaptive mechanisms. The mechanism explored in this study is responsible for increasing the light sensitivity and operational range of rod bipolar cells, the retinal neurons operating immediately downstream of rod photoreceptors. This sensitization is achieved through the sustained dopamine-dependent GABA release from other retinal neurons...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166564/optical-control-of-dopamine-receptors-using-a-photoswitchable-tethered-inverse-agonist
#14
Prashant Donthamsetti, Nils Winter, Matthias Schönberger, Joshua Levitz, Cherise Stanley, Jonathan A Javitch, Ehud Y Isacoff, Dirk Trauner
Family A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control diverse biological processes and are of great clinical relevance. Their archetype rhodopsin becomes naturally light sensitive by binding covalently to the photoswitchable tethered ligand (PTL) retinal. Other GPCRs, however, neither bind covalently to ligands nor are light sensitive. We sought to impart the logic of rhodopsin to light-insensitive Family A GPCRs in order to enable their remote control in a receptor-specific, cell-type-specific and spatio-temporally precise manner...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157002/effects-of-circadian-clock-protein-per1b-on-zebrafish-visual-functions
#15
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
February 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966549/myopia-induced-by-flickering-light-in-guinea-pig-eyes-is-associated-with-increased-rather-than-decreased-dopamine-release
#16
Xiumei Luo, Bing Li, Tao Li, Yue Di, Changyue Zheng, Shunmei Ji, Yuanyuan Ma, Jie Zhu, Xuefeng Chen, Xiaodong Zhou
PURPOSE: It is well known that the dopaminergic signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the control of axial elongation. Much research has shown that retinal dopamine (DA) is decreased in experimental myopia, but the exact alteration in DA quantity underlying the myopia model induced by flickering light (FL) has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we first attempted to prove the feasibility of the myopia model induced by FL and then to determine whether and how DA and its receptors changed in myopia induced by FL...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944194/effect-of-dopamine-on-bone-morphogenesis-protein-2-expression-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#17
Hong-Hui Li, Yan-Li Sun, Dong-Mei Cui, Juan Wu, Jun-Wen Zeng
AIM: To investigate the effect of dopamine on bone morphogenesis protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells as a human RPE cell line were cultured with dopamine for different times (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24h) or with different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 100 µg/mL) in vitro. BMP-2 mRNA expression level in ARPE-19 cells was analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and BMP-2 protein level was measured with Western blot analysis...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#18
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801634/mapping-physiological-inputs-from-multiple-photoreceptor-systems-to-dopaminergic-amacrine-cells-in-the-mouse-retina
#19
Xiwu Zhao, Kwoon Y Wong, Dao-Qi Zhang
In the vertebrate retina, dopamine is synthesized and released by a specialized type of amacrine cell, the dopaminergic amacrine cell (DAC). DAC activity is stimulated by rods, cones, and melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells upon illumination. However, the relative contributions of these three photoreceptor systems to the DAC light-induced response are unknown. Here we found that rods excite dark-adapted DACs across a wide range of stimulation intensities, primarily through connexin-36-dependent rod pathways...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783931/low-retinal-dehydrogenase-1-raldh1-level-in-prepubertal-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-possible-link-to-dopamine-dysfunction
#20
Denis Pavăl, Florina Rad, Răzvan Rusu, Alexandru-Ştefan Niculae, Horaţiu Alexandru Colosi, Iuliana Dobrescu, Eleonora Dronca
Objective: Retinal dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH1) is a cytosolic enzyme which acts both as a source of retinoic acid (RA) and as a detoxification enzyme. RALDH1 has key functions in the midbrain dopaminergic system, which influences motivation, cognition, and social behavior. Since dopamine has been increasingly linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we asked whether RALDH1 could contribute to the autistic phenotype. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the levels of RALDH1 in autistic patients...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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