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Brain-gut axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#1
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#2
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#3
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503081/feeding-intolerance-inflammation-and-neurobehaviors-in-preterm-infants
#5
Tiffany A Moore, Rita H Pickler
PURPOSE: Identifying relationships between feeding intolerance (FI), inflammation, and early measures of neurodevelopment may provide the basis for clinically relevant assessments for NICU clinicians and staff. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the relationship of FI to inflammatory markers and/or neurobehaviors in the first week of life. METHODS: This was a retrospective, matched case-control design with data drawn from 114 infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation...
June 2017: Journal of Neonatal Nursing: JNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#6
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496408/the-impact-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-on-diabetic-cognition-impairment
#7
REVIEW
Youhua Xu, Hua Zhou, Quan Zhu
Progressive cognitive dysfunction is a central characteristic of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). With an aging population, the incidence of DE is rising and it has become a major threat that seriously affects public health. Studies within this decade have indicated the important role of risk factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation on the development of cognitive impairment. With the recognition of the two-way communication between gut and brain, recent investigation suggests that "microbiota-gut-brain axis" also plays a pivotal role in modulating both cognition function and endocrine stability...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#8
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484425/protein-digestion-derived-peptides-and-the-peripheral-regulation-of-food-intake
#9
REVIEW
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut-brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482009/the-microbiota-the-gut-and-the-brain-in-eating-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#10
Jamie E Temko, Sofia Bouhlal, Mehdi Farokhnia, Mary R Lee, John F Cryan, Lorenzo Leggio
Aims: Accumulating evidence for the influence of the gut microbiota on the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis suggests a role of the gut microbiota in eating disorders (EDs) and alcohol and substance use disorders. The potential influence of altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) on behaviors associated with such disorders may have implications for developing therapeutic interventions. Methods: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the gut microbiota, EDs and alcohol and substance use disorders was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases with the objective being to examine the role of the gut microbiota in behavioral correlates of these disorders...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467926/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#11
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies control glycemia in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, in some patients the treatment must be discontinued, defining a state of GLP-1 resistance. In animal models we identified a specific set of ileum bacteria impairing the GLP-1-activated gut-brain axis for the control of insulin secretion and gastric emptying. Using prediction algorithms, we identified bacterial pathways related to amino acid metabolism and transport system modules associated to GLP-1 resistance...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460516/neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Cristina Stasi, Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Emiliano Duranti, Nicola de Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Eleonora Albano, Salvatore Russo, Isabella Sudano, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Taddei, Santino Marchi, Rosa Maria Bruno
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. Methods: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), plasma serotonin, endothelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plasma, and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated. Fourteen IBS subjects underwent microneurography to obtain multiunit recordings of efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452565/administration-of-wasabia-koreana-ameliorates-irritable-bowel-syndrome-like-symptoms-in-a-zymosan-induced-mouse-model
#13
Bo-Kyung Park, Eunho Chun, Jeong June Choi, Younmin Shin, Young Tak Kho, Seung Hyun Oh, Sun Yeou Kim, Taek Hwan Lee, Tae-Wan Kim, Eunju Shin, Seon-Gil Do, Mirim Jin
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice...
May 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#14
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#15
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438331/-the-intestinal-microbiota-a-new-player-in-depression
#16
M Meyrel, L Varin, B Detaint, F Mouaffak
Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world according to the World Health Organization. The effectiveness of the available antidepressant therapies is limited. Data from the literature suggest that some subtypes of depression may be associated with chronic low grade inflammation. The uncovering of the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the immune system and its bidirectional communication with the brain have led to growing interest on reciprocal interactions between inflammation, microbiota and depression...
April 21, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436201/brain-responses-to-mechanical-rectal-stimuli-in-patients-with-faecal-incontinence-an-fmri-study
#17
Naseem Mirbagheri, Sean Hatton, Kheng-Seong Ng, Jim Lagopoulos, Marc A Gladman
AIM: Continence is dependent on anorectal/brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimuli in patients with FI using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHOD: A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients (4 male, mean [SD] age 62 [15] years)...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#18
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393621/a-review-on-the-relationship-between-gluten-and-schizophrenia-is-gluten-the-cause
#19
Can Ergün, Murat Urhan, Ahmet Ayer
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that possesses various clinical manifestations. It presents rather heterogeneous characteristics with respect to onset type, symptoms, and the course of the disease. Although the lifetime prevalence is as low as 1%, it can cause serious disability. Thus, it is very important to develop efficient treatment methods. In some studies, it is hypothesized that removing gluten from the diet leads to a significant improvement in disease symptoms...
April 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#20
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
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