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type 2 dm and artificial sugar

Christopher Gardner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intake of added sugars in the American diet is high and has been linked to weight gain and adverse effects on glycemic control and diabetes. Several national health organizations recommend decreasing added sugars intake. Among the many strategies to consider to achieve this reduction is substitution with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS - artificial sweeteners and stevia). The purpose of this review is to critically examine existing evidence for this strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: Short-term intervention studies suggest that NNS, when substituted for added sugars, may be useful in supporting energy intake reduction, and promoting glycemic control and weight management...
February 2014: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Mark A Pereira, Andrew O Odegaard
The sweeteners in artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) are potent stimulators of sweetness on the palate, yet contain no energy. This "mismatch" between sweetness and energy in ASB has raised concern about metabolism and health. This article provides a review of the recent literature on the effect of ASB on cardiometabolic risk factors and disease. Physiologic mechanisms are discussed, as well as epidemiologic studies. Prospective studies of ASB intake and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have revealed inconsistent results...
December 2013: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Konstantina Argyri, Alexios Sotiropoulos, Eirini Psarou, Athanasia Papazafiropoulou, Antonios Zampelas, Maria Kapsokefalou
BACKGROUND: Dessert compositions may conform to diabetic diet when it contains low sugar or artificial sweetener to replace sugar. However, it is still questionable whether glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients is improved by the use of diet-conforming dessert compositions. OBJECTIVE: To compare, in type 2 diabetes patients, the glycemic, insulin, and C-peptide responses to seven modified dessert compositions for diabetics (D-dessert) with the response to seven similar desserts of non-modified composition, used as control desserts (C-dessert)...
2013: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Susan E Swithers
The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis...
September 2013: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Padmini Shankar, Suman Ahuja, Krishnan Sriram
Obesity has become an epidemic, not just in the United States, but also across the globe. Obesity is a result of many factors including poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, hormonal issues, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as many psychological issues. Direct and indirect costs associated with obesity-related morbidity and mortality have been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. Of the many avenues for treatment, dietary interventions are the most common. Numerous diets have been popularized in the media, with most being fads having little to no scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness...
November 2013: Nutrition
Mark A Pereira
"Diet beverage" is a common term used to describe beverages that are sweetened with non-nutritive or artificial sweeteners (ASBs). Marketing strategies often imply that consuming these beverages holds promise for weight control or weight loss. The objective of the present review is to provide a synthesis of the literature on the effects of ASBs on body weight, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of diet beverages is much lower than that of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and people trying to lose weight report the highest levels of ASB consumption...
July 2013: Nutrition Reviews
D Romaguera, T Norat, P A Wark, A C Vergnaud, M B Schulze, G J van Woudenbergh, D Drogan, P Amiano, E Molina-Montes, M J Sánchez, B Balkau, A Barricarte, J W J Beulens, F Clavel-Chapelon, S P Crispim, G Fagherazzi, P W Franks, V A Grote, I Huybrechts, R Kaaks, T J Key, K T Khaw, P Nilsson, K Overvad, D Palli, S Panico, J R Quirós, O Rolandsson, C Sacerdote, S Sieri, N Slimani, A M W Spijkerman, A Tjonneland, M J Tormo, R Tumino, S W van den Berg, P R Wermeling, R Zamara-Ros, E J M Feskens, C Langenberg, S J Sharp, N G Forouhi, E Riboli, N J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft drinks) with type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults. METHODS: We established a case-cohort study including 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 participants selected from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study...
July 2013: Diabetologia
Guy Fagherazzi, Alice Vilier, Daniela Saes Sartorelli, Martin Lajous, Beverley Balkau, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon
BACKGROUND: It has been extensively shown, mainly in US populations, that sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but less is known about the effects of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between self-reported SSB, ASB, and 100% fruit juice consumption and T2D risk over 14 y of follow-up in the French prospective Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort...
March 2013: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, An Pan, Vasanti S Malik, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Rob M van Dam, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeinated beverages such as coffee and tea has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Paradoxically, short-term metabolic studies have shown that caffeine impairs postprandial glycemic control. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to prospectively examine the association of caffeinated compared with caffeine-free beverages, including coffee, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and carbonated artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), with T2D risk...
January 2013: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Anne Raben, Bjørn Richelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans...
November 2012: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Lawrence de Koning, Vasanti S Malik, Mark D Kellogg, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Few studies have tested for a relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD) or intermediate biomarkers. The role of artificially sweetened beverages is also unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an analysis of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study including 42 883 men. Associations of cumulatively averaged sugar-sweetened (eg, sodas) and artificially sweetened (eg, diet sodas) beverage intake with incident fatal and nonfatal CHD (myocardial infarction) were examined with proportional hazard models...
