Read by QxMD icon Read

Brain-gut axis

Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Hanna Ferløv Schwensen, Carol Kan, Janet Treasure, Niels Høiby, Magnus Sjögren
PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a poorly understood and often chronic condition. Deviations in the gut microbiota have been reported to influence the gut-brain axis in other disorders. Therefore, if present in AN, it may impact on symptoms and illness progression. A review of the gut microbiota studies in AN is presented. METHOD: A literature search on PubMed yielded 27 articles; 14 were selected and based on relevance, 9 articles were included. The findings were interpreted in the larger context of preclinical research and clinical observations...
March 14, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Matthew C B Tsilimigras, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Michael Sioda, Laura Gray, Anthony A Fodor, Mark Lyte
OBJECTIVE: Animal models are frequently used to examine stress response but experiments seldom include females. The connection between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behavioral stress response is investigated here using a mixed-sex mouse cohort. METHODS: CF-1 mice underwent alternating days of restraint and forced swim for 19 days (Male N=8, Female N=8) with matching numbers of control animals at which point the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiota were sequenced...
March 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
W C Wang, F F Yan, J Y Hu, O A Amen, H W Cheng
Probiotics reduce stress-related inflammation and abnormal behaviors in humans and rodents via regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, has similar functions in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS). Two hundred forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to 48 pens with 4 treatments: Thermoneutral (TN)-RD (regular diet), TN-PD (the regular diet mixed with 1×106 CFU/g feed probiotic), HS-RD and HS-PD. Probiotic (Sporulin®) was fed from day 1; and HS at 32 ºC for 10 h daily was initiated at day 15...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Raphaël Enaud, Louise-Eva Vandenborght, Noémie Coron, Thomas Bazin, Renaud Prevel, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Patrick Berger, Michael Fayon, Thierry Lamireau, Laurence Delhaes
In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut-brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted to gut bacterial microbiota, forgetting the non-negligible fungal flora. In this review, we expose how the role of the fungal component in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is legitimate, through its interactions with both the host, especially with the immune system, and the gut bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Microorganisms
V Richarte, K Rosales, M Corrales, M Bellina, C Fadeuilhe, E Calvo, P Ibanez, C Sanchez-Mora, M Ribases, J A Ramos-Quiroga
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a complex aetiology, mainly attributed to a number of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Genetic association studies, however, have been inconsistent and have identified genetic variants with a moderate effect that explain a small proportion of the estimated inheritability of the disorder (< 10%). Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota and diet play an important role in the development and symptoms of different mental disorders...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Massimiliano Cuccioloni, Mauro Angeletti, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Giacomo Rossi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication network functionally linking the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this, the rational manipulation of intestinal microbiota represents a novel attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CNS-associated disorders. In this study, we explored the properties of a probiotic formulation (namely SLAB51) in counteracting brain oxidative damages associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD) were treated with SLAB51 and the effects on protein oxidation, neuronal antioxidant defence and repair systems were monitored, with the particular focus on the role of SIRT1-related pathways...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
February 27, 2018: Food & Function
Claudio Romano, Valeria Dipasquale, Anna Rybak, Donatella Comito, Osvaldo Borrelli
This narrative review provides an update of cyclic vomiting syndrome pathogenesis, diagnosis and management, based upon studies published after the 2008 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) official recommendations. The review began with a comprehensive PubMed/Medline, search for "cyclic vomiting syndrome", "periodic syndromes" and "pediatrics" from 2000 up to October 2017. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications...
February 27, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Mahanand Chatoo, Yi Li, Zhiqiang Ma, John Coote, Jizeng Du, Xuequn Chen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
James R F Hockley, Toni S Taylor, Gerard Callejo, Anna L Wilbrey, Alex Gutteridge, Karsten Bach, Wendy J Winchester, David C Bulmer, Gordon McMurray, Ewan St John Smith
OBJECTIVE: Integration of nutritional, microbial and inflammatory events along the gut-brain axis can alter bowel physiology and organism behaviour. Colonic sensory neurons activate reflex pathways and give rise to conscious sensation, but the diversity and division of function within these neurons is poorly understood. The identification of signalling pathways contributing to visceral sensation is constrained by a paucity of molecular markers. Here we address this by comprehensive transcriptomic profiling and unsupervised clustering of individual mouse colonic sensory neurons...
February 26, 2018: Gut
Allison W Xu
Bile acids facilitate dietary fat absorption upon release into the small intestine after a meal. A recent study by Liu and colleagues identifies a gut-brain axis wherein bile acids signal an energy-replete state to hypothalamic AgRP neurons via activation of neuronal FGF receptors, which orchestrate whole-body glucose metabolism.
February 21, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Cécile Bétry, Stéphane Thobois, Martine Laville, Emmanuel Disse
Despite a better understanding of obesity pathophysiology, treating this disease remains a challenge. New therapeutic options are needed. Targeting the brain is a promising way, considering both the brain abnormalities in obesity and the effects of bariatric surgery on the gut-brain axis. Deep brain stimulation could be an alternative treatment for obesity since this safe and reversible neurosurgical procedure modulates neural circuits for therapeutic purposes. We aimed to provide a critical review of published clinical and preclinical studies in this field...
February 20, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Bruno Bonaz, Thomas Bazin, Sonia Pellissier
The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anwesha Mandal, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake...
February 18, 2018: Peptides
Stephen Malunga Manchishi, Ran Ji Cui, Xiao Han Zou, Zi Qian Cheng, Bing Jin Li
Recently, most of evidence shows that caloric restriction could induce antidepressant-like effects in animal model of depression. Based on studies of the brain-gut axis, some signal pathways were common between the control of caloric restriction and depression. However, the specific mechanism of the antidepressant-like effects induced by caloric restriction remains unclear. Therefore, in this article, we summarized clinical and experimental studies of caloric restriction on depression. This review may provide a new therapeutic strategy for depression...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Paul R Giacomin, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Eduardo A Albornoz, Shuting Jin, Mia Bengtsson, Richard Gordon, Trent M Woodruff, Tim Urich, Zoltán Sarnyai, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Helminth infections in children are associated with impaired cognitive development, however the biological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Using a murine model of gastrointestinal helminth infection, we demonstrate that early-life exposure to helminths promotes local and systemic inflammatory responses and transient changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Behavioural and cognitive analyses performed 9-months post-infection revealed deficits in spatial recognition memory and an anxiety-like behavioural phenotype in worm-infected mice, which was associated with neuropathology and increased microglial activation within the brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"