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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351010/using-human-vision-to-detect-variation-in-avian-coloration-how-bad-is-it
#1
Zachary T Bergeron, Rebecca C Fuller
Assessing variation in animal coloration is difficult, as animals differ in their visual system properties. This has led some to propose that human vision can never be used to evaluate coloration, yet many studies have a long history of relying on human vision. To reconcile these views, we compared the reflectance spectra of preserved avian plumage elements with two measures that are human biased: RGB values from digital photographs and the corresponding reflectance spectra from a field guide. We measured 73 plumage elements across 14 bird species...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344070/diffuse-colour-discrimination-as-marker-of-afferent-visual-system-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Lindsay Boven, Qin Li Jiang, Heather E Moss
Abnormalities of the inner and intermediate retinal structures in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been described using optical coherence tomography and histopathology. Colour vision is a potential marker of these structural changes. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that colour vision impairment is associated with ALS. Monocular (right eye) colour vision was assessed in subjects with definite or probable ALS (n = 25, aged 50-80 years) and control (n = 21, aged 46-89 years) subjects with corrected near visual acuity of at least 20/40 using the L'Anthony D15 color test (desaturated), scored by c-index, a measure of diffuse colour discrimination...
December 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332120/severe-loss-of-tritan-color-discrimination-in-rpe65-associated-leber-congenital-amaurosis
#3
Neruban Kumaran, Caterina Ripamonti, Angelos Kalitzeos, Gary S Rubin, James W B Bainbridge, Michel Michaelides
Purpose: RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis (RPE65-LCA) is a progressive severe retinal dystrophy with early profound dysfunction of rod photoreceptors followed by progressive cone photoreceptor degeneration. We aim to provide detailed information about how cone dysfunction affects color discrimination. Methods: Seven adults (aged 16-21) with RPE65-LCA underwent monocular color discrimination assessment using the Trivector and Ellipse versions of three computerized tests: Cambridge Colour Test (CCT), low vision version of the Cambridge Colour Test (lvvCCT), and the Universal Colour Discrimination Test (UCDT)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328919/color-processing-in-the-early-visual-system-of-drosophila
#4
Christopher Schnaitmann, Väinö Haikala, Eva Abraham, Vitus Oberhauser, Thomas Thestrup, Oliver Griesbeck, Dierk F Reiff
Color vision extracts spectral information by comparing signals from photoreceptors with different visual pigments. Such comparisons are encoded by color-opponent neurons that are excited at one wavelength and inhibited at another. Here, we examine the circuit implementation of color-opponent processing in the Drosophila visual system by combining two-photon calcium imaging with genetic dissection of visual circuits. We report that color-opponent processing of UVshort/blue and UVlong/green is already implemented in R7/R8 inner photoreceptor terminals of "pale" and "yellow" ommatidia, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324415/convolutional-sparse-coding-for-rgb-nir-imaging
#5
Xuemei Hu, Felix Heide, Qionghai Dai, Gordon Wetzstein
Emerging sensor designs increasingly rely on novel color filter arrays (CFAs) to sample the incident spectrum in unconventional ways. In particular, capturing a near-infrared (NIR) channel along with conventional RGB color is an exciting new imaging modality. RGB+NIR sensing has broad applications in computational photography, such as low-light denoising, it has applications in computer vision, such as facial recognition and tracking, and it paves the way toward low-cost single-sensor RGB and depth imaging using structured illumination...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322255/-electronic-vision-aids-new-options-for-rehabilitation-of-the-visually-impaired
#6
REVIEW
N Celik, K Rohrschneider
Due to technical advances, there has been an enormous improvement of electronic vision aids in recent years. New developments are especially small portable devices which can be easily carried. The majority of electronic vision aids serve as a reading aid. Electronic magnifiers are a portable alternative to conventional screen readers. In addition, there are mobile reading devices and special computer tools. Color recognition devices and barcode scanners are helpful in everyday life. Ultrasonic orientation systems enable the recognition of obstacles also at head height...
