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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#1
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061975/the-place-of-stress-and-emotions-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
S Pellissier, B Bonaz
Our emotional state can have many consequences on our somatic health and well-being. Negative emotions such as anxiety play a major role in gut functioning due to the bidirectional communications between gut and brain, namely, the brain-gut axis. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by an unusual visceral hypersensitivity, is the most common disorder encountered by gastroenterologists. Among the main symptoms, the presence of current or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with bloating and altered bowel habits characterizes this syndrome that could strongly alter the quality of life...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061687/new-targets-for-drug-treatment-of-obesity
#3
Georgios Valsamakis, Panagiota Konstantakou, George Mastorakos
Antiobesity medical management has shown unsatisfactory results to date in terms of efficacy, safety, and long-term maintenance of weight loss. This poor performance could be attributed to the complexity of appetite regulation mechanisms; the serious drug side effects; and, crucially, the lack of profile-matching treatment strategies and individualized, multidisciplinary follow-up. Nevertheless, antiobesity pharmacotherapy remains a challenging, exciting field of intensive scientific interest. According to the latest studies, the future of bariatric medicine lies in developing drugs acting at multiple levels of the brain-gut axis...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053341/gut-brain-axis-in-2016-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-mood-metabolism-and-behaviour
#4
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029077/editorial-thematic-issue-brain-gut-axis-new-view
#5
EDITORIAL
Predrag Sikiric
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995391/irritable-bowel-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#6
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent condition affecting 10-20% of adults in most countries; IBS results in significant morbidity and health care costs. IBS is a disorder of the brain-gut axis, and recent insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier, and secretory properties of the gut. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments, particularly for the pain component of IBS, although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility, and a nonabsorbable antibiotic provides an option for the bowel dysfunction in IBS...
December 20, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929458/in-vivo-biosensor-tracks-non-apoptotic-caspase-activity-in-drosophila
#7
Ho Lam Tang, Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, J Marie Hardwick
Caspases are the key mediators of apoptotic cell death via their proteolytic activity. When caspases are activated in cells to levels detectable by available technologies, apoptosis is generally assumed to occur shortly thereafter. Caspases can cleave many functional and structural components to cause rapid and complete cell destruction within a few minutes. However, accumulating evidence indicates that in normal healthy cells the same caspases have other functions, presumably at lower enzymatic levels. Studies of non-apoptotic caspase activity have been hampered by difficulties with detecting low levels of caspase activity and with tracking ultimate cell fate in vivo...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929421/ghrelin-attenuates-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#8
Yijun Cheng, Yongxu Wei, Wenlei Yang, Yu Cai, Bin Chen, Guoyuan Yang, Hanbing Shang, Weiguo Zhao
Intestinal barrier dysfunction remains a critical problem in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with poor prognosis. Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide, has been shown to exert protection in animal models of gastrointestinal injury. However, the effect of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction post-ICH and its possible underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether ghrelin administration attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental ICH using an intrastriatal autologous blood infusion mouse model...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#9
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922565/a-perspective-on-brain-gut-communication-the-american-gastroenterology-association-and-american-psychosomatic-society-joint-symposium-on-brain-gut-interactions-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#10
Olga C Aroniadis, Douglas A Drossman, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-gut communication and the intestinal microenvironment have been implicated in a variety of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Three central areas require basic and clinical research: (1) how the intestinal microenvironment interacts with the host immune system, central nervous system and enteric nervous system; (2) the role of the intestinal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of medical and neuropsychiatric disease; (3) the effects of diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation on the intestinal microenvironment and the treatment of disease...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918315/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-visceral-pain
#11
Siobhain M O' Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Visceral pain is a significant and prevalent feature of several disorders including the functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Treatment strategies are limited and often unsatisfactory which has opened up new research avenues into the aetiology of visceral pain. This research has led to an increased appreciation of the role of the brain gut axis in modulating viscera pain responses. More recently, the interactions between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system have emerged indicating that visceral pain related disorders may be prospective candidates for symptom relief via microbial manipulation...
November 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898425/modulation-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-by-berberine-resulting-in-improved-metabolic-status-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#12
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Zhen Cang, Chaoxia Zhu, Li Zhao, Xiaomin Nie, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHODS: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed...
2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848148/disrupted-functional-connectivity-density-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#13
Yifei Weng, Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Jun Ke, Qiang Xu, Fangyu Wang, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder resulting from a dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. However, its exact neural substrate still remains unclear. This study investigated the changes of intrinsic whole brain functional connectivity pattern in IBS using functional connectivity density (FCD). We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from thirty-two IBS patients and thirty-two healthy controls. Functional connectivity density, a data-driven algorithm, was used to compute the long-range and short-range FCD values for each voxel in the brain of each subject, implying the amount of distant and local functional connections of cortical hubs...
November 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845741/cst-an-herbal-formula-exerts-anti-obesity-effects-through-brain-gut-adipose-tissue-axis-modulation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#15
AbuZar Ansari, Shambhunath Bose, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Jing-Hua Wang, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST), a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD) or high-fat diet (HFD) in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL) for 12 weeks...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816599/etiology-and-treatment-of-pain-and-psychosocial-issues-in%C3%A2-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#16
Miguel Regueiro, Julia B Greer, Eva Szigethy
There is increasing evidence that brain-gut interactions are altered during development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Understanding the relationship between the neurobiology, psychological symptoms, and social ramifications of IBD can guide comprehensive care for the whole patient. The most common psychological conditions in patients with IBD are chronic abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression. We review the evidence-based data and rates of these conditions and their respective relationship to IBD and the diagnostic approaches to identify patients with these conditions...
February 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814591/insight-into-role-of-microbiota-gut-brain-peptides-as-a-target-for-biotechnology-innovations
#17
Carina Elisei, Alinne Pereira de Castro
It has long been understood that some microorganisms may modify their hosts behavior in various systems. Nevertheless, it has only been in recent years that gut microbiota have opened new perspectives to appreciate their potential for affect complex neurological function in mammals. Efforts have demonstrated the ability of these gut-microbiota to impact neurological outcomes, suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain interactions, indicating that alterations in bidirectional microbiota-brain-gut may be involved in a number of brain disorders...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811629/the-role-of-duodenal-inflammation-in-functional-dyspepsia
#18
Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common and significantly impairs quality of life. Symptoms of FD are considered to originate from the gastroduodenal region, classified by the Rome criteria as disorders of brain-gut interaction without structural alteration. However, it is now apparent that FD is a number of syndromes, the epigastric pain syndrome (bothersome epigastric pain or epigastric burning) and the postprandial distress syndrome (with bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation) and there are wide-ranging symptoms and severity...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793227/neuropeptides-microbiota-and-behavior
#19
P Holzer
The gut microbiota and the brain interact with each other through multiple bidirectional signaling pathways in which neuropeptides and neuroactive peptide messengers play potentially important mediator roles. Currently, six particular modes of a neuropeptide link are emerging. (i) Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters contribute to the mutual microbiota-host interaction. (ii) The synthesis of neuroactive peptides is influenced by microbial control of the availability of amino acids. (iii) The activity of neuropeptides is tempered by microbiota-dependent autoantibodies...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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