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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546509/behavioral-color-vision-in-a-cichlid-fish-metriaclima-benetos
#1
Daniel Escobar-Camacho, Justin Marshall, Karen L Carleton
Color vision is the capacity of discriminating color regardless of brightness. It is essential for many fish species as they rely on color discrimination for numerous ecological tasks. The study of color vision is important because it can unveil the mechanisms that shape coloration patterns, visual system sensitivities and hence, visual signals. In order to understand better the mechanisms underlying color vision an integrative approach is necessary. This usually requires combining behavioral, physiological, and genetic experiments with quantitative modeling, resulting in a distinctive characterization of the visual system...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545983/feedback-from-higher-to-lower-visual-areas-for-visual-recognition-may-be-weaker-in-the-periphery-glimpses-from-the-perception-of-brief-dichoptic-stimuli
#2
Li Zhaoping
Eye movements bring attended visual inputs to the center of vision for further processing. Thus, central and peripheral vision should have different functional roles. Here, we use observations of visual perception under dichoptic stimuli to infer that there is a difference in the top-down feedback from higher brain centers to primary visual cortex. Visual stimuli to the two eyes were designed such that the sum and difference of the binocular input from the two eyes have the form of two different gratings. These gratings differed in their motion direction, tilt direction, or color, and duly evoked ambiguous percepts for the corresponding feature...
May 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541233/quaternion-locality-constrained-coding-for-color-face-hallucination
#3
Licheng Liu, Shutao Li, C L Philip Chen
Recently, the locality linear coding (LLC) has attracted more and more attentions in the areas of image processing and computer vision. However, the conventional LLC with real setting is just designed for the grayscale image. For the color image, it usually treats each color channel individually or encodes the monochrome image by concatenating all the color channels, which ignores the correlations among different channels. In this paper, we propose a quaternion-based locality-constrained coding (QLC) model for color face hallucination in the quaternion space...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540010/changes-in-choroidal-perfusion-after-orbital-decompression-surgery-for-graves-ophthalmopathy
#4
Narieman Nik, Amelia Fong, Marianna Derdzakyan, Chrysavgi Adamopoulou, Adam Sise, Aziz Khanifar, Reginald Sanders
PURPOSE: To assess choroidal perfusion before and after orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. METHODS: In this interventional case series, surgical decompression for optic nerve compromise was performed on four eyes of three patients with Graves' disease. Complete ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, color vision, and intraocular pressure assessment were done pre- and postoperatively. High-speed indocyanine green angiography was performed prior to surgery and was repeated one year after surgery...
April 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533466/cultural-evolution-of-military-camouflage
#5
Laszlo Talas, Roland J Baddeley, Innes C Cuthill
While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533458/how-camouflage-works
#6
REVIEW
Sami Merilaita, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, Innes C Cuthill
For camouflage to succeed, an individual has to pass undetected, unrecognized or untargeted, and hence it is the processing of visual information that needs to be deceived. Camouflage is therefore an adaptation to the perception and cognitive mechanisms of another animal. Although this has been acknowledged for a long time, there has been no unitary account of the link between visual perception and camouflage. Viewing camouflage as a suite of adaptations to reduce the signal-to-noise ratio provides the necessary common framework...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#7
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#8
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532448/the-effects-of-a-treatment-combination-of-anti-vegf-injections-laser-coagulation-and-cryotherapy-on-patients-with-type-3-coat-s-disease
#9
Songfeng Li, Guangda Deng, Jinghua Liu, Yan Ma, Hai Lu
BACKGROUND: To examined the curative effect of vitreous injection with ranibizumab,laser coagulation and cryotherapy in treating stage 3 Coats' disease with exudative retinal detachment. METHODS: Seventeen patients with stage 3 Coats' disease were enrolled in the study. All eyes were treated with vitreous injection of ranibizumab as initial treatment, and subsequent treatment depended on the absorption of subretinal fluid, Including cryotherapy and laser photocoagulation...
May 22, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530708/engineering-rgb-color-vision-into-escherichia-coli
#10
Jesus Fernandez-Rodriguez, Felix Moser, Miryoung Song, Christopher A Voigt
Optogenetic tools use colored light to rapidly control gene expression in space and time. We designed a genetically encoded system that gives Escherichia coli the ability to distinguish between red, green, and blue (RGB) light and respond by changing gene expression. We use this system to produce 'color photographs' on bacterial culture plates by controlling pigment production and to redirect metabolic flux by expressing CRISPRi guide RNAs.
