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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#1
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350085/divergent-classification-methods-of-post-concussion-syndrome-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-prevalence-rates-risk-factors-and-functional-outcome
#2
Daphne Cloë Voormolen, Maryse C Cnossen, Suzanne Polinder, Nicole von Steinbuechel, Pieter E Vos, Juanita Antje Haagsma
Mild Traumatic Brian Injury (mTBI) is a common diagnosis and approximately one third of mTBI patients experience a variety of cognitive, emotional, psychosocial and behavioral post-concussion symptoms. When a cluster of these symptoms persists for more than three months they are often classified as post-concussion syndrome (PCS). The objective of this study was to determine prevalence rates, risk factors and functional outcome associated with PCS six months after mTBI applying divergent classification methods...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349929/severity-of-cognitive-disability-and-mental-health-court-determinations-about-fitness-to-stand-trial
#3
J T Young, F J Davis, S Wardale, M Vassos, K van Dooren, K Nankervis, N G Lennox
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the socio-demographic, clinical and legal determinants of mental health court decisions of unsoundness of mind and unfitness to stand trial for people with cognitive disability. We aimed to estimate the association between severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations of unsoundness or unfitness and describe the socio-demographic, clinical and legal factors that predict these determinations. METHODS: Case file data were extracted on 92 individuals who had a criminal case referred to the Queensland Mental Health Court between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 due to cognitive disability...
February 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#4
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343230/the-sybil-aa-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-study-protocol-of-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#5
Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Martina Kirsch, Nathalie Bahs, Patrick Halli, Sarah Gerhardt, Axel Schäfer, Wolfgang H Sommer, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. However, the efficacy of this technique as an add-on treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in a clinical setting is hitherto unclear and will be assessed in the Systems Biology of Alcohol Addiction (SyBil-AA) neurofeedback study...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343229/the-colombo-twin-and-singleton-follow-up-study-a-population-based-twin-study-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-sri-lanka
#6
Kaushalya Jayaweera, Lisa Aschan, Gayani Pannala, Anushka Adikari, Nicholas Glozier, Khalida Ismail, Carmine M Pariante, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Sisira Siribaddana, Helena M S Zavos, Patricia A Zunszain, Athula Sumathipala, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: The disease burden related to mental disorders and metabolic syndrome is growing in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Colombo Twin and Singleton Study (COTASS) is a population-based sample of twins and singletons in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Here we present prevalence estimates for metabolic syndrome (metS) and mental disorders from a follow-up (COTASS-2) of the original study (COTASS-1), which was a mental health survey. METHODS: In COTASS-2, participants completed structured interviews, anthropometric measures and provided fasting blood and urine samples...
January 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338328/avoidance-meaning-and-grief-psychosocial-factors-influencing-engagement-in-hiv-care
#7
Georgia J Michlig, Ryan P Westergaard, Yukyan Lam, Azal Ahmadi, Gregory D Kirk, Andrew Genz, Jeanne Keruly, Heidi Hutton, Pamela J Surkan
Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has rendered HIV a chronic illness, inconsistent engagement in HIV care by key populations limits its public health impact. Poor engagement in care is especially prevalent among vulnerable populations with mental health and substance use disorders. Beyond structural and health system considerations, psychosocial factors may present challenges to sustained engagement. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 31 primarily African American, urban-based individuals, many with past or current drug use and mental disorders, living with HIV...
January 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336633/the-relationship-between-asthma-and-depression-in-a-community-based-sample
#8
Mahima Akula, Alexandra Kulikova, David A Khan, E Sherwood Brown
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is an increasingly prevalent disease that is associated with substantial physical and financial burdens. Additionally, asthma is linked to psychiatric disorders. This study examines the relationship between asthma diagnosis, current depressive symptoms, and lifetime psychiatric disorder history in a large, community-based sample. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2168 participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a large, diverse, community-based sample of people designed to be representative of the Dallas County population...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336603/comparison-of-unlicensed-and-off-label-use-of-antipsychotics-prescribed-to-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-outpatients-for-treatment-of-mental-and-behavioral-disorders-with-different-guidelines-the-china-food-and-drug-administration-versus-the-fda
#9
Xiuqing Zhu, Jinqing Hu, Bin Sun, Shuhua Deng, Yuguan Wen, Weijia Chen, Chang Qiu, Dewei Shang, Ming Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the prevalence of unlicensed and off-label use of antipsychotics among child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with guidelines proposed by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and to identify factors associated with inconsistencies between the two regulations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 29,326 drug prescriptions for child and adolescent outpatients from the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was conducted...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334642/examining-the-latent-structure-mechanisms-for-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Margo C Hurlocker, Desirae N Vidaurri, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Kelly Maieritsch, C Laurel Franklin
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric illness that can be difficult to diagnose, due in part to its comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). Given that researchers have found no difference in prevalence rates of PTSD and MDD after accounting for overlapping symptoms, the latent structures of PTSD and MDD may account for the high comorbidity. In particular, the PTSD Negative Alterations in Cognition and Mood (NACM) and Hyperarousal factors have been characterized as non-specific to PTSD...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334514/monitoring-depression-rates-in-an-urban-community-use-of-electronic-health-records
#11
Arthur J Davidson, Stanley Xu, Carlos Irwin A Oronce, M Josh Durfee, Emily V McCormick, John F Steiner, Edward Havranek, Arne Beck
