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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338250/diversity-in-warning-coloration-is-easily-recognised-by-avian-predators
#1
Lina María Arenas, Martin Stevens
Warning coloration is a widespread strategy to alert predators about prey unprofitability. The success of this strategy partly depends on predators being able to learn and recognise certain signals as indicators of toxicity, and theory predicts that this is easier if signals converge on similar colours. However, the diversity in warning signal form is astonishing, contradicting predictions. Here, we quantified ladybird signal diversity with respect to avian vision, measuring how unique and discernable each signal is from one another...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333855/serous-retinopathy-associated-with-cisplatin-treatment
#2
Spencer Langevin, Jonathan S Chang, Stanley Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To describe a case of serous retinopathy and associated photoreceptor atrophy after intravenous cisplatin therapy. METHODS: Evaluation was performed using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and funduscopic examinations to assess the extent of retinal disease, toxicity, and eventual atrophy. RESULTS: A 56 year-old man with metastatic small cell carcinoma with vision changes after initiation of cisplatin therapy...
March 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331120/color-functionality-used-in-visual-display-for-occupational-and-environmental-safety-and-managing-color-vision-deficiency
#3
Nobuhisa Ochiai, Hiroyuki Kondo
The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325166/color-perception-differentiates-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-from-vascular-dementia-vad-patients
#4
N A Arnaoutoglou, M Arnaoutoglou, P Nemtsas, V Costa, S J Baloyannis, K P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al...
March 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324012/deletion-of-the-thyroid-hormone-activating-type-2-deiodinase-rescues-cone-photoreceptor-degeneration-but-not-deafness-in-mice-lacking-type-3-deiodinase
#5
Lily Ng, Hong Liu, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez, Douglas Forrest
Type 2 deiodinase amplifies and type 3 deiodinase depletes levels of the active form of thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3). Given the opposing activities of these enzymes, we tested the hypothesis that they counteract each other's developmental functions by investigating whether deletion of type 2 deiodinase (encoded by Dio2) modifies sensory phenotypes in type 3 deiodinase-deficient (Dio3-/-) mice. Dio3-/- mice display degeneration of retinal cones, the photoreceptors that mediate daylight and color vision...
March 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318721/-physiology-of-the-visual-retinal-signal-from-phototransduction-to-the-visual-cycle
#6
REVIEW
C Salesse
The retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) are responsible for light absorption and transduction of the signal, which is transmitted to the other retinal nerve cells and then to the brain. The chromophore of visual pigments of rods and cones is a particular isomer of a vitamin A derivative. Light absorption by this chromophore leads to its isomerization and to a phototransduction cascade, which results in photoreceptor hyperpolarization and cessation of glutamate secretion at their synaptic terminals. Phototransduction of cones and rods differs in their signal amplification and inactivation, which is consistent with their respective functions...
March 17, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314998/multispectral-images-of-flowers-reveal-the-adaptive-significance-of-using-long-wavelength-sensitive-receptors-for-edge-detection-in-bees
#7
Vera Vasas, Daniel Hanley, Peter G Kevan, Lars Chittka
Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and bumblebees acquire visual information through three types of photoreceptors; however, they only use a single receptor type-the one sensitive to longer wavelengths-for edge detection and movement detection...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301411/retinal-phenotype-in-a-case-of-lchad-tfp-deficiency-with-late-stage-diagnosis
#8
Jacob A Knowles, Ioannis S Dimopoulos, Ian M MacDonald
PURPOSE: To report the retinal phenotype of a rare case of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD)/trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency diagnosed in his late 40s with ocular findings of diffuse chorioretinal atrophy and bilateral retinoschisis. METHODS: An acylcarnitine profile assay revealed LCHAD/TFP deficiency in a 45-year-old man with a history of high myopia, bilateral decreased vision, episodic rhabdomyolysis, and peripheral neuropathy. Ocular findings were evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) and color fundus photography...
March 15, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300605/a-rapid-quantification-of-binocular-misalignment-without-recording-eye-movements-vertical-and-torsional-alignment-nulling
#9
Kara H Beaton, Mark J Shelhamer, Dale C Roberts, Michael C Schubert
BACKGROUND: Small, innate asymmetries between the left and right otolith organs can cause ocular misalignment with symptoms that include double vision and motion sickness. Additionally, ocular misalignment affects nearly 5% of the US population. We have developed a portable, non-invasive technology that uses subjective perception of binocular visual signals to estimate relative binocular alignment. NEW METHOD AND RESULTS: The Vertical Alignment Nulling (VAN) and Torsional Alignment Nulling (TAN) tests ask subjects to view one red and one blue line on a tablet computer while looking through color-matched red and blue filters so that each eye sees only one of the lines...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293777/engaging-parents-in-preventive-interventions-for-young-children-working-with-cultural-diversity-within-low-income-urban-neighborhoods
#10
Spring Dawson-McClure, Esther J Calzada, Laurie M Brotman
A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers...