May 22, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523050/frequency-of-color-blindness-in-pre-employment-screening-in-a-tertiary-health-care-center-in-pakistan
#11
Shaukat Ali Chhipa, Farzeen K Hashmi, Shehreen Ali, Mustafa Kamal, Khabir Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of color vision deficiency among Pakistani adults presenting for pre-employment health screening in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and the data was collected for color vision deficiency, age, gender, and job applied for from pre-employment examination during 2013-2014. IBM SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Three thousand four hundred and thirty seven persons underwent pre-employment screening during 2013 and 2014; 1837 (53...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518063/visualizing-visual-adaptation
#12
Michael A Webster, Katherine E M Tregillus
Many techniques have been developed to visualize how an image would appear to an individual with a different visual sensitivity: e.g., because of optical or age differences, or a color deficiency or disease. This protocol describes a technique for incorporating sensory adaptation into the simulations. The protocol is illustrated with the example of color vision, but is generally applicable to any form of visual adaptation. The protocol uses a simple model of human color vision based on standard and plausible assumptions about the retinal and cortical mechanisms encoding color and how these adjust their sensitivity to both the average color and range of color in the prevailing stimulus...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516000/role-of-a-dual-splicing-and-amino-acid-code-in-myopia-cone-dysfunction-and-cone-dystrophy-associated-with-l-m-opsin-interchange-mutations
#13
Scott H Greenwald, James A Kuchenbecker, Jessica S Rowlan, Jay Neitz, Maureen Neitz
PURPOSE: Human long (L) and middle (M) wavelength cone opsin genes are highly variable due to intermixing. Two L/M cone opsin interchange mutants, designated LIAVA and LVAVA, are associated with clinical diagnoses, including red-green color vision deficiency, blue cone monochromacy, cone degeneration, myopia, and Bornholm Eye Disease. Because the protein and splicing codes are carried by the same nucleotides, intermixing L and M genes can cause disease by affecting protein structure and splicing...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507827/wearable-improved-vision-system-for-color-vision-deficiency-correction
#14
Paolo Melillo, Daniel Riccio, Luigi Di Perna, Gabriella Sanniti Di Baja, Maurizio De Nino, Settimio Rossi, Francesco Testa, Francesca Simonelli, Maria Frucci
Color vision deficiency (CVD) is an extremely frequent vision impairment that compromises the ability to recognize colors. In order to improve color vision in a subject with CVD, we designed and developed a wearable improved vision system based on an augmented reality device. The system was validated in a clinical pilot study on 24 subjects with CVD (18 males and 6 females, aged 37.4 ± 14.2 years). The primary outcome was the improvement in the Ishihara Vision Test score with the correction proposed by our system...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505665/visual-wetness-perception-based-on-image-color-statistics
#15
Masataka Sawayama, Edward H Adelson, Shin'ya Nishida
Color vision provides humans and animals with the abilities to discriminate colors based on the wavelength composition of light and to determine the location and identity of objects of interest in cluttered scenes (e.g., ripe fruit among foliage). However, we argue that color vision can inform us about much more than color alone. Since a trichromatic image carries more information about the optical properties of a scene than a monochromatic image does, color can help us recognize complex material qualities...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505664/temporal-brightness-illusion-changes-color-perception-of-the-dress
#16
Laila Hugrass, Jana Slavikova, Melissa Horvat, Alaa Al Musawi, David Crewther
"The dress" has provoked intensive commentary among psychophysicists, especially in relation to color vision. Researchers have shown that manipulating illuminance cues can influence the perceived colors of the dress. Here we investigate whether illusory shifts in brightness can shift color perception of the dress. Drifting achromatic gratings with fast off and fast on shading profiles are known to give an illusion of brightening or darkening, respectively. We superimposed rotating sawtooth gratings on a series of dress images that morphed from extreme white/gold through to blue/black...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505307/sexual-dimorphism-and-retinal-mosaic-diversification-following-the-evolution-of-a-violet-receptor-in-butterflies
#17
Kyle J McCulloch, Furong Yuan, Ying Zhen, Matthew L Aardema, Gilbert Smith, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Peter Andolfatto, Adriana D Briscoe
Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504934/vision-based-surgical-field-defogging
#18
Xiongbiao Luo, A McLeod, Stephen Pautler, Christopher Schlachta, Terry Peters
Fogged surgical field visualization that is a common and potentially harmful problem can lead to inappropriate device use and incorrectly targeted tissue and increase surgical risks in endoscopic surgery. This work aims to remove fog or smoke on endoscopic video sequences to augment and maintain a direct and clear visualization of the operating field. A new visibilitydriven fusion defogging framework is proposed for surgical endoscopic video processing. This framework first recovers the visibility and enhances the contrast of hazy images...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498989/determination-of-the-genetic-architecture-underlying-short-wavelength-sensitivity-in-lake-malawi-cichlids
#19
Sri Pratima Nandamuri, Brian E Dalton, Karen L Carleton
African cichlids are an exemplary system to study organismal diversity and rapid speciation. Species differ in external morphology including jaw shape and body coloration, but also differ in sensory systems including vision. All cichlids have 7 cone opsin genes with species differing broadly in which opsins are expressed. The differential opsin expression results in closely related species with substantial differences in spectral sensitivity of their photoreceptors. In this work, we take a first step in determining the genetic basis of opsin expression in cichlids...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484022/biological-origins-of-color-categorization
#20
Alice E Skelton, Gemma Catchpole, Joshua T Abbott, Jenny M Bosten, Anna Franklin
The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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