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Brain-gut axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#1
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933061/neuroendocrinology-of-adipose-tissue-and-gut-brain-axis
#2
Paulo Matafome, Hans Eickhoff, Liliana Letra, Raquel Seiça
Food intake and energy expenditure are closely regulated by several mechanisms which involve peripheral organs and nervous system, in order to maintain energy homeostasis.Short-term and long-term signals express the size and composition of ingested nutrients and the amount of body fat, respectively. Ingested nutrients trigger mechanical forces and gastrointestinal peptide secretion which provide signals to the brain through neuronal and endocrine pathways. Pancreatic hormones also play a role in energy balance exerting a short-acting control regulating the start, end, and composition of a meal...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#3
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921462/bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-cect-7765-ameliorates-neuroendocrine-alterations-associated-with-an-exaggerated-stress-response-and-anhedonia-in-obese-mice
#4
Ana Agusti, A Moya-Pérez, I Campillo, S Montserrat-de la Paz, V Cerrudo, A Perez-Villalba, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity, besides being a problem of metabolic dysfunction, constitutes a risk factor for psychological disorders. Experimental models of diet-induced obesity have revealed that obese animals are prone to anxious and depressive-like behaviors. The present study aimed to evaluate whether Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 could reverse the neurobehavioral consequences of obesity in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse model via regulation of the gut-brain axis. Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed a standard diet or HFD, supplemented with either placebo or the bifidobacterial strain for 13 weeks...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#5
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901279/role-of-physical-exercise-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-depressive-illness-in-the-elderly
#6
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano Sacchetti, Vittoria Nicolis di Robilant, Debora Cutuli
BACKGROUND: In adulthood, depression is the most common type of mental illness and will be the second leading cause of disease by 2020. Major depression dramatically affects the function of the central nervous system and degrades life quality, especially during aging. Several mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of depressive illness, given it has a multifactorial etiology. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that depression is mainly associated with imbalances in neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations, brain volume changes, neurogenesis dysfunction, and dysregulation of inflammatory pathways...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterised by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defence, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891262/more-than-constipation-bowel-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-connection-to-gut-microbiota
#8
T H Mertsalmi, V T E Aho, P A B Pereira, L Paulin, E Pekkonen, P Auvinen, F Scheperjans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of which constipation is considered the most prominent. Recently, in addition to constipation, a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was also found to be associated with increased PD risk. Gut microbiota alterations have been reported in IBS and recently also in PD. IBS-like bowel symptoms in PD and their possible connection to other non-motor symptoms and faecal microbiota were assessed...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890155/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-perturbation-causes-gut-endocannabinoidome-changes-hippocampal-neuroglial-reorganization-and-depression-in-mice
#9
F Guida, F Turco, M Iannotta, D De Gregorio, I Palumbo, G Sarnelli, A Furiano, F Napolitano, S Boccella, L Luongo, M Mazzitelli, A Usiello, F De Filippis, F A Iannotti, F Piscitelli, D Ercolini, V de Novellis, V Di Marzo, R Cuomo, S Maione
The microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) regulates the reciprocal interaction between chronic inflammatory bowel and psychiatric disorders. This interaction involves multiple pathways that are highly debated. We examined the behavioural, biochemical and electrophysiological alterations, as well as gut microbiota composition in a model of antibiotic-induced experimental dysbiosis. Inflammation of the small intestine was also assessed. Mice were exposed to a mixture of antimicrobials for 2weeks. Afterwards, they received Lactobacillus casei DG (LCDG) or a vehicle for up to 7days via oral gavage...
September 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887853/neuroendocrine-mechanisms-underlying-bariatric-surgery-insights-from-human-studies-and-animal-models
#10
REVIEW
Aneta Stefanidis, Brian J Oldfield
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and to date, bariatric surgery remains the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of its capacity to achieve durable weight loss. Bariatric surgery procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have been the primary procedures conducted over the past decade, with SG increasing in popularity over the past five years at the expense of both RYGB and AGB. Although these procedures were initially proposed to function via restrictive or malabsorptive mechanisms, it is now clear that profound physiological changes underlie the metabolic improvements in patients who undergo bariatric surgery...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887729/intestinal-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Gabriele Moser, Camille Fournier, Johannes Peter
Psychological comorbidity is highly present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent research points to a role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Increased disease reactivity to psychological stress has been described too. A few clinical studies have attempted to identify features of dysbiosis in IBS. While animal studies revealed strong associations between stress and gut microbiota, studies in humans are rare. This review covers the most important studies on intestinal microbial correlates of psychological and clinical features in IBS, including stress, anxiety, and depression...
September 8, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886251/iron-influences-on-the-gut-brain-axis-and-development-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
José Manuel Fernández-Real, José-Maria Moreno-Navarrete, Melania Manco
BACKGROUND: Microbiota/neuroendocrine interactions with health and disease are increasingly recognized. MAIN BODY: Aging is associated with progressive iron storage and development of type 2 diabetes, which impacts on brain microstructure and function, mainly in obese subjects. Iron status is also mutually influencing the composition of the gut microbiota, which in turn may affect cognition through the gut-brain axis. SHORT CONCLUSION: In this article we update the possible role of iron in all these interactions...
September 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881854/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878696/-i-am-i-and-my-bacterial-circumstances-linking-gut-microbiome-neurodevelopment-and-depression
#14
REVIEW
Juan M Lima-Ojeda, Rainer Rupprecht, Thomas C Baghai
Recently, there has been renewed interest in the role played by microbiome in both human health and human disease. A correct equilibrium between the human host and their microorganisms is important for an appropriate physiological function. Extensive research has shown that microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract-or gut microbiota-are involved not only in both nutritive and digestive activities but also in immunological processes. Moreover, the gut microbiome influences both central nervous system and energy homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#15
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860992/rewarding-effects-of-operant-dry-licking-behavior-on-neuronal-firing-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#16
Enrico Patrono, Jumpei Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Yusaku Takamura, Ikhruud C Chinzorig, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
Certain eating behaviors are characterized by a trend of elevated food consumption. However, neural mechanisms mediating the motivation for food consumption are not fully understood. Food impacts the brain-rewarding-system via both oral-sensory and post-ingestive information. Recent studies have reported an important role of visceral gut information in mediating dopamine (DA) release in the brain rewarding system. This is independent of oral sensation, suggesting a role of the gut-brain-DA-axis in feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859146/negative-correlation-of-cortical-thickness-with-the-severity-and-duration-of-abdominal-pain-in-asian-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Chian Sem Chua, Chyi-Huey Bai, Chen-Yu Shiao, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Chiao-Wen Cheng, Kuo-Ching Yang, Hung-Wen Chiu, Jung-Lung Hsu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852308/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
María Carmen Cenit, Yolanda Sanz, Pilar Codoñer-Franch
The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders...
August 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844808/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Torres-Fuentes, Harriët Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Changes in microbial diversity and composition are increasingly associated with several disease states including obesity and behavioural disorders. Obesity-associated microbiota alter host energy harvesting, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fat deposition. Additionally, intestinal microbiota can regulate metabolism, adiposity, homoeostasis, and energy balance as well as central appetite and food reward signalling, which together have crucial roles in obesity. Moreover, some strains of bacteria and their metabolites might target the brain directly via vagal stimulation or indirectly through immune-neuroendocrine mechanisms...
August 24, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#20
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
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