January 10, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317073/micro-calibration-of-space-and-motion-by-photoreceptors-synchronized-in-parallel-with-cortical-oscillations-a-unified-theory-of-visual-perception
#7
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Mike Jensen
A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305531/nonselective-wiring-accounts-for-red-green-opponency-in-midget-ganglion-cells-of-the-primate-retina
#8
Lauren E Wool, Joanna D Crook, John B Troy, Orin S Packer, Qasim Zaidi, Dennis M Dacey
In primate retina, "red-green" color-coding is initiated when signals originating in long (L) and middle (M) wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors interact antagonistically. The center-surround receptive field of "midget" ganglion cells provides the neural substrate for L versus M cone-opponent interaction, but the underlying circuitry remains unsettled, centering around the longstanding question of whether specialized cone wiring is present. To address this question, we measured the strength, sign, and spatial tuning of L and M cone input to midget receptive fields in the peripheral retina of macaque primates of either sex...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303981/development-of-a-machine-vision-method-for-the-monitoring-of-laying-hens-and-detection-of-multiple-nest-occupations
#9
Mauro Zaninelli, Veronica Redaelli, Fabio Luzi, Malcolm Mitchell, Valentino Bontempo, Donata Cattaneo, Vittorio Dell'Orto, Giovanni Savoini
Free range systems can improve the welfare of laying hens. However, the access to environmental resources can be partially limited by social interactions, feeding of hens, and productivity, can be not stable and damaging behaviors, or negative events, can be observed more frequently than in conventional housing systems. In order to reach a real improvement of the hens' welfare the study of their laying performances and behaviors is necessary. With this purpose, many systems have been developed. However, most of them do not detect a multiple occupation of the nest negatively affecting the accuracy of data collected...
January 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300249/pigmented-paravenous-chorioretinal-atrophy-detailed-clinical-study-of-a-large-cohort
#10
Olajumoke A Shona, Farrah Islam, Anthony G Robson, Andrew R Webster, Anthony T Moore, Michel Michaelides
PURPOSE: To review and describe in detail the demographics, functional and anatomical characteristics, and clinical course of pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy in a large cohort of adults and children. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of consecutive patients diagnosed with pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy at a single U.K. referral center from 1974 to 2016. Clinical records, retinal imaging (color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography), and electrophysiological assessments were reviewed...
January 3, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299883/-epidemiological-study-on-the-visual-ability-of-official-public-transport-drivers-in-bamako
#11
O Diallo, L Traoré, F Traoré, A Simaga, J P Thera, B Coulibaly, M Diarra, M Sidibé, J Traoré, F N'Diaye
The aim of this work was to evaluate the public transport drivers' visual driving ability in Bamako. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study from May 15 to July 15, 2013. The probabilistic method was used. 385 drivers were examined at the University Hospital of the Institute of Tropical Ophthalmology of Africa (IOTA). The average age was 44.69 years. 296 drivers (76.9%) were able to drive public transport vehicles. Among drivers over 50 years old, 42.5% are unfit for driving. Color vision was normal in 98...
December 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298309/the-haptic-and-the-visual-flash-lag-effect-and-the-role-of-flash-characteristics
#12
Knut Drewing, Elena Hitzel, Lisa Scocchia
When a short flash occurs in spatial alignment with a moving object, the moving object is seen ahead the stationary one. Similar to this visual "flash-lag effect" (FLE) it has been recently observed for the haptic sense that participants judge a moving hand to be ahead a stationary hand when judged at the moment of a short vibration ("haptic flash") that is applied when the two hands are spatially aligned. We further investigated the haptic FLE. First, we compared participants' performance in two isosensory visual or haptic conditions, in which moving object and flash were presented only in a single modality (visual: sphere and short color change, haptic: hand and vibration), and two bisensory conditions, in which the moving object was presented in both modalities (hand aligned with visible sphere), but the flash was presented only visually or only haptically...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281690/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-automated-analysis-of-single-field-non-mydriatic-fundus-photographs-by-bosch-dr-algorithm-comparison-with-mydriatic-fundus-photography-etdrs-for-screening-in-undiagnosed-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
Pritam Bawankar, Nita Shanbhag, S Smitha K, Bodhraj Dhawan, Aratee Palsule, Devesh Kumar, Shailja Chandel, Suneet Sood
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Early diagnosis through effective screening programs is likely to improve vision outcomes. The ETDRS seven-standard-field 35-mm stereoscopic color retinal imaging (ETDRS) of the dilated eye is elaborate and requires mydriasis, and is unsuitable for screening. We evaluated an image analysis application for the automated diagnosis of DR from non-mydriatic single-field images. Patients suffering from diabetes for at least 5 years were included if they were 18 years or older...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276475/evolution-development-and-function-of-vertebrate-cone-oil-droplets
#14
REVIEW
Matthew B Toomey, Joseph C Corbo
To distinguish colors, the nervous system must compare the activity of distinct subtypes of photoreceptors that are maximally sensitive to different portions of the light spectrum. In vertebrates, a variety of adaptations have arisen to refine the spectral sensitivity of cone photoreceptors and improve color vision. In this review article, we focus on one such adaptation, the oil droplet, a unique optical organelle found within the inner segment of cone photoreceptors of a diverse array of vertebrate species, from fish to mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276052/nonsyndromic-retinitis-pigmentosa-in-the-ashkenazi-jewish-population-genetic-and-clinical-aspects
#15
Adva Kimchi, Samer Khateb, Rong Wen, Ziqiang Guan, Alexey Obolensky, Avigail Beryozkin, Shoshi Kurtzman, Anat Blumenfeld, Eran Pras, Samuel G Jacobson, Tamar Ben-Yosef, Hadas Newman, Dror Sharon, Eyal Banin
PURPOSE: To analyze the genetic and clinical findings in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent, aiming to identify genotype-phenotype correlations. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Retinitis pigmentosa patients from 230 families of AJ origin. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was performed to detect specific founder mutations known to be prevalent in the AJ population. Ophthalmologic analysis included a comprehensive clinical examination, visual acuity (VA), visual fields, electroretinography, color vision testing, and retinal imaging by OCT, pseudocolor, and autofluorescence fundus photography...
