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Ahmad S Altiti, David R Mootoo
A strategy for the synthesis of C-pseudodisaccharides that centers on the reaction of a C-linked crotyltin and a substituted pent-4-enal, and a ring closing metathesis-alkene dihydroxylation sequence on the derived crotylation products, is illustrated in the preparation of analogues of the insulin modulatory inositol galactosamine-β-(1->4)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol (β-INS-2). The modularity of this approach and versatility of the pivotal crotylation products makes this a potentially general methodology for diverse libraries of C-glycoinositols...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
José M Caridad, Sinead Winters, David McCloskey, Georg S Duesberg, John F Donegan, Vojislav Krstić
The optical response of metallic nanohelices is mainly governed by a longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) which arises due to the helical anisotropy of the system. Up to now, experimental studies have predominantly addressed the far-field response, despite the fact that the LSPR being of broad interest for converting incoming light into strongly enhanced (chiral) optical near-fields. Here, we demonstrate the control and spatial reproducibility of the plasmon-induced electromagnetic near-field around metallic nanohelices via surface-enhanced Raman scattering...
May 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Federica Fraticelli, Claudio Celentano, Isaia Al Zecca, Giacoma Di Vieste, Basilio Pintaudi, Marco Liberati, Marica Franzago, Marta Di Nicola, Ester Vitacolonna
AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder of pregnancy. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of different dosages of inositol stereoisomers supplementation on insulin resistance levels and several maternal-fetal outcomes in GDM women. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive daily: 400 mcg folic acid (control treatment), 4000 mg myo-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (MI treatment), 500 mg D-chiro-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (DCI treatment) or 1100/27...
May 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Hossam Al-Suod, Paweł Pomastowski, Magdalena Ligor, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Bogusław Buszewski
INTRODUCTION: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous chemical constituents and beneficial properties. Among these constituents are cyclitols, which have attracted attention due to the variety of biological properties they have. OBJECTIVE: A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation technique with time-of-flight and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis was used for the first time for the identification of three cyclitols from different parts of alfalfa...
May 6, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Zheni N Georgieva, Brian P Bloom, Supriya Ghosh, David H Waldeck
The direct synthesis of chiroptical organic-inorganic methylammonium lead bromide perovskite nanoplatelets that are passivated by R- or S-phenylethylammonium ligands is reported. The circular dichroism spectra can be divided into two components: (1) a region associated with a charge transfer transition between the ligand and the nanoplatelet, 300-350 nm, and (2) a region corresponding to the excitonic absorption maximum of the perovskite, 400-450 nm. The temperature- and concentration-dependent circular dichroism spectra indicate that the chiro-optical response arises from chiral imprinting by the ligand on the electronic states of the quantum-confined perovskite rather than chiral ligand-induced stereoselective aggregation...
April 26, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sanjay Kalra, Bharti Kalra
This review describes the mechanistic, animal, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in midlife. It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol and randomized controlled trials conducted in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome and supports these data with the results of in vitro and animal studies on inositol in nephropathy and other related conditions. Recent advances related to biochemistry, pharmaceutical science, and genetics are discussed. It concludes that inositols have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic health in postmenopausal women...
January 2018: Journal of Mid-life Health
Sruthi Venkataramanababu, Greshma Nair, Preeti Deshpande, Jithin M A, Mohan Sangeneni, Ambarish Ghosh
Chiral metamaterials are obtained by assembling plasmonic elements in geometries with broken mirror symmetry, which can have promising applications pertaining to generation, manipulation and detection of optical polarisation. The materials used to fabricate this promising nanosystem, especially in the visible-NIR regime, are limited to noble metals such as Au and Ag. However, they are not stable at elevated temperatures and in addition, incompatible with CMOS technologies. We demonstrate that it is possible to develop a chiro-plasmonic system based on a refractory material such as Titanium Nitride (TiN) which does not have these disadvantages...
April 3, 2018: Nanotechnology
Júlia Mayans, Mercè Font-Bardia, Lorenzo Di Bari, Lorenzo Arrico, Francesco Zinna, Gennaro Pescitelli, Albert Escuer
The systematic reactions of a family of tetradentate pyridyl/imine and quinolyl/imine racemic or enantiopure Schiff bases with Ni(NO3 )2 or Ni(ClO4 )2 in the presence of sodium azide yielded, as a function of the starting racemic, chiral or achiral base, a set of chiral, meso or achiral complexes. In all cases, the compounds consist of two NiII cations linked by a double azido bridge in its end-on coordination mode. All the dimers exhibit a mesocate supramolecular structure and one of them, the unprecedented mix of helicate and mesocate in 2:1 ratio...
March 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xiang-Tian Kong, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Zhiming Wang, Alexander O Govorov
Chiral photochemistry remains a challenge because of the very small asymmetry in the chiro-optical absorption of molecular species. However, we think that the rapidly developing fields of plasmonic chirality and plasmon-induced circular dichroism demonstrate very strong chiro-optical effects and have the potential to facilitate the development of chiral photochemistry and other related applications such as chiral separation and sensing. In this study, we propose a new type of chiral spectroscopy-photothermal circular dichroism...
