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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503081/feeding-intolerance-inflammation-and-neurobehaviors-in-preterm-infants
#2
Tiffany A Moore, Rita H Pickler
PURPOSE: Identifying relationships between feeding intolerance (FI), inflammation, and early measures of neurodevelopment may provide the basis for clinically relevant assessments for NICU clinicians and staff. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the relationship of FI to inflammatory markers and/or neurobehaviors in the first week of life. METHODS: This was a retrospective, matched case-control design with data drawn from 114 infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation...
June 2017: Journal of Neonatal Nursing: JNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#3
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460516/neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-a-pilot-study
#4
Cristina Stasi, Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Emiliano Duranti, Nicola de Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Eleonora Albano, Salvatore Russo, Isabella Sudano, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Taddei, Santino Marchi, Rosa Maria Bruno
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. Methods: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), plasma serotonin, endothelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plasma, and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated. Fourteen IBS subjects underwent microneurography to obtain multiunit recordings of efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457228/differences-in-gut-microbial-composition-correlate-with-regional-brain-volumes-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Jennifer S Labus, Emily B Hollister, Jonathan Jacobs, Kyleigh Kirbach, Numan Oezguen, Arpana Gupta, Jonathan Acosta, Ruth Ann Luna, Kjersti Aagaard, James Versalovic, Tor Savidge, Elaine Hsiao, Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical evidence supports the concept of bidirectional brain-gut microbiome interactions. We aimed to determine if subgroups of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subjects can be identified based on differences in gut microbial composition, and if there are correlations between gut microbial measures and structural brain signatures in IBS. METHODS: Behavioral measures, stool samples, and structural brain images were collected from 29 adult IBS and 23 healthy control subjects (HCs)...
May 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452565/administration-of-wasabia-koreana-ameliorates-irritable-bowel-syndrome-like-symptoms-in-a-zymosan-induced-mouse-model
#6
Bo-Kyung Park, Eunho Chun, Jeong June Choi, Younmin Shin, Young Tak Kho, Seung Hyun Oh, Sun Yeou Kim, Taek Hwan Lee, Tae-Wan Kim, Eunju Shin, Seon-Gil Do, Mirim Jin
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice...
May 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#7
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436201/brain-responses-to-mechanical-rectal-stimuli-in-patients-with-faecal-incontinence-an-fmri-study
#8
Naseem Mirbagheri, Sean Hatton, Kheng-Seong Ng, Jim Lagopoulos, Marc A Gladman
AIM: Continence is dependent on anorectal/brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimuli in patients with FI using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHOD: A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients (4 male, mean [SD] age 62 [15] years)...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426450/ibd-live-series-case-7-the-brain-gut-connection-and-the-importance-of-integrated-care-in-ibd
#9
Benjamin H Click, Julia B Greer, Miguel D Regueiro, Douglas J Hartman, Peter L Davis, Corey A Siegel, Hans H Herfarth, Joel R Rosh, Samir A Shah, Walter A Koltun, David G Binion, Leonard Baidoo, Eva Szigethy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393621/a-review-on-the-relationship-between-gluten-and-schizophrenia-is-gluten-the-cause
#11
Can Ergün, Murat Urhan, Ahmet Ayer
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that possesses various clinical manifestations. It presents rather heterogeneous characteristics with respect to onset type, symptoms, and the course of the disease. Although the lifetime prevalence is as low as 1%, it can cause serious disability. Thus, it is very important to develop efficient treatment methods. In some studies, it is hypothesized that removing gluten from the diet leads to a significant improvement in disease symptoms...
April 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374107/carnosine-activates-the-creb-pathway-in-caco-2-cells
#12
Kaoru Fujii, Kayoko Abe, Keishi Kadooka, Takashi Matsumoto, Yoshinori Katakura
Imidazole dipeptide, carnosine, is a versatile compound composed of β-Ala and L-His. A recent study showed that carnosine might benefit the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the maintenance of cognitive function. Based on the observation that carnosine is immediately degraded by serum carnosinase, we hypothesized that carnosine improves brain function by promoting brain-gut interaction. This study sought to present possible mechanisms regulating carnosine-induced activation of brain-gut interaction. We had previously found that carnosine augmented the expression of BDNF in human colorectal cancer cells, thus we became interested in cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which is a dominant regulator of BDNF transcription...
April 3, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368365/mind-body-interventions-for-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ann Ming Yeh, Anava Wren, Brenda Golianu
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain-gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel symptoms concurrent with quiescent IBD, and the potential of psychosocial stressors to trigger IBD flares. Mind-body interventions such as psychotherapy, relaxation, mindfulness, biofeedback, yoga, and clinical hypnosis offer an adjunct to standard medical treatment for IBD...
April 3, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353135/abnormal-brain-structure-implicated-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia
#14
Peng Liu, Geliang Wang, Fang Zeng, Yanfei Liu, Yingying Fan, Ying Wei, Wei Qin, Vince D Calhoun
Recent studies suggest dysfunctional brain-gut interactions are involved in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD). However, limited studies have investigated brain structural abnormalities in FD patients. This study aimed to identify potential differences in both cortical thickness and subcortical volume in FD patients compared to healthy controls (HCs) and to explore relationships of structural abnormalities with clinical symptoms. Sixty-nine patients and forty-nine HCs underwent 3T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans...
March 28, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334024/opposite-effects-of-5-ht-akh-and-octopamine-on-the-crop-contractions-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-evidence-of-a-double-brain-gut-serotonergic-circuitry
#15
Paolo Solari, Nicholas Rivelli, Francescaelena De Rose, Lorenzo Picciau, Ludovico Murru, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar-either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop-had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302577/methamphetamine-effects-on-the-brain-gut-and-immune-system
#16
REVIEW
Monica D Prakash, Kathy Tangalakis, Juliana Antonipillai, Lily Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system...
June 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289903/gut-microbiota-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-new-perspectives-for-a-challenging-condition
#18
REVIEW
María Carmen Cenit, Isabel Campillo Nuevo, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Timothy G Dinan, Yolanda Sanz
A bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis) is well recognized with the gut microbiota viewed as a key regulator of this cross-talk. Currently, a body of preclinical and to a lesser extent epidemiological evidence supports the notion that host-microbe interactions play a key role in brain development and function and in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Early life events and shifts away from traditional lifestyles are known to impact gut microbiota composition and function and, thereby, may increase the risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 13, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287686/cyproheptadine-a-potentially-effective-treatment-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children
#19
Amornluck Krasaelap, Shailender Madani
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) negatively affect children's quality of life and health care costs. It has been proposed that alteration of gut serotonin leads to gastrointestinal dysmotility, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal secretions, and brain-gut dysfunction. Cyproheptadine, a serotonin antagonist, has been shown to be a potentially effective and safe treatment option in children who meet the clinical criteria for FGIDs. Well-designed multicenter trials with long-term follow-up are needed to further investigate its efficacy...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276272/gut-brain-and-brain-gut-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-models-effects-of-a-uridine-and-fish-oil-diet
#20
Paula Perez-Pardo, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Hidde Douna, Nick van Wijk, Sofia Lopes da Silva, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Recent investigations have focused on the potential role of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The 'dual-hit' hypothesis of PD speculates that a putative pathogen enters the brain via two routes: the olfactory system and the GI system. Here, we investigated (1) whether local exposures of the neurotoxin rotenone in the gut or the brain of mice could induce PD-like neurological and GI phenotypes as well as a characteristic neuropathology in accordance with this 'dual-hit hypothesis' and (2) the effects of a diet containing uridine and fish oil providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in both models...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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