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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338008/interactions-between-species-introduce-spurious-associations-in-microbiome-studies
#1
Rajita Menon, Vivek Ramanan, Kirill S Korolev
Microbiota contribute to many dimensions of host phenotype, including disease. To link specific microbes to specific phenotypes, microbiome-wide association studies compare microbial abundances between two groups of samples. Abundance differences, however, reflect not only direct associations with the phenotype, but also indirect effects due to microbial interactions. We found that microbial interactions could easily generate a large number of spurious associations that provide no mechanistic insight. Using techniques from statistical physics, we developed a method to remove indirect associations and applied it to the largest dataset on pediatric inflammatory bowel disease...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#3
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288656/functional-bowel-disorders-a-roadmap-to-guide-the-next-generation-of-research
#4
Lin Chang, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Gianrico Farrugia, Frank A Hamilton, Gary M Mawe, Pankaj J Pasricha, John W Wiley
In June 2016, the National Institutes of Health hosted a workshop on functional bowel disorders (FBDs), particularly irritable bowel syndrome, with the objective of elucidating gaps in current knowledge and recommending strategies to address these gaps. The workshop aimed to provide a roadmap to help strategically guide research efforts during the next decade. Attendees were a diverse group of internationally recognized leaders in basic and clinical FBD research. This document summarizes the results of their deliberations, including the following general conclusions and recommendations...
December 27, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280113/-relationship-between-functional-constipation-and-brain-gut-microbiota-axis
#5
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278751/correlation-between-gut-microbiota-and-personality-in-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Han-Na Kim, Yeojun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Min-Jung Kwon, Juhee Cho, Hocheol Shin, Hyung-Lae Kim
Personality affects fundamental behavior patterns and has been related with health outcomes and mental disorders. Recent evidence has emerged supporting a relationship between the microbiota and behavior, referred to as brain-gut relationships. Here, we first report correlations between personality traits and gut microbiota. This research was performed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the sequencing data of the 16S rRNA gene in 672 adults. The diversity and the composition of the human gut microbiota exhibited significant difference when stratified by personality traits...
December 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258757/involvement-of-brain-gut-axis-in-treatment-of-cerebral-infarction-by-%C3%AE-asaron-and-paeonol
#7
Xiaogang He, Qiufang Cai, Jianxiang Li, Weifeng Guo
Cerebral infarction (CI) causes severe brain damage with high incidence. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of brain-gut axis in the treatment of CI by combined administration of β-asaron and paeonol. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established, the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the rat peripheral blood were determined by ELISA assay, and brain tissue damage was evaluated by TUNNEL assay. The correlation of cholecystokinin (CCK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling components between intestinal mucosa and prefrontal cortex of MCAO rats treated with β-asaron and paeonol were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246029/the-role-of-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia-and-major-depressive-disorder-and-the-possibility-of-targeting-microbiota-as-a-treatment-option
#8
REVIEW
Fengli Lv, Suling Chen, Lina Wang, Ronghuan Jiang, Hongjun Tian, Jie Li, Yudong Yao, Chuanjun Zhuo
The importance of interactions between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract has been increasingly recognized in recent years. It has been proposed that dysregulation and abnormalities in the brain-gut axis contribute to the etiology of a variety of central nervous system disorders. Particularly, dysbiosis, or impaired microbiota, has been implicated in multiple neurological and psychological disorders. The present paper reviews current evidence and theories concerning the possible mechanisms by which microbiota dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243233/finding-the-needle-in-the-haystack-systematic-identification-of-psychobiotics
#9
REVIEW
Aisling Bambury, Kiran Sandhu, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis is increasingly viewed as a novel paradigm in neuroscience with the capacity to generate innovative therapies for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Psychobiotics, defined as live bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts confer mental health benefits, are increasingly of interest, as pre-clinical trials continue to show promising results. Particularly in stress related, anxiety and depressive disorders, there is potential for psychobiotics to deliver new therapies. The question of which microbes may prove to be the most promising psychobiotic in delivering such therapies at clinical level is of great importance...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201045/functional-bowel-disorders-are-associated-with-a-central-immune-activation
#10
Per G Farup, Thor Ueland, Knut Rudi, Stian Lydersen, Knut Hestad
