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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#1
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#2
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#3
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715351/interacting-influences-of-gender-and-chronic-pain-status-on-parasympathetically-mediated-heart-rate-variability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#4
Lynn S Walker, Amanda L Stone, Craig A Smith, Stephen Bruehl, Judy Garber, Martina Puzanovova, André Diedrich
Considerable research links chronic pain to autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, specifically low heart rate variability (HRV) mediated by reduced parasympathetic activity. However, little is known about factors that influence ANS function in chronic pain. The ANS is the primary pathway for brain-gut communication, making it of particular interest in gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by functional abdominal pain (FAP). We evaluated the relation of sex, pain severity, and psychological stress to ANS function in adolescents/young adults from a database of pediatric FAP and control participants enrolled 8 years earlier in a prospective study of pain...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686611/yorkie-is-required-to-restrict-the-injury-responses-in-planarians
#5
Alexander Y T Lin, Bret J Pearson
Regeneration requires the precise integration of cues that initiate proliferation, direct differentiation, and ultimately re-pattern tissues to the proper size and scale. Yet how these processes are integrated with wounding responses remains relatively unknown. The freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, is an ideal model to study the stereotyped proliferative and transcriptional responses to injury due to its high capacity for regeneration. Here, we characterize the effector of the Hippo signalling cascade, yorkie, during planarian regeneration and its role in restricting early injury responses...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676351/bidirectional-brain-gut-interactions-and-chronic-pathological-changes-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#6
Elise L Ma, Allen D Smith, Neemesh Desai, Lumei Cheung, Marie Hanscom, Bogdan A Stoica, David J Loane, Terez Shea-Donohue, Alan I Faden
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has complex effects on the gastrointestinal tract that are associated with TBI-related morbidity and mortality. We examined changes in mucosal barrier properties and enteric glial cell response in the gut after experimental TBI in mice, as well as effects of the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) on both gut and brain after injury. METHODS: Moderate-level TBI was induced in C57BL/6 mice by controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
July 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672433/the-increased-level-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-compared-with-healthy-controls-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Changhyun Lee, Eunyoung Doo, Ji Min Choi, Seung-Ho Jang, Han-Seung Ryu, Ju Yup Lee, Jung Hwan Oh, Jung Ho Park, Yong Sung Kim
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients commonly experience psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. This meta-analysis sought to compare depression and anxiety levels between IBS patients and healthy controls. Methods: We searched major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library) to find comparative studies on IBS patients and healthy controls. The primary outcome was a standardized mean difference (SMD) of anxiety and depression levels; sub-group analyses were conducted according to IBS-subtypes...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672432/pros-and-cons-while-looking-through-an-asian-window-on-the-rome-iv-criteria-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-pros
#8
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661940/brain-structure-and-response-to-emotional-stimuli-as-related-to-gut-microbial-profiles-in-healthy-women
#10
Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran Mayer, Arpana Gupta, Zafar Gill, Rémi Brazeilles, Boris Le Nevé, Johan E T van Hylckama Vlieg, Denis Guyonnet, Muriel Derrien, Jennifer S Labus
OBJECTIVE: Brain-gut-microbiota interactions may play an important role in human health and behavior. However, while rodent models have demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on emotional, nociceptive and social behaviors, there is little translational human evidence to date. In this study we identify brain and behavioral characteristics of healthy women clustered by gut microbiota profiles. METHODS: Forty women supplied fecal samples for 16s rRNA profiling...
June 28, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640714/an-unexplored-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-in-stroke
#11
Shu Wen Wen, Connie H Y Wong
Microbiota research, in particular that of the gut, has recently gained much attention in medical research owing to technological advances in metagenomics and metabolomics. Despite this, much of the research direction has focused on long-term or chronic effects of microbiota manipulation on health and disease. In this addendum, we reflect on our recent publication that reported findings addressing a rather unconventional hypothesis. Bacterial pneumonia is highly prevalent and is one of the leading contributors to stroke morbidity and mortality worldwide...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-prerequisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
Joyce K Y Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
July 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636585/microbiome-a-potential-component-in-the-origin-of-mental-disorders
#13
George B Stefano, Radek Ptacek, Jiri Raboch, Richard M Kream
It is not surprising to find microbiome abnormalities present in psychiatric disorders such as depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, etc. Evolutionary pressure may provide an existential advantage to the host eukaryotic cells in that it survives in an extracellular environment containing non-self cells (e.g., bacteria). This phenomenon is both positive and negative, as with other intercellular processes. In this specific case, the phenomenal amount of information gained from combined bacterial genome could enhance communication between self and non-self cells...
June 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611513/brain-changes-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Kun Lv, Yi-Hong Fan, Li Xu, Mao-Sheng Xu
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560529/desire-for-core-tastes-decreases-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-single-center-longitudinal-observational-study-with-6-month-follow-up
#15
Daniel Gero, Fadia Dib, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Konstantinos Arapis, Denis Chosidow, Jean-Pierre Marmuse
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) modifies gastrointestinal substances that control hunger and satiation via the brain-gut axis. A potential mechanism implicated in weight loss is the shift in food preferences. Our aim was to assess changes in taste preferences and their relationship to weight loss. METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal observational study in 100 consecutive LSG patients. Questionnaire with photographs of tastes was administered before surgery, at postoperative (PO) day 6 and PO month 6...
May 30, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548940/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538240/sharing-progress-in-neonatal-spin-brain-gut-heart-and-lung-incorporating-the-32nd-international-workshop-on-surfactant-replacement-dublin-may-26-27-2017-abstracts
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538232/sharing-progress-in-neonatal-spin-brain-gut-heart-and-lung
#19
Eleanor J Molloy, Tore Curstedt, Henry L Halliday, Mikko Hallman, Ola D Saugstad, Christian P Speer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#20
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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