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Albert Escuer, Julia Mayans, Lorenzo Di Bari, Merce Font-Bardia, Lorenzo Arrico, Francesco Zinna, Gennaro Pescitelli
The systematic reactions of a family of tetradentate pyridyl/imine and quinolyl/imine racemic or enantiopure Schiff bases with Ni(NO3)2 or Ni(ClO4)2 in the presence of sodium azide yielded, as a function of the starting racemic, chiral or achiral base, a set of chiral, meso or achiral complexes. In all cases, the compounds consist in two NiII cations linked by a double azido bridge in its end-on coordination mode. All the dimers exhibit a mesocate supramolecular structure and one of them, the unprecedented mix of helicate and mesocate in 2:1 ratio...
March 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xiang-Tian Kong, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Zhiming Wang, Alexander O Govorov
Chiral photochemistry remains a challenge because of the very small asymmetry in the chiro-optical absorption of molecular species. However, we think that the rapidly developing fields of plasmonic chirality and plasmon-induced circular dichroism demonstrate very strong chiro-optical effects and have the potential to facilitate the development of chiral photochemistry and other related applications such as chiral separation and sensing. In this study, we propose a new type of chiral spectroscopy - photothermal circular dichroism...
February 8, 2018: Nano Letters
Bhartendu K Srivastava, Kannoth M Muraleedharan
Systematic structure-property optimization of an achiral gelator (aryl-triazolyl homo dipeptide, 1.0) through a fragment replacement approach led to the identification of a new chiral system (aryl-triazolyl dipeptide 1.4 having leucine as the C-terminal residue) which exhibits consistent and perfectly reversible chiro-optical responses on sol-gel transition that can work like an ON-OFF switch. The gelator 1.4 could also direct the assembly of 1.0 in a sergeant-soldier mode to give similar CD responses. In addition, its gels are mouldable, self-healing and highly thixotropic, making it important from an application standpoint...
February 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones
Currently, huanglongbing is the most damaging disease of citrus causing huge economic losses. The disease is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The pathogen is transmitted in a persistent propagative circulative manner within its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Exploring the metabolic alteration in the vector may lead to a better understanding of the nutritional needs of CLas and to designing an artificial medium for culturing the pathogen. It has been shown that the nymphal stages have a greater role in transmission mainly because they feed on plants more actively than adults...
2018: PloS One
Tami J Stuart, Kathleen O'Neill, David Condon, Issac Sasson, Payel Sen, Yunwei Xia, Rebecca A Simmons
Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in offspring. Increasing evidence suggests that the placenta plays an active role in fetal programming. In this study, we used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity to demonstrate that the abnormal metabolic milieu of maternal obesity sets the stage very early in pregnancy by altering the transcriptome of placenta progenitor cells in the pre-implantation (trophectoderm [TE]) and early post-implantation (ectoplacental cone [EPC]) placenta precursors which is associated with later changes in placenta development and function...
January 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
Alberto Blazquez-Moraleja, Luis Cerdan, Inmaculada García-Moreno, Edurne Avellanal-Zaballa, Jorge Bañuelos, M Luisa Jimeno, Iñigo López-Arbeloa, Jose Luis Chiara
The exceptionally rich chemistry of BODIPY dyes enables the fine-tuning of their optical properties for advanced applications. However, the stereochemical and steric control of their photonic behavior has not been studied despite the key role that the spatial arrangement of the chromophoric units plays in raising light-induced exotic emission states in multichromophoric systems. To explore and exploit this strategy, a series of conformationally restricted BODIPY dimers has been designed using tartaric acid as a symmetrical connector between the boron atoms of the dyes...
January 3, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zi-Chen Wu, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Jie-Tang Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Xu-Ming Huang, Hui-Cong Wang
Although methylated cyclitols constitute a major proportion of the carbohydrates in many plant species, their physiological roles and biosynthetic pathway were largely unknown. Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) is one of the major methylated cyclitols in some plant species. In litchi, quebrachitol represents around 50% soluble sugars in mature leaves and 40% of the total sugars in phloem exudation. In the present study, we identified bornesitol as a transient methylated intermediate of quebrachitol and measured the concentrations of methyl-inositols in different tissues and in tissues subjected to different treatments...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hua Yu Feng, Carolina de Dios, Fernando García, Alfonso Cebollada, Gaspar Armelles
We present a systematic study to separate the different contributions to the dichroic response of complex plasmonic split-ring/ring magneto-chiral systems. For this, we first construct metastructures with plasmonic, chiral and magneto-optical functionalities by specific arrangements of different building blocks, each of them responsible for one of the functionalities. Then, by the use of Mueller matrices in forward/backward spectroscopic measurements under magnetic field, we separate optical anisotropy from pure chiral contributions to the overall dichroic response of the system...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
K Ravanos, G Monastra, T Pavlidou, M Goudakou, N Prapas
OBJECTIVE: It was previously shown that higher concentrations of myo-inositol in human follicular fluid improve oocyte and embryo quality, whereas D-chiro-inositol seems to worsen oocyte quality and ovarian response in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Our study was the first one aiming to test whether different myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol concentration in follicular fluids correlate with blastocyst quality in healthy young women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight egg donors and eleven couples undergoing in vitro fertilization, were involved in a prospective observational study...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Bobo Zhang, Caifeng Gao, Yunlong Li, Min Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tartary buckwheat is a food medicine dual-use crop with healing effects on cardiovascular diseases and type2 diabetes. It has been proposed that endothelial dysfunction is the initial lesion in these diseases and it's associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is a bioactive compound of Tartary buckwheat and is always deficit in type2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether DCI-enriched Tartary buckwheat extract can ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and inflammation in the endothelium...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lara C Morley, Thomas Tang, Ephia Yasmin, Robert J Norman, Adam H Balen
