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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761405/depleting-macrophages-in-vivo-with-clodronate-liposomes
#1
Stéphanie G Moreno
In order to decipher the role of macrophages in vivo, it could be necessary to establish a model of macrophage depletion in the whole animal. One method to obtain animal models efficiently depleted in macrophages in different tissues (bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, brain, gut, peritoneal cavity, lymph nodes/vessels) and blood is the use of a clodronate-liposome solution.Here, we describe the protocol used to deplete efficiently macrophages in mouse bone marrow.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760448/the-gut-microbiota-and-the-brain-gut-kidney-axis-in-hypertension-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host has attracted considerable attention owing to its involvement in diverse diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with hypertension and is characterized by immune dysregulation, metabolic disorder and sympathetic activation, which are all linked to gut dysbiosis and altered host-microbiota crosstalk. In this Review, we discuss the complex interplay between the brain, the gut, the microbiota and the kidney in CKD and hypertension and explain our brain-gut-kidney axis hypothesis for the pathogenesis of these diseases...
May 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752611/comparison-of-electroacupuncture-and-mild-warm-moxibustion-on-brain-gut-function-in-patients-with-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Ji-Meng Zhao, Jin-Hua Lu, Xiao-Jun Yin, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Xing-Kui Chen, Yue-Hua Chen, Wei-Jun Tang, Xiao-Ming Jin, Huan-Gan Wu, Yin Shi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and mild-warm moxibustion (Mox) therapies for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) patients. METHODS: Sixty C-IBS patients were assigned to 2 groups by simple randomized method, i.e. EA group (30 cases) and Mox group (30 cases). Both EA and Mox treatments were performed on bilateral Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) for 30 min each time, 6 times per week, for 4 consecutive weeks...
May 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706461/abnormal-neuronal-response-to-rectal-and-anal-stimuli-in-patients-treated-with-primary-radiotherapy-for-anal-cancer
#4
Susanne Haas, Pia Faaborg, Mikkel Gram, Lilli Lundby, Christina Brock, Anbjørn M Drewes, Søren Laurberg, Klaus Krogh, Peter Christensen
INTRODUCTION: Sphincter-sparing radiotherapy or chemoradiation (RT/CRT) have become the standard treatments for most patients with anal cancer. Unfortunately, long-term survivors often suffer from severe bowel symptoms indicating sensory dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to characterize the sensory pathways of the brain-gut axis after radiotherapy for anal cancer. METHOD: Cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded during repeated, rapid balloon distensions of the rectum and anal canal in 13 patients with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation and in 17 healthy volunteers...
April 26, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702118/improvement-in-gastrointestinal-symptoms-after-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-refractory-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Jeffrey M Lackner, James Jaccard, Laurie Keefer, Darren Brenner, Rebecca Firth, Gregory D Gudleski, Frank Hamilton, Leonard A Katz, Susan S Krasner, Chang-Xing Ma, Christopher Radziwon, Michael D Sitrin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an urgent need for safe treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that relieve treatment-refractory symptoms and their societal and economic burden. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment that has not been broadly adopted into routine clinical practice. We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess clinical responses to home-based CBT compared with clinic-based CBT and patient education. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 436 patients with IBS, based on Rome III criteria, at 2 tertiary centers from August 23, 2010 through October 21, 2016...
April 24, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689727/vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-the-gut-microbiota
#6
Sinian Li, Yiming Shao, Kanglan Li, Changmei HuangFu, Wenjie Wang, Zhou Liu, Zhiyou Cai, Bin Zhao
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), the second most common cause of dementia in elderly people, is a term that refers to all forms of cognitive disorders that can be attributed to cerebrovascular disease such as manifestations of discrete infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and white matter lesions. The gut microbiota (GM) has emerged recently as an essential player in the development of VCI. The GM may affect the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions through the brain-gut axis via neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652029/evaluation-of-a-modified-rat-model-for-functional-dyspepsia
#7
Qiankun Liang, Yuan Yan, Lanfang Mao, Xiaojuan Du, Jingjing Liang, Junhong Liu, Longde Wang, Hongfang Li
Background/Aim: The purpose of this study was to establish a modified rat model with functional dyspepsia (FD) and analyze the changes in gastrointestinal motility and brain-gut peptide levels in serum and brain-gut axis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control group (Con) and FD model group. FD model was established by stimulating semi-starvation rats via tail damping, provocation, and forced exercise fatigue until gastrointestinal motility disorder appeared, and then levels of motilin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were detected in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and in duodenum, antrum, and hypothalamus by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651112/behavioural-medicine-and-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-promise-of-positive-psychology
#8
REVIEW
Laurie Keefer
Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649517/effect-of-nisin-on-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-neurochemicals-by-escherichia-coli-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#9
Zhifeng Jia, Aorigele Chen, Fuxiang Bao, Meiling He, Siming Gao, Jin Xu, Xin Zhang, Puchun Niu, Chunjie Wang
The effects of nisin on the neurochemicals, Aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) and intestinal microorganisms in the brain-gut axis of mice were analyzed by using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and high throughput sequencing in this investigation, to further revealed the relationship between intestinal flora abundance in mice and neurochemicals in the brain-gut axis. Using HE staining found damage of structure of small intestine villi in the model group (Escherichia coli O1 , E. coli O1 ). Compared with normal control and ciprofloxacin groups, using ELISA showed that nisin increased the highest norepinephrine (NE) expression in the brain, expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the duodenum, and increased the expression of AQP-3 in jejunum...