December 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261556/macular-burn-during-an-attempted-yag-laser-capsulotomy-by-inadvertent-use-of-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty-mode-of-a-dual-mode-laser
#16
Timothy P Flood, Colin T Flood
PURPOSE: To present a case of a patient who suffered a macular burn after an attempted YAG laser capsulotomy because of the inadvertent use of the selective laser trabeculoplasty mode of a dual-mode laser. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 62-year-old man with slight opacification of the posterior capsule noted sudden central vision loss immediately after an attempted YAG laser capsulotomy. The selective laser trabeculoplasty mode of a dual-mode laser had inadvertently been used...
December 19, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259520/%C3%A2-gene-therapy-for-color-blindness
#17
REVIEW
Mark M Hassall, Alun R Barnard, Robert E MacLaren
Achromatopsia is a rare congenital cause of vision loss due to isolated cone photoreceptor dysfunction. The most common underlying genetic mutations are autosomal recessive changes in CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, PDE6H, PDE6C, or ATF6. Animal models of Cnga3, Cngb3, and Gnat2 have been rescued using AAV gene therapy; showing partial restoration of cone electrophysiology and integration of this new photopic vision in reflexive and behavioral visual tests. Three gene therapy phase I/II trials are currently being conducted in human patients in the USA, the UK, and Germany...
December 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249284/the-m5-cell-a-color-opponent-intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cell
#18
Maureen E Stabio, Shai Sabbah, Lauren E Quattrochi, Marissa C Ilardi, P Michelle Fogerson, Megan L Leyrer, Jordan M Renna, Min Tae Kim, Inkyu Kim, Matthew Schiel, Kevin L Briggman, David M Berson
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) combine direct photosensitivity through melanopsin with synaptically mediated drive from classical photoreceptors through bipolar-cell input. Here, we sought to provide a fuller description of the least understood ipRGC type, the M5 cell, and discovered a distinctive functional characteristic-chromatic opponency (ultraviolet excitatory, green inhibitory). Serial electron microscopic reconstructions revealed that M5 cells receive selective UV-opsin drive from Type 9 cone bipolar cells but also mixed cone signals from bipolar Types 6, 7, and 8...
December 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238294/unique-temporal-expression-of-triplicated-long-wavelength-opsins-in-developing-butterfly-eyes
#19
Kentaro Arikawa, Tomoyuki Iwanaga, Motohiro Wakakuwa, Michiyo Kinoshita
Following gene duplication events, the expression patterns of the resulting gene copies can often diverge both spatially and temporally. Here we report on gene duplicates that are expressed in distinct but overlapping patterns, and which exhibit temporally divergent expression. Butterflies have sophisticated color vision and spectrally complex eyes, typically with three types of heterogeneous ommatidia. The eyes of the butterfly Papilio xuthus express two green- and one red-absorbing visual pigment, which came about via gene duplication events, in addition to one ultraviolet (UV)- and one blue-absorbing visual pigment...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236740/evidence-of-behavior-based-utilization-by-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-of-a-combination-of-uv-and-green-or-yellow-wavelengths
#20
Thomson M Paris, Sandra A Allan, Bradley J Udell, Philip A Stansly
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vectors huanglongbing (HLB), the most serious disease affecting citrus globally. D. citri and HLB have spread to the major citrus growing regions of North America causing billions of dollars of damage in Florida alone. The visual behavior of D. citri is not well characterized and more knowledge is needed to improve attractive traps for monitoring and control of the D. citri. Bioassays were conducted to evaluate attraction to light transmitted through different colored filters...
2017: PloS One
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