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin may be effective in treating PCOS-related anovulation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin-sensitising drugs in improving reproductive and metabolic outcomes for women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rossella D'Oria, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino, Vittorio Unfer, Stefano Bettocchi, Marco Scioscia
PKB/Akt and MAP/ERK are intracellular kinases regulating cell survival, proliferation and metabolism and as such hold a strategical role in preeclampsia. In fact intracellular pathways related to immunological alterations, endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in preeclampsia converge on these molecules. Inositol second messengers are involved in metabolic and cell signaling pathways and are highly expressed during preeclampsia. To evaluate the pathophysiological significance of this response, the effect of myo-inositol and d-chiro inositol on the activation of PKB/Akt and MAPK/ERK was assessed in human endothelial cells in vitro...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
Vittorio Unfer, Fabio Facchinetti, Beatrice Orrù, Barbara Giordani, John Nestler
Myo-inositol (MI) supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been evaluated over the last years. Many hormonal and reproductive impairments associated with this disorder seem relieved by the supplement. The objective of the meta-analysis was to assess the effects of MI alone or combined with d-chiro-inositol (DCI) on the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of women with PCOS. Literature was retrieved from selected databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Research Gate (up to November 2016)...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
Marco Scioscia
Preeclampsia results from a complex interaction between immunological alterations, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Inositol second messengers are known to be involved in metabolic signaling and are highly expressed during preeclampsia. In the past two decades, several studies were published on different aspects where these molecules are involved. It appears that maternal increase of IPG-P content in all tissues and fluids reflects an increased production of inositol mediators on the fetal side in preeclampsia...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Qiang Yan, Eunsoo Hong, Stephen S Fong
Microbial utilization of chitin, a potential renewable biomass feedstock, is being pursued as a means of developing novel consolidated bioprocessing for the production of chemicals. Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative bacterium that is known for its chitinolytic capability and as a native 2,3-butanediol producer. In S. marcescens, ChiR has been suggested to be a positive regulator of chitinase production. In this study, we aim to understand the effect of ChiR in regulating nine chitinase-related genes in S...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eun Jin Mo, Jong Hoon Ahn, Yang Hee Jo, Seon Beom Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
In this study, the characterization of chemical constituents and biological activity of the roots of Taraxacum coreanum (Asteraceae) was attempted. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of T. coreanum led to the isolation of two new inositol derivatives, taraxinositols A (1) and B (2), and a new phenolic compound, taraxinol (16), together with twenty known compounds including four inositol derivatives, neo-inositol-1,4-bis (4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) (3), chiro-inositol-1,5-bis(4- hydroxybenzeneacetate) (4), chiro-inositol-2,3-bis (4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) (5) and chiro-inositol- 1,2,3-tris (4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) (6), nine phenolic compounds: p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7), vanillin (8), syringaldehyde (9), vanillic acid (10), 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (11), 4-hydroxy- phenylacetic acid methyl ester (12), optivanin (13), isoferulic acid (14) and dihydroconiferyl alcohol (15), four coumarins: nodakenetin (17), decursinol (18), prangol (19) and isobyakangelicin (20), and three lignans: syringaresinol-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (21), syringaresinol (22), and pinoresinol (23)...
August 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Domenico Dell'Edera, Francesca Sarlo, Arianna Allegretti, Francesca Simone, Maria Giovanna Lupo, Annunziata Anna Epifania
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that the use of inositol and folic acid from the first trimester of pregnancy, counteracts the onset of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women at risk, preserving the infants from macrosomia, hypoglycemia and preterm delivery. The authors collected data from the pregnant women at the laboratory (Unit of Cytogenic and Molecular Genetics), from January 2014 to April 2016, all with first trimester fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >92 mg/dl. A total of 40 women were treated with 250 mg/day D-chiro-inositol, 1...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
Luis Cerdán, Florencio Moreno, Mizuki Johnson, Gilles Muller, Santiago de la Moya, Inmaculada García-Moreno
The generation of circularly polarized laser emission (CPLE) in photonic devices has attracted increasing attention due to the prospects of using CP light in displaying technologies or advanced microscopies. Organic systems excel as laser materials across the whole visible spectrum, and despite many of them displaying circularly polarized luminescence (CPL), none have been shown thus far to amplify their own CPL, let alone generate CPLE. Consequently, there is still a need to find alternative CPLE organic devices...
August 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
D Dell'Edera, F Sarlo, A Allegretti, A A Epifania, F Simone, M G Lupo, M Benedetto, M R D'Apice, A Capalbo
OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to demonstrate that the use in the preconceptional period until the 24th week of pregnancy of inositol and folic acid, first of all, preserves the product of conception from neural tube defects (NTDs) and then, thanks to inositol supplementation, it possibly counteracts and prevents the onset of maternal gestational diabetes (GDM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have collected data derived from pregnant women arrived at our laboratory, from January 2014 to January 2016, with no family history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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