OBJECTIVES: Depression is the most common mental health disorder and mediates outcomes for many chronic diseases. Ability to accurately identify and monitor this condition, at the local level, is often limited to estimates from national surveys. This study sought to compare and validate electronic health record (EHR)-based depression surveillance with multiple data sources for more granular demographic subgroup and subcounty measurements. DESIGN/SETTING: A survey compared data sources for the ability to provide subcounty (eg, census tract [CT]) depression prevalence estimates...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332683/insomnia-in-primary-care-a-study-from-india
#12
T S Jaisoorya, Ajit Bhalchandra Dahale, Kumar G Sunil, L Manoj, G R Gokul, K Thennarassu
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia among a sample of primary care attendees, in the state of Kerala, India. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 7017 adult patients [18-60 years] attending 71 primary health centers selected by cluster random sampling. MEASUREMENTS: Patients were assessed for insomnia using the Insomnia Severity Index...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332673/prevalence-and-comorbidity-of-sleep-conditions-in-australian-adults-2016-sleep-health-foundation-national-survey
#13
Sarah L Appleton, Tiffany K Gill, Carol J Lang, Anne W Taylor, R Douglas McEvoy, Nigel P Stocks, David A González-Chica, Robert J Adams
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sleep conditions (obstructive sleep apnea [OSA], insomnia symptoms, simple snoring, and restless legs) and their associated burden of chronic conditions in a community sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional national adult online survey. SETTING: Community-based sample. PARTICIPANTS: Australian adults ≥18 years, N = 1011. MEASUREMENTS: A cross-sectional national online survey assessed diagnosed OSA, OSA symptoms, insomnia symptoms, sleep problems, excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥11), and physician-diagnosed health conditions (heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, reflux disease, lung disease, depression, anxiety/panic disorder, arthritis)...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332534/mediated-effects-of-coping-on-mental-health-outcomes-of-african-american-women-exposed-to-physical-and-psychological-abuse
#14
Chmaika P Mills, Hope M Hill, Joshua A D Johnson
Few studies have assessed the individual symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as separate mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse (IPA). This study examined the role of coping strategies associated with symptoms of PTSD in a community sample of African American women who have experienced abuse ( N = 128). The results revealed that nonphysical abuse was more prevalent than physical abuse. Specific symptoms of PTSD expressed depended on the type of abuse experienced and the type of coping strategies utilized...
February 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330031/mental-health-disorders-mediate-association-of-sexual-minority-identity-with-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Lezhou Wu, Randy L Sell, Alexis M Roth, Seth L Welles
BACKGROUND: Little is known about cardiovascular health disparities for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) persons and whether these disparities are mediated by mental health disorders due to sexual minority stress. We hypothesize LGB identity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) may mediate this association. METHODS: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions is a longitudinal, nationally-representative study of non-institutionalized U...
January 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329065/factors-associated-with-depression-among-homeless-mothers-results-of-the-enfams-survey
#16
M Roze, S Vandentorren, J Van-Der-Waerden, M Melchior
PURPOSE: Women are disproportionately likely to suffer from depression. This is especially true for those who experience socioeconomic hardship, such as homelessness. In France, among homeless mothers many are migrant. However, it is not clear whether risk factors associated with depression are specific for this group or the same as in the general population. Our objective was to describe socio-demographic, relational, living and housing conditions and health factors associated with depression among homeless mothers...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329038/hallucinations-as-a-presenting-complaint-in-emergency-departments-prevalence-diagnosis-and-costs
#17
Flavie Waters, Milan Dragovic
Hallucinations occur in the context of many disorders. When experienced as distressing, they are a likely cause of presentation to emergency departments. Knowledge about the rates, diagnoses, and associated costs of hallucinations in emergency departments however is currently lacking. In this study, we analysed patients' presenting complaints in Western Australia's Emergency Department Data Collection dataset during a two year period (n = 1,798,754). Visits to emergency departments because of distressing hallucinations were more common than previously assumed...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325437/the-prevalence-and-burden-of-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-in-australia-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#18
Liliana G Ciobanu, Alize J Ferrari, Holly E Erskine, Damian F Santomauro, Fiona J Charlson, Janni Leung, Azmeraw T Amare, Andrew T Olagunju, Harvey A Whiteford, Bernhard T Baune
OBJECTIVES: Timely and accurate assessments of disease burden are essential for developing effective national health policies. We used the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 to examine burden due to mental and substance use disorders in Australia. METHODS: For each of the 20 mental and substance use disorders included in Global Burden of Disease Study 2015, systematic reviews of epidemiological data were conducted, and data modelled using a Bayesian meta-regression tool to produce prevalence estimates by age, sex, geography and year...
January 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324903/korean-survey-data-reveals-an-association-of-chronic-laryngitis-with-tinnitus-in-men
#19
Myung Jin Ban, Won Shik Kim, Ki Nam Park, Jae Wook Kim, Seung Won Lee, Kyungdo Han, Jae Won Chang, Hyung Kwon Byeon, Yoon Woo Koh, Jae Hong Park
The association between chronic laryngitis and tinnitus is not a well-studied topic, unlike the association of these two conditions with many other disorders. Cross-sectional data of 11,347 adults (males: 4,934; females: 6,413), who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2010 to 2012 were used to investigate this association. Lifestyle patterns, including smoking and alcohol habits, regular exercise, physical and mental health status, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and other chronic diseases, were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321989/antidepressant-like-effects-of-gan-mai-dazao-tang-via-monoamine-regulatory-pathways-on-forced-swimming-test-in-rats
#20
Hsiang-Ling Huang, Swee-Ling Lim, Kuan-Hung Lu, Lee-Yan Sheen
Depression is a highly prevalent and recurrent mental disorder that impacts all aspects of human life. Undesirable effects of the antidepressant drugs led to the development of complementary and alternative therapies. Gan-Mai-Da-Zao-Tang (, gān mài dà zǎo tang) is a traditional herbal formula commonly used for the treatment of depression, but lack of scientific proof on its mechanism. It consisted of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (licorice), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Zizphus jujuba Mill. (jujube)...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
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