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W Teng, H Chen, F Guo, X Du, X Fu, Y Fang, H Zhang, M Fang, M Ding
Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is a high affinity Substance P (SP) receptor and plays a key role in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early life stress is a significant risk factor in IBS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of neonatal maternal separation on the expression and distribution of SP and its receptor along the brain-gut axis in a neonatal maternally separated rat model with visceral hypersensitivity. Male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, 2-21-day old, were randomly distributed into maternal separation groups of 3 h daily maternal separation (MS) or non-handling (NH)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mariachiara Longarzo, M Quarantelli, M Aiello, M Romano, A Del Prete, C Cimminiello, S Cocozza, G Olivo, C Loguercio, L Trojano, D Grossi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity likely related to altered processing of sensory stimuli along the brain-gut axis. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated structural and functional alteration of several brain areas involved in bodily representation, e.g. the insula, in patients with IBS. By means of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) we searched for alteration of functional connectivity within the network involved in self-bodily consciousness...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Mohamed Amiche
The search for new bioactive molecules that could be used in therapeutics is a major public health issue, particularly in the treatment of certain diseases such as cancer. In this context the exploration of the venom of animals (snakes, amphibians, cones, scorpions, insects...) that produce molecules of various structures and biological activities, is a very promising direction. Research in this area led to the discovery of neuropeptides, hormones, toxins, antimicrobial peptides and other extremely potent mediators...
2016: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Jae Ho Park, Jong Wook Kim, Jong Kyu Park, Cheol Min Shin, Kee Wook Jung
Functional dyspepsia (FD) has a diverse pathophysiology and treatment is difficult. Translational research to understand its pathophysiology is underway. Hormonal factors, including ghrelin, seem promising, offering an understanding of appetite and eating. Functional MRI brain study can expand our knowledge of the brain-gut axis. Finally, immune systems research, including mast cells, can help with comprehensive understanding of FD. The clinical approaches based on these translational research projects are necessary to improve understanding of FD, leading to more effective treatment...
September 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
N J Talley, N Koloski, M P Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
D J Gracie, A C Ford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rong Xu, QuanQiu Wang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. While significant progress has been made in understanding genetic, molecular, behavioral, and neurological aspects of AD, relatively little is known about which environmental factors are important in AD etiology and how they interact with genetic factors in the development of AD. Here, we propose a data-driven, hypotheses-free computational approach to characterize which and how human gut microbial metabolites, an important modifiable environmental factor, may contribute to various aspects of AD...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Klaus Bielefeldt, Ashok Tuteja, Salman Nusrat
Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2016: F1000Research
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
August 30, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Jeannie S Huang, Laura Terrones, Alan N Simmons, Walter Kaye, Irina Strigo
BACKGROUND: Brain-gut axis signaling modifies gastrointestinal symptomatology. Altered neural processing of intestinal pain signals involves interoceptive brain regions in adults with functional and inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders. Although these disorders frequently present in childhood, there are no published studies in youth. We determined whether neural processing of somatic pain stimuli differs in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as compared to healthy controls (HC)...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
R Sekar, K Singh, A W R Arokiaraj, B K C Chow
Glucagon family of peptide hormones is a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides that exert their pleiotropic actions through interactions with unique members of class B1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They are key regulators of hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and dysregulations of the nervous systems such as migraine, anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration, psychiatric disorders, and cardiovascular diseases...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Viviana Filpa, Elisabetta Moro, Marina Protasoni, Francesca Crema, Gianmario Frigo, Cristina Giaroni
Several studies have been carried out in the last 30 years in the attempt to clarify the possible role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the gastrointestinal tract. Such effort has provided immunohistochemical, biomolecular and functional data suggesting that the entire glutamatergic neurotransmitter machinery is present in the complex circuitries of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which participates to the local coordination of gastrointestinal functions. Glutamate is also involved in the regulation of the brain-gut axis, a bi-directional connection pathway between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Si-Liang Wen, Xian Feng, Zhi-Qiang Chen, Jing Xiao, Wei-Xuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective clinical randomized single-blind placebo-controlled trial (ChiCTR-TRC-14004156) to observe the effect of XiangBin granules on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and levels of brain-gut peptide motilin (MTL); vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP); growth hormone releasing peptide-ghrelin, GHRP-ghrelin, and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), after transabdominal gynecological surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing gynecologic abdominal surgery were randomly divided in a 2:1 ratio (according to the data of pre-trial which was a small sample randomized trial in gynecology inpatient) into two groups: the larger treatment group taking XiangBin granules, and the smaller placebo group taking Chinese herbal placebo...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
D Xu, W Chen, W X Zhou, C D Wang, G J Fei, L M Zhu, H W Xin, D R Zhong, G Sun, X C Fang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bowel symptoms and psychological status of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea (IBS-D), and to verify whether sigmoid colon mucosal mast cells (MCs) and their activation have effect on the symptoms and psychological status of IBS-D patients. METHODS: Patients meeting Rome Ⅲ diagnostic and subtyping criteria of IBS-D who visited the outpatient clinic of gastroenterology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were consecutively enrolled between July 2009 and June 2012...
August 9, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
V Marrachelli, D Monleon, J M Morales, F Martínez, J C Martin-Escudero, J Redon
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to screen metabolomes of combined hypertension and obesity in a Spanish general population cohort to identify differential metabolic profiles for better risk estimation and patient stratification. DESIGN AND METHOD: We measured blood serum high resolution NMR spectra from hypertensive subjects with (HT_OB, n = 356) or without (HT_noOB, n = 280) abdominal obesity and normotensive subjects with (noHT_OB, n = 291) or without (noHT_noOB, n = 555) abdominal obesity for detecting metabolic cores specifically affected in the different groups...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Emma I Brunberg, T Bas Rodenburg, Lotta Rydhmer, Joergen B Kjaer, Per Jensen, Linda J Keeling
Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
John R Kelly, Yuliya Borre, Ciaran O' Brien, Elaine Patterson, Sahar El Aidy, Jennifer Deane, Paul J Kennedy, Sasja Beers, Karen Scott, Gerard Moloney, Alan E Hoban, Lucinda Scott, Patrick Fitzgerald, Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Michiko Kano, Joe Morishita, Toyohiro Hamaguchi, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Jan Tack, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko Yanai, Manabu Tashiro, Shin Fukudo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation...
2016: PloS One
N A Koloski, M Jones, N J Talley
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are conceptualised as originating in the brain via stress pathways (brain-to-gut). It is uncertain how many with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) have a gut origin of symptoms (gut-to-brain pathway). AIMS: To determine if there is a distinct brain-to-gut FGID (where psychological symptoms begin first) and separately a distinct gut-to-brain FGID (where gut symptoms start first)...
September 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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