April 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#10
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604409/hippocampal-gene-expression-profiling-in-a-rat-model-of-functional-constipation-reveals-abnormal-expression-genes-associated-with-cognitive-function
#12
Ying Li, Lei Shi, Ling Yue, Rui Gao, Zheng Qiang Yu, Xiao Hang Yang, Li Liu, Hui Zheng
Disease progress and pathological proceeding of functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) are considered to be closely related to disordered brain-gut interaction, but only a few researches reported the relationship of functional constipation (FC) and disordered brain-gut interaction. It has been found that FC has a great correlation with emotional problems in clinical patients, but its related mechanisms have not been clearly clarified. In order to explore the molecular pathogenesis of FC related to emotional problem, BGI-500 sequencing technology was used for the first time to study the transcriptomics changes of hippocampus in a rat model...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593576/vagus-nerve-as-modulator-of-the-brain-gut-axis-in-psychiatric-and-inflammatory-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sigrid Breit, Aleksandra Kupferberg, Gerhard Rogler, Gregor Hasler
The vagus nerve represents the main component of the parasympathetic nervous system, which oversees a vast array of crucial bodily functions, including control of mood, immune response, digestion, and heart rate. It establishes one of the connections between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract and sends information about the state of the inner organs to the brain via afferent fibers. In this review article, we discuss various functions of the vagus nerve which make it an attractive target in treating psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575352/heart-rate-variability-characteristics-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-associations-with-symptoms
#14
A Polster, P Friberg, V Gunterberg, L Öhman, B Le Nevé, H Törnblom, M Cvijovic, M Simren
BACKGROUND: Disturbed brain-gut interactions are assumed to be of importance for symptom generation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is part of the bidirectional brain-gut communication, but previous studies in IBS show diverging results. We aimed to identify subgroups of IBS patients with distinct ANS characteristics differentiating them from healthy controls (HC), and to study associations between ANS status and symptoms. METHODS: Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured in IBS patients and HC (Holter monitoring: supine and standing positions with controlled respiration and ambulatory 24-hour period)...
March 25, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542680/phoenixin-a-novel-brain-gut-skin-peptide-with-multiple-bioactivity
#15
REVIEW
Rong-Ming Lyu, Alan Cowan, Ying Zhang, Yi-Hung Chen, Siok L Dun, Jaw-Kang Chang, Nae J Dun, Jin Jun Luo
In this brief review we summarize the current fndings relative to the discovery of a small peptide ligand, phoenixin (PNX). Using a bioinformatic approach, two novel peptides PNX-14 and PNX-20 containing 14 and 20 amino acids, respectively, were isolated from diverse tissues including the brain, heart, lung and stomach. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a major and minor peak corresponding to PNX-14 and PNX-20, in rat or mouse spinal cord extracts. With the use of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum, phoenixin immunoreactivity (irPNX) was detected in discrete areas of the rodent brain including several hypothalamic subnuclei and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498019/a-review-of-microbiota-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-future-in-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491136/brain-gut-communications-via-distinct-neuroendocrine-signals-bidirectionally-regulate-longevity-in-c-elegans
#17
Bi Zhang, Jianke Gong, Wenyuan Zhang, Rui Xiao, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Tissue-tissue communications are integral to organismal aging, orchestrating a body-wide aging process. The brain plays a key role in this process by detecting and processing signals from the environment and then communicating them to distal tissues such as the gut to regulate longevity. How this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we identified two distinct neuroendocrine signaling circuits by which the worm nervous system senses cool and warm environmental temperatures through cool- and warm-sensitive neurons and then signals the gut to extend and shorten life span, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484898/an-overview-of-the-clinical-management-of-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-childhood
#18
Claudio Romano, Valeria Dipasquale, Anna Rybak, Donatella Comito, Osvaldo Borrelli
This narrative review provides an update on cyclic vomiting syndrome pathogenesis, diagnosis and management, based upon studies published after the 2008 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) official recommendations. The review began with a comprehensive PubMed/Medline search for "cyclic vomiting syndrome", "periodic syndromes" and "pediatrics" from 2000 up to October 2017. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the re-ference lists of retrieved publications...
March 23, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483895/involvement-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-receptors-in-immune-cells-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Mahanand Chatoo, Yi Li, Zhiqiang Ma, John Coote, Jizeng Du, Xuequn Chen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465826/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-depression
#20
REVIEW
Stephen Malunga Manchishi, Ran Ji Cui, Xiao Han Zou, Zi Qian Cheng, Bing Jin Li
Recently, most of evidence shows that caloric restriction could induce antidepressant-like effects in animal model of depression. Based on studies of the brain-gut axis, some signal pathways were common between the control of caloric restriction and depression. However, the specific mechanism of the antidepressant-like effects induced by caloric restriction remains unclear. Therefore, in this article, we summarized clinical and experimental studies of caloric restriction on depression. This review may provide a new therapeutic strategy for depression...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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