Background: Subjects with depression and unexplained neurological symptoms have a high prevalence of gastrointestinal comorbidity probably related to the brain-gut communication. This study explored associations between functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and inflammatory markers in subjects with these disorders. Methods: The FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), were classified according to the Rome III criteria, and degree of symptoms was assessed with IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173525/the-brain-gut-axis-and-stress-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Charles N Bernstein
The brain-gut axis serves as a circuit that incorporates the human experience, the state of mind, the gut microbiome, and the immune response that ultimately drives the phenotypic expression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are several biological pathways through which stress can play a deleterious role, including through increasing intestinal permeability, which can facilitate intestinal translocation of bacteria. Stress has an impact on symptoms in IBD; however, there is limited evidence that stress triggers increased intestinal inflammation...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157499/functional-abdominal-pain-and-related-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Michael Herzlinger, Carolina Cerezo
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are very common. They result from dysfunctional interaction in the brain-gut axis. Although the nature is benign, symptoms may be debilitating. The etiology is multifactorial; therefore, the diagnosis should be approached in a bio-psychosocial model. There are no biomarkers to characterize these conditions, but a solid understanding of the pathophysiology allows providers to present these disorders as a positive clinical diagnosis, rather than a diagnosis of exclusion. Effective management entails close collaboration between the medical and mental health providers...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149921/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-fibromyalgia
#14
REVIEW
Richard A Schatz, Baharak Moshiree
Fibromyalgia (FM) has historically been associated with several diseases in gastroenterology and hepatology. The most substantiated evidence pertains to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The pathogeneses of FM and IBS remain unclear, but it is likely related to dysregulation within the brain-gut axis, resulting in a hyperalgesic state. IBS and FM share other similarities, including a female predominance, fatigue, insomnia, and susceptibility to psychiatric state. These common manifestations and pathogeneses serve as a foundation for overlapping, multidisciplinary treatment modalities...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139482/opioid-misuse-in-gastroenterology-and-non-opioid-management-of-abdominal-pain
#15
REVIEW
Eva Szigethy, Mitchell Knisely, Douglas Drossman
Opioids were one of the earliest classes of medications used for pain across a variety of conditions, but morbidity and mortality have been increasingly associated with their chronic use. Despite these negative consequences, chronic opioid use is increasing worldwide, with the USA and Canada having the highest rates. Chronic opioid use for noncancer pain can have particularly negative effects in the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including opioid-induced constipation, narcotic bowel syndrome, worsening psychopathology and addiction...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#16
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118721/gut-brain-axis-in-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#17
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Jasenka Zubcevic
Hypertension (HTN) is an escalating health issue worldwide. It is estimated that 1.56 billion people will suffer from high blood pressure (BP) by 2025. Recent studies reported an association between gut dysbiosis and HTN, thus proposing interesting avenues for novel treatments of this condition. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the immune system (IS) play a recognized role in the onset and progression of HTN, while reciprocal communication between gut microbiota and the brain can regulate BP by modulating the interplay between the IS and SNS...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077050/pharmacotherapy-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the brain-gut axis; the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered colonic motility, bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier and secretory properties of the gut. This article reviews the mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of current pharmacotherapy, and medications that are in phase III trials for the treatment of IBS. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments-particularly for the pain component of IBS-although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility and a non-absorbable antibiotic provide options for the bowel dysfunction in IBS...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056448/evolution-of-the-glucagon-like-system-across-fish
#19
João C R Cardoso, Rute C Félix, Carina Costa, Pedro F S Palma, Adelino V M Canário, Deborah M Power
In fishes, including the jawless lampreys, the most ancient lineage of extant vertebrates, plasma glucose levels are highly variable and regulation is more relaxed than in mammals. The regulation of glucose and lipid in fishes in common with mammals involves members of the glucagon (GCG)-like family of gastrointestinal peptides. In mammals, four peptides GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that activate four specific receptors exist. However, in lamprey and other fishes the glucagon-like family evolved differently and they retained additional gene family members (glucagon-related peptide, gcrp and its receptor, gcrpr) that are absent from mammals...
October 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039142/microbiota-brain-gut-axis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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