March 14, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283997/decision-support-system-for-detection-of-papilledema-through-fundus-retinal-images
#11
Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Usman Akram, Muhammad Sharif, Anam Tariq, Ubaid Ullah Yasin
A condition in which the optic nerve inside the eye is swelled due to increased intracranial pressure is known as papilledema. The abnormalities due to papilledema such as opacification of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL), dilated optic disc capillaries, blurred disc margins, absence of venous pulsations, elevation of optic disc, obscuration of optic disc vessels, dilation of optic disc veins, optic disc splinter hemorrhages, cotton wool spots and hard exudates may result in complete vision loss. The ophthalmologists detect papilledema by means of an ophthalmoscope, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultrasound...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282060/visual-dysfunction-and-its-correlation-with-retinal-changes-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
V Polo, M J Rodrigo, E Garcia-Martin, S Otin, J M Larrosa, M I Fuertes, M P Bambo, L E Pablo, M Satue
AimTo evaluate visual dysfunction and its correlation with structural changes in the retina in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).MethodsPatients with AD (n=24) and controls (n=24) underwent evaluation of visual acuity (VA), color vision (using the Farnsworth and L'Anthony desaturated (D) 15 color tests), and contrast sensitivity vision (CSV; using the Pelli-Robson chart and CSV-1000E test) to measure visual dysfunction. Structural measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thickness were obtained using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
March 10, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281024/retinal-toxicity-after-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-germ-cell-cancer
#13
Simon Dulz, Niels H Asselborn, Klaus-Peter Dieckmann, Cord Matthies, Walter Wagner, Jens Weidmann, Christoph Seidel, Christoph Oing, Lars A Berger, Winfried Alsdorf, Blanche Mankichian, Christian Meyer, Malte W Vetterlein, Philipp Gild, Tim A Ludwig, Armin Soave, Philipp Schriefer, Andreas Becker, Sascha A Ahyai, Karin Oechsle, Carsten Bokemeyer, Lars Wagenfeld, Margit Fisch, Michael Hartmann, Felix K-H Chun, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE: Visual impairment represents an infrequent form of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity; however, visual deterioration has been reported in several studies. To evaluate potential morphological and functional retinal alterations in patients with germ cell cancer (GCC) treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CBC). METHODS: Multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional study design. Examination of 28 eyes of 14 male GCC patients, who had received at least one cycle of CBC...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275712/pixying-behavior-a-versatile-real-time-and-post-hoc-automated-optical-tracking-method-for-freely-moving-and-head-fixed-animals
#14
Mostafa A Nashaat, Hatem Oraby, Laura Blanco Peña, Sina Dominiak, Matthew E Larkum, Robert N S Sachdev
Here, we describe an automated optical method for tracking animal behavior in both head-fixed and freely moving animals, in real time and offline. It takes advantage of an off-the-shelf camera system, the Pixy camera, designed as a fast vision sensor for robotics that uses a color-based filtering algorithm at 50 Hz to track objects. Using customized software, we demonstrate the versatility of our approach by first tracking the rostro-caudal motion of individual adjacent row (D1, D2) or arc whiskers (β, γ), or a single whisker and points on the whisker pad, in head-fixed mice performing a tactile task...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273551/the-importance-of-spatial-orientation-and-knowledge-of-traffic-signs-for-children-s-traffic-safety
#15
Aleksandar Trifunović, Dalibor Pešić, Svetlana Čičević, Boris Antić
Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills...
March 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268460/autonomous-vision-guided-approach-for-the-analysis-and-grading-of-vertical-suspension-tests-during-hammersmith-infant-neurological-examination-hine
#16
Prasenjit Dey, Debi Prosad Dogra, Partha Pratim Roy, Harish Bhaskar
Computer vision assisted diagnostic systems are gaining popularity in different healthcare applications. This paper presents a video analysis and pattern recognition framework for the automatic grading of vertical suspension tests on infants during the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). The proposed vision-guided pipeline applies a color-based skin region segmentation procedure followed by the localization of body parts before feature extraction and classification. After constrained localization of lower body parts, a stick-diagram representation is used for extracting novel features that correspond to the motion dynamic characteristics of the infant's leg movements during HINE...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264984/the-lateral-occipital-cortex-loc-is-selective-for-object-shape-not-texture-color-at-6-months
#17
Lauren L Emberson, Stephen L Crosswhite, John E Richards, Richard N Aslin
Understanding how the human visual system develops is crucial to understanding the nature and organization of our complex and varied visual representations. However, previous investigations of the development of the visual system using fMRI are largely confined to a subset of the visual system (high-level vision: faces, scenes) and relatively late in visual development (starting at 4-5 years of age). The current study extends our understanding of human visual development by presenting the first systematic investigation of a mid-level visual region (the LOC) in a population much younger than has been investigated in the past - 6 month olds...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261454/howler-monkey-foraging-ecology-suggests-convergent-evolution-of-routine-trichromacy-as-an-adaptation-for-folivory
#18
Amanda D Melin, Vishal Khetpal, Yuka Matsushita, Kaile Zhou, Fernando A Campos, Barbara Welker, Shoji Kawamura
Primates possess remarkably variable color vision, and the ecological and social factors shaping this variation remain heavily debated. Here, we test whether central tenants of the folivory hypothesis of routine trichromacy hold for the foraging ecology of howler monkeys. Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) and paleotropical primates (Parvorder: Catarrhini) have independently acquired routine trichromacy through fixation of distinct mid- to long-wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) opsin genes on the X-chromosome. The presence of routine trichromacy in howlers, while other diurnal neotropical monkeys (Platyrrhini) possess polymorphic trichromacy, is poorly understood...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#19
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241028/deploying-a-quantum-annealing-processor-to-detect-tree-cover-in-aerial-imagery-of-california
#20
Edward Boyda, Saikat Basu, Sangram Ganguly, Andrew Michaelis, Supratik Mukhopadhyay, Ramakrishna R Nemani
Quantum annealing is an experimental and potentially breakthrough computational technology for handling hard optimization problems, including problems of computer vision. We present a case study in training a production-scale classifier of tree cover in remote sensing imagery, using early-generation quantum annealing hardware built by D-wave Systems, Inc. Beginning within a known boosting framework, we train decision stumps on texture features and vegetation indices extracted from four-band, one-meter-resolution aerial imagery from the state of California...
2017: PloS One
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