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Bharti Kalra, Sanjay Kalra, J B Sharma
This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kai I Cheang, Sakita N Sistrun, Kelley S Morel, John E Nestler
Background. A deficiency of D-chiro-inositol-inositolphosphoglycan mediator (DCI-IPG) may contribute to insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whether the relationship between impaired DCI-IPG release and insulin resistance is specific to PCOS rather than obesity is unknown. We assessed insulin-released DCI-IPG and its relationship to insulin sensitivity at baseline and after weight loss in obese women with and without PCOS. Methods. Obese PCOS (n = 16) and normal (n = 15) women underwent 8 weeks of a hypocaloric diet...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Alessandro D Genazzani
Studies over the last decade have demonstrated that some polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have abnormal insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), independently from being overweight or obese. This induces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in such PCOS patients. The use of insulin sensitizers (i.e. metformin), reduces such metabolic, and most hormonal, impairments. As metformin often induces side effects, new integrative strategies have been proposed to treat insulin resistance, such as the use of inositols...
September 16, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Ewa M Milewska, Adam Czyzyk, Blazej Meczekalski, Alessandro D Genazzani
Inositol is an organic compound of high biological importance that is widely distributed in nature. It belongs to the sugar family and is mainly represented by its two dominant stereoisomers: myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol that are found in the organism in the physiological serum ratio 40:1. Inositol and its derivatives are important components of the structural phospholipids of the cell membranes and are precursors of the second messengers of many metabolic pathways. A high concentration of myoinositol is found in the follicular fluid and in semen...
September 5, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Antonio Simone Laganà, Paola Rossetti, Massimo Buscema, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita Angela Condorelli, Giuseppe Gullo, Roberta Granese, Onofrio Triolo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Marco Esposito, Vittorianna Tasco, Francesco Todisco, Massimo Cuscunà, Alessio Benedetti, Mario Scuderi, Giuseppe Nicotra, Adriana Passaseo
The capability to fully control the chiro-optical properties of metamaterials in the visible range enables a number of applications from integrated photonics to life science. To achieve this goal, a simultaneous control over complex spatial and localized structuring as well as material composition at the nanoscale is required. Here, we demonstrate how circular dichroic bands and optical rotation can be effectively and independently tailored throughout the visible regime as a function of the fundamental meta-atoms properties and of their three dimensional architecture in a the helix-shaped metamaterials...
September 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Antonio Simone Laganà, Francesco Orio
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome characterized by reproductive and metabolic implications. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are considered first-line treatment for women affected by PCOS. Pharmacologic treatments target the hormonal and metabolic dysregulations associated to the disease such as insulin resistance, anovulation, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. OBJECTIVE: To focus on the role of inositol isoforms, as well as Mediterranean and ketogenic diets, as possible therapeutic strategies in PCOS women...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Elena Benelli, Scilla Del Ghianda, Caterina Di Cosmo, Massimo Tonacchera
Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid) for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Alessandro Cecconello, Jason S Kahn, Chun-Hua Lu, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Alexander O Govorov, Itamar Willner
Within the broad interest of assembling chiral left- and right-handed helices of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs), we introduce the DNA-guided organization of left- or right-handed plasmonic Au NPs on DNA scaffolds. The method involves the self-assembly of stacked 12 DNA quasi-rings interlinked by 30 staple-strands. By the functionalization of one group of staple units with programmed tether-nucleic acid strands and additional staple elements with long nucleic acid chains, acting as promoter strands, the promoter-guided assembly of barrels modified with 12 left- or right-handed tethers is achieved...
August 10, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
P M Rendle, F Kassibawi, K A Johnston, J B Hart, S A Cameron, A Falshaw, G F Painter, K M Loomes
d-chiro-inositol (DCI, 1) evokes therapeutic actions in diabetes and insulin resistance but has sub-optimal pharmacokinetic profiles. To investigate what positions on the DCI cyclohexanol ring may be amenable to modification to improve pharmaceutical formulations, a series of analogues based on DCI were synthesised. These compounds were then evaluated for their ability to stimulate glucose transport using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a model system. Positional analyses indicate that the hydroxyl group at position 1 is not essential for activity and can be modified without affecting glucose uptake...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Alexander Bäumer, John G Duman, Martina Havenith
Remarkably little is known about the mechanism of action of ice nucleation proteins (INPs), although their ability to trigger ice nucleation could be used in a broad variety of applications. We present CD measurements of an insect lipoprotein ice nucleator (LPIN) which show that the lipoproteins consist of a high amount of β-structures (35%). Terahertz absorption spectroscopy is used to probe the influence of the LPIN on the H-bond network dynamics. We observe a small, but significant THz excess, as an indication of an influence on the H-bond network dynamics...