March 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Bhartendu K Srivastava, Kannoth M Muraleedharan
Systematic structure-property optimization of an achiral gelator (aryl-triazolyl homo dipeptide, 1.0) through a fragment replacement approach led to the identification of a new chiral system (aryl-triazolyl dipeptide 1.4 having leucine as the C-terminal residue) which exhibits consistent and perfectly reversible chiro-optical responses on sol-gel transition that can work like an ON-OFF switch. The gelator 1.4 could also direct the assembly of 1.0 in a sergeant-soldier mode to give similar CD responses. In addition, its gels are mouldable, self-healing and highly thixotropic, making it important from an application standpoint...
February 28, 2018: Soft Matter
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones
Currently, huanglongbing is the most damaging disease of citrus causing huge economic losses. The disease is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The pathogen is transmitted in a persistent propagative circulative manner within its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Exploring the metabolic alteration in the vector may lead to a better understanding of the nutritional needs of CLas and to designing an artificial medium for culturing the pathogen. It has been shown that the nymphal stages have a greater role in transmission mainly because they feed on plants more actively than adults...
2018: PloS One
Tami J Stuart, Kathleen O'Neill, David Condon, Issac Sasson, Payel Sen, Yunwei Xia, Rebecca A Simmons
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in offspring. Increasing evidence suggests that the placenta plays an active role in fetal programming. In this study, we used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity to demonstrate that the abnormal metabolic milieu of maternal obesity sets the stage very early in pregnancy by altering the transcriptome of placenta progenitor cells in the pre-implantation (trophectoderm [TE]) and early post-implantation (ectoplacental cone [EPC]) placenta precursors which is associated with later changes in placenta development and function...
January 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
Alberto Blázquez-Moraleja, Luis Cerdán, Inmaculada García-Moreno, Edurne Avellanal-Zaballa, Jorge Bañuelos, M Luisa Jimeno, Iñigo López-Arbeloa, Jose Luis Chiara
Stereochemical and steric control of the relative spatial arrangement of the chromophoric units in multichromophoric systems offers an interesting strategy for raising unusual and appealing light-induced emission states. To explore and exploit this strategy, a series of conformationally restricted boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dimers were designed by using tartaric acid as a symmetrical connector between the boron atoms of the dyes. The variety of stereoisomeric forms available for this bis(hydroxy acid) allows the relative spatial orientation of the chromophoric units in the dimer to be modified, which thus opens the door to modulation of the photophysical and chiroptical properties of the new bichromophoric systems...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zi-Chen Wu, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Jie-Tang Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Xu-Ming Huang, Hui-Cong Wang
Although methylated cyclitols constitute a major proportion of the carbohydrates in many plant species, their physiological roles and biosynthetic pathway are largely unknown. Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) is one of the major methylated cyclitols in some plant species. In litchi, quebrachitol represents approximately 50% of soluble sugars in mature leaves and 40% of the total sugars in phloem exudate. In the present study, we identified bornesitol as a transient methylated intermediate of quebrachitol and measured the concentrations of methyl-inositols in different tissues and in tissues subjected to different treatments...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hua Yu Feng, Carolina de Dios, Fernando García, Alfonso Cebollada, Gaspar Armelles
We present a systematic study to separate the different contributions to the dichroic response of complex plasmonic split-ring/ring magneto-chiral systems. For this, we first construct metastructures with plasmonic, chiral and magneto-optical functionalities by specific arrangements of different building blocks, each of them responsible for one of the functionalities. Then, by the use of Mueller matrices in forward/backward spectroscopic measurements under magnetic field, we separate optical anisotropy from pure chiral contributions to the overall dichroic response of the system...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
K Ravanos, G Monastra, T Pavlidou, M Goudakou, N Prapas
OBJECTIVE: It was previously shown that higher concentrations of myo-inositol in human follicular fluid improve oocyte and embryo quality, whereas D-chiro-inositol seems to worsen oocyte quality and ovarian response in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Our study was the first one aiming to test whether different myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol concentration in follicular fluids correlate with blastocyst quality in healthy young women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight egg donors and eleven couples undergoing in vitro fertilization, were involved in a prospective observational study...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Bobo Zhang, Caifeng Gao, Yunlong Li, Min Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tartary buckwheat is a food medicine dual-use crop with healing effects on cardiovascular diseases and type2 diabetes. It has been proposed that endothelial dysfunction is the initial lesion in these diseases and it's associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is a bioactive compound of Tartary buckwheat and is always deficit in type2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether DCI-enriched Tartary buckwheat extract can ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and inflammation in the endothelium...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lara C Morley, Thomas Tang, Ephia Yasmin, Robert J Norman, Adam H Balen
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin may be effective in treating PCOS-related anovulation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin-sensitising drugs in improving reproductive and metabolic outcomes for women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rossella D'Oria, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino, Vittorio Unfer, Stefano Bettocchi, Marco Scioscia
PKB/Akt and MAP/ERK are intracellular kinases regulating cell survival, proliferation and metabolism and as such hold a strategical role in preeclampsia. In fact intracellular pathways related to immunological alterations, endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in preeclampsia converge on these molecules. Inositol second messengers are involved in metabolic and cell signaling pathways and are highly expressed during preeclampsia. To evaluate the pathophysiological significance of this response, the effect of myo-inositol and d-chiro inositol on the activation of PKB/Akt and MAPK/ERK was assessed in human endothelial cells in vitro...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
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