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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149921/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-fibromyalgia
#1
REVIEW
Richard A Schatz, Baharak Moshiree
Fibromyalgia (FM) has historically been associated with several diseases in gastroenterology and hepatology. The most substantiated evidence pertains to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The pathogeneses of FM and IBS remain unclear, but it is likely related to dysregulation within the brain-gut axis, resulting in a hyperalgesic state. IBS and FM share other similarities, including a female predominance, fatigue, insomnia, and susceptibility to psychiatric state. These common manifestations and pathogeneses serve as a foundation for overlapping, multidisciplinary treatment modalities...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139482/opioid-misuse-in-gastroenterology-and-non-opioid-management-of-abdominal-pain
#2
REVIEW
Eva Szigethy, Mitchell Knisely, Douglas Drossman
Opioids were one of the earliest classes of medications used for pain across a variety of conditions, but morbidity and mortality have been increasingly associated with their chronic use. Despite these negative consequences, chronic opioid use is increasing worldwide, with the USA and Canada having the highest rates. Chronic opioid use for noncancer pain can have particularly negative effects in the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including opioid-induced constipation, narcotic bowel syndrome, worsening psychopathology and addiction...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#3
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118721/gut-brain-axis-in-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#4
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Jasenka Zubcevic
Hypertension (HTN) is an escalating health issue worldwide. It is estimated that 1.56 billion people will suffer from high blood pressure (BP) by 2025. Recent studies reported an association between gut dysbiosis and HTN, thus proposing interesting avenues for novel treatments of this condition. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the immune system (IS) play a recognized role in the onset and progression of HTN, while reciprocal communication between gut microbiota and the brain can regulate BP by modulating the interplay between the IS and SNS...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077050/pharmacotherapy-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the brain-gut axis; the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered colonic motility, bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier and secretory properties of the gut. This article reviews the mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of current pharmacotherapy, and medications that are in phase III trials for the treatment of IBS. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments-particularly for the pain component of IBS-although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility and a non-absorbable antibiotic provide options for the bowel dysfunction in IBS...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056448/evolution-of-the-glucagon-like-system-across-fish
#6
João C R Cardoso, Rute C Félix, Carina Costa, Pedro F S Palma, Adelino V M Canário, Deborah M Power
In fishes, including the jawless lampreys, the most ancient lineage of extant vertebrates, plasma glucose levels are highly variable and regulation is more relaxed than in mammals. The regulation of glucose and lipid in fishes in common with mammals involves members of the glucagon (GCG)-like family of gastrointestinal peptides. In mammals, four peptides GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that activate four specific receptors exist. However, in lamprey and other fishes the glucagon-like family evolved differently and they retained additional gene family members (glucagon-related peptide, gcrp and its receptor, gcrpr) that are absent from mammals...
October 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039142/microbiota-brain-gut-axis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030219/local-infusion-of-ghrelin-into-the-lateral-amygdala-blocks-extinction-of-conditioned-taste-aversion-in-rats
#8
Ge Song, Qianqian Zhu, Fubing Han, Shuai Liu, Chenyang Zhao, Yu Zhou
Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Our previous study showed that ghrelin locally infused into the lateral amygdala (LA) activates its receptor GHS-R1a and blocks acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling on extinction of CTA. We found that local infusion of ghrelin (5μM, 0.5μl/side) into the LA not only interfered with CTA memory formation, but also the extinction of CTA memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993728/age-drives-distortion-of-brain-metabolic-vascular-and-cognitive-functions-and-the-gut-microbiome
#9
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986601/microbiome-health-interactions-in-older-people
#10
REVIEW
Paul W O'Toole, Ian B Jeffery
Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome have been implicated in a range of conditions and diseases. Culture-dependent and culture-independent studies both showed that older people harbour a gut microbiome that differs in composition from that of younger adults. Detailed analyses have identified discrete microbiota subtypes that characterize intermediates between a high diversity microbiota found in healthy community-dwelling subjects and a low diversity microbiota typical for elderly living in long-term residential care...