July 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Francesca Ferrari, Fabio Facchinetti, Alejandra E Ontiveros, Robyn P Roberts, Mia M Saade, Sean C Blackwell, Baha M Sibai, Jerrie S Refuerzo, Monica Longo
BACKGROUND: Myoinositol and D-chiroinositol improve insulin resistance in women with obesity and gestational diabetes and in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that offspring born to hypertensive dams lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase and fed a high-fat diet develop metabolic-like syndrome phenotype. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of a mixture of myoinositol/D-chiroinositol supplementation during pregnancy on the maternal metabolic profile in pregnancies complicated by the metabolic-like syndrome and obesity using a pregnant mouse model...
October 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yun-Feng Gao, Meng-Na Zhang, Tian-Xin Wang, Tian-Chen Wu, Ru-Dan Ai, Ze-Sheng Zhang
In this investigation, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to clarify more details of the mechanism in the therapy of T2DM. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) was administrated to the diabetic rats as two doses [30, 60 mg/(kg·body weight·day)]. The biochemical indices revealed that DCI had a positive effect on hypoglycemic activity and promoted the glycogen synthesis. The rats in DCI high-dosage group had a blood glucose reduction rate of 21.5% after 5 weeks of treatment, and had insulin content in serum about 15...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Maria Elizabeth Miranda-Perez, Clara Ortega-Camarillo, Maria Del Carmen Escobar-Villanueva, Gerardo Blancas-Flores, Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché(C. ficifolia) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to control type 2 diabetes (T2D). The hypoglycemic effect of the fruit of C. ficifolia has been demonstrated in different experimental models and in T2D patients. It has been proposed that D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is the active compound of the fruit. Additionally, it has been reported that C. ficifolia increases the mRNA expression of insulin and Kir 6.2 (a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)ATP) channel, which is activated by sulphonylurea) in RINm5F cells...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nuria H González-Mauraza, Antonio J León-González, José L Espartero, Juan B Gallego-Fernández, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Carmen Martin-Cordero
The genus Retama (Fabaceae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. In the present study, pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol), an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic molecule, was isolated from aerial parts of R. monosperma, and its structure established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques (1D/2D NMR) and MS. Identification and quantification of pinitol in R. raetam and R. sphaerocarpa were also performed. R. monosperma had the highest concentration of pinitol (2.3%). The presence of pinitol in aqueous extracts of Retama spp...
March 2016: Natural Product Communications
Yuan Zhao, Yaxin Yang, Jing Zhao, Ping Weng, Qingfeng Pang, Qijun Song
Fabricated Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticle (CS NP) assemblies exhibit pronounced and reverse chiral bisignate plasmonic signals spanning 400 to 580 nm, in comparison to Ag NP assemblies. The time-dependent chiro-optical response of assemblies that shift with shell deposition is systematically recorded. Chiral Ag@Au CS NP assemblies first achieve the special discrimination of circulating tumor cells with HER2 overexpression.
June 2016: Advanced Materials
Bikramjit Singh, Sanjay Behari, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Anant Mehrotra, B Madan Mohan, Rajendra V Phadke
PURPOSE: To identify clinico-radiological distinguishing features in various types of spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with an aim to define the role of surgical intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hero's modified Di Chiro classification differentiated four types of spinal AVMs on digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) in 74 patients: I. Dural arteriovenous fistulae (n = 35, 47.3%); II. Glomus/intramedullary (n = 13, 17.6%); III. Juvenile/metameric (n = 4, 5...
April 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Anshu Gupta, Daniela Jakubowicz, John E Nestler
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be mediated, in part, by a deficiency in the insulin-stimulated release of a d-chiro-inositol-inositolphosphoglycan (DCI-IPG) mediator of insulin action. Supporting this idea, several studies have reported improved insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese women with PCOS after oral administration of DCI. Pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS, but it is unknown whether this may be contributed by enhanced insulin-stimulated release of the DCI-IPG second messenger...
March 30, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Celia Bustos-Brito, Adolfo Andrade-Cetto, Juan David Giraldo-Aguirre, Angelina Daniela Moreno-Vargas, Leovigildo Quijano
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by tissue resistance to the action of insulin combined with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. In Mexico, medicinal plants have traditionally been used to control the disease; in this work, we investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Ageratina petiolaris, a plant used in Mexico for the treatment of diabetes. METHODS: The hypoglycemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from aerial parts of Ageratina petiolaris in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats were assessed...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cristiana Paul, Antonio Simone Laganà, Paolo Maniglio, Onofrio Triolo, David M Brady
The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type II diabetes (T2D) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been progressively increasing. Insulin resistance (InsR) seems to play a key role in a majority of phenotypes of these conditions, altering metabolic homeostasis, within muscle, liver, adipose and other tissues. Hyperinsulinemia is often associated with InsR and causes hormonal imbalances especially within ovaries and adrenals. Inositol is a polyalcohol, naturally occurring as nine stereoisomers, including D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and myo-inositol (MI), which have prominent roles in the metabolism of glucose and free fatty acids...
June 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
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