April 10, 2012: Circulation
Harshal Patil, Carl J Lavie, James H O'Keefe
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug worldwide. Indeed the majority of adults consume caffeine on a daily basis, most commonly in the forms of coffee and tea. Coffee, in particular, is the favored caffeine source in the United States, where more than 150 million people drink coffee on a daily basis. Coffee, one of the richest sources of antioxidants in the average American's diet, contains caffeine and other antioxidants that have the potential to confer both beneficial and adverse health effects...
November 2011: Missouri Medicine
Lawrence de Koning, Vasanti S Malik, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression...
June 2011: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yuzuru Ito, Koichiro Yoshimura, Yoko Matsuzawa, Jun Saito, Hiroko Ito, Hiroshi Furukawa, Kazuhiro Okura, Mutsumu Fukata, Toshio Konishi, Tetsuo Nishikawa
We describe a diabetic patient successfully treated for an acute mycotic aortic arch pseudoaneurysm with primary aldosteronism. The patient first complained of severe pain in the left upper extremity and left back with high C reactive protein (CRP) and high-grade fever. It was suspected that acute aortic dissection had developed in association with mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch because of chest X-ray findings of enlargement of the aortic arch. Computed tomography (CT) of the aortic arch revealed an aortic aneurysm protruding in the superior direction...
July 30, 2010: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Geoffrey Livesey
Abstract Polyols are hydrogenated carbohydrates used as sugar replacers. Interest now arises because of their multiple potential health benefits. They are non-cariogenic (sugar-free tooth-friendly), low-glycaemic (potentially helpful in diabetes and cardiovascular disease), low-energy and low-insulinaemic (potentially helpful in obesity), low-digestible (potentially helpful in the colon), osmotic (colon-hydrating, laxative and purifying) carbohydrates. Such potential health benefits are reviewed. A major focus here is the glycaemic index (GI) of polyols as regards the health implications of low-GI foods...
December 2003: Nutrition Research Reviews
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Predrag Putnik
Latinos have become the largest ethnic minority group in the U.S. and will become 25% of the population by 2050. The purpose of this critical review is to examine the influence of acculturation on type 2 diabetes and corresponding risk factors, including 1) dietary intake, 2) physical activity patterns, 3) smoking and alcohol consumption, and 4) obesity. Among Latinos, acculturation has been associated with obesity risk, suboptimal dietary choices including lack of breast-feeding, low intake of fruits and vegetables, a higher consumption of fats and artificial drinks containing high levels of refined sugar, smoking, and alcohol consumption...
April 2007: Journal of Nutrition
Maria da C R Batista, Silvia E Priore, Lina E F P L Rosado, Adelson L A Tinôco, Sylvia C C Franceschini
The purpose of this work is to assess the current, qualitative and quantitative alimentary consumption of patients detected with hiperglycemia in the "Detection of Diabetes in Suspect Cases Campaign" in Viçosa, MG. 256 patients were detected with hiperglycemia in 2001; however, 156 (60.9%) were assessed in 2004. The remaining people were dead, had changed their address, did not accept to participate in the study or did not have diagnosed diabetes. The hiperglycemic patients answered an alimentary frequency questionnaire for assessing their dietary intake and their usual diet recall, both previously tested in pilot-population...
December 2006: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Julie K Collins, Angela R Davis, Arin Adams, Niels Manness, Penelope M Perkins-Veazie
Watermelons are a good source of lycopene, a carotenoid that exhibits antioxidant activity and may protect against some cancers. However, intake of watermelon may be restricted for individuals who have diabetes or those who limit carbohydrate intake. A low-sugar watermelon was developed at Lane, Oklahoma using traditional plant breeding techniques. The objective of this study was to determine whether the artificially sweetened low-sugar watermelon was acceptable with Native Americans, a group with a high incidence of diabetes...
August 2006: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
U Wollina
BACKGROUND: Hair colour may be affected by a metabolic disease. Systematic investigations in diabetics are missing. OBJECTIVE: A clinical study was performed to evaluate whether dark colour of eyebrows in greying males is associated with diabetes or not. SETTING: Academic teaching hospital, inpatient and outpatient department. METHODS: In an uncontrolled analysis two groups of male patients between 50 to 70 years of age were investigated for evidence of diabetes mellitus...
December 2005: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Simeon B Simeonov, Nikolai P Botushanov, Eksapet B Karahanian, Maria B Pavlova, Haralambos K Husianitis, Dimitar M Troev
The low calorie juice Aronia melanocarpa (sugar free, with artificial sweeteners) could be a valuable adjunct to the complex therapy of patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study no increased blood glucose levels were established 60 min. following ingestion of 200 ml Aronia juice. On the contrary, lower fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 16 patients with insulin dependent diabetes and in 25 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes (25 women and 16 men, 3 to 62 years of age, median age 38...
2002: Folia Medica
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