October 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976454/the-gut-and-its-microbiome-as-related-to-central-nervous-system-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-psychosomatic-medicine
#11
Emeran A Mayer, Elaine Y Hsiao
Accumulating evidence indicates bidirectional associations between the brain and the gut microbiome with both top-down and bottom-up processes. This article describes new developments in brain-gut interactions as an introduction to a special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, based on a joint symposium of the American Psychosomatic Society and the American Gastroenterological Association. Literature review articles indicate that several psychiatric disorders are associated with altered gut microbiota, whereas evidence linking functional gastrointestinal disorders and dysbiosis has not been firmly established...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948467/post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Yeong Yeh Lee, Chandramouli Annamalai, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is characterized by persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea, typically following an episode of infectious gastroenteritis. The mechanisms that underlie IBS-D remain elusive, but PI-IBS provides a mechanistic model of this disorder. This review provides an up-to-date appraisal of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management approaches for PI-IBS. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered immune reactions and release of cytokines with resultant gut inflammation and dysfunction appear to be key features of PI-IBS...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947388/the-brain-gut-axis-of-fish-rainbow-trout-with-low-and-high-cortisol-response-show-innate-differences-in-intestinal-integrity-and-brain-gene-expression
#13
Malin Rosengren, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Svante Winberg, Kristina Sundell
In fish, the stress hormone cortisol is released through the hypothalamic pituitary interrenal axis (HPI-axis).The reactivity of this axis differs between individuals and previous studies have linked this to different behavioural characteristics and stress coping styles. The current study examines the expression of stress related genes in the brain and investigates the stress sensitive barrier function of the intestine of low and high responding rainbow trout (LR and HR) in terms of cortisol release. LR and HR rainbow trout were identified using repeated confinement stress tests...
September 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941296/ghrelin-receptor-antagonism-of-hyperlocomotion-in-cocaine-sensitized-mice-requires-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#14
Krisztian Toth, Lauren M Slosky, Thomas F Pack, Nikhil M Urs, Peter Boone, Lan Mao, Dennis Abraham, Marc G Caron, Lawrence S Barak
The "brain-gut" peptide ghrelin, which mediates food-seeking behaviors, is recognized as a very strong endogenous modulator of dopamine (DA) signaling. Ghrelin binds the G protein-coupled receptor GHSR1a, and administration of ghrelin increases the rewarding properties of psychostimulants while ghrelin receptor antagonists decrease them. In addition, the GHSR1a signals through βarrestin-2 to regulate actin/stress fiber rearrangement, suggesting βarrestin-2 participation in the regulation of actin-mediated synaptic plasticity for addictive substances like cocaine...
September 23, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930716/antinociceptive-effect-of-ghrelin-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-involves-trpv1-opioid-systems
#15
Yuqing Mao, Zhengyang Li, Kan Chen, Huafang Yu, Shaoren Zhang, Miao Jiang, Yuanhua Ma, Chunli Liang, Hongyan Liu, Huanqing Li, Qian Hua, Hao Zhou, Yonghong Sun, Xiaoming Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), defined as recurrent abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, seriously affects quality of life and ability to work. Ghrelin is a brain-gut hormone, which has been reported to show antinociceptive effects in peripheral pain. We investigated the effect of ghrelin on visceral hypersensitivity and pain in a rat model of IBS. METHODS: Maternal deprivation (MD) was used to provide a stress-induced model of IBS in Wistar rats...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#16
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop after ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers, compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881854/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859146/negative-correlation-of-cortical-thickness-with-the-severity-and-duration-of-abdominal-pain-in-asian-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Chian Sem Chua, Chyi-Huey Bai, Chen-Yu Shiao, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Chiao-Wen Cheng, Kuo-Ching Yang, Hung-Wen Chiu, Jung-Lung Hsu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852308/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
María Carmen Cenit, Yolanda Sanz, Pilar Codoñer-Franch
The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders...
August 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815394/shared-dysregulation-of-homeostatic-brain-body-pathways-in-depression-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Claire J Hoogendoorn, Juan F Roy, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of shared dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axes associated with depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Clinical implications and future research are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Both depression and T2D are associated with dysregulation of the HPA and BGM axes. These pathways regulate immune function, glucose metabolism, and sleep, which are altered in both illnesses...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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