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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922880/a-side-door-to-meckel-s-cave-anatomic-feasibility-study-for-the-lateral-transorbital-approach
#1
Blake Harrison Priddy, Cristian Ferrareze Nunes, Andre Beer-Furlan, Ricardo Carrau, Iacopo Dallan, Daniel Monte-Serrat Prevedello
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, endoscopic skull base surgery has significantly developed and generated a plethora of techniques and approaches for access to the cranial ventral floor. However, the exploration for the least-aggressive, maximally efficient approach continues. OBJECTIVE: To describe in detail an anatomical study, along with the technical nuances of a novel endoscopic approach to Meckel's Cave (MC) using a lateral transorbital (LTO) route. METHODS: Eighteen orbits of injected cadaveric specimens were operated on, using an endoscopic LTO approach to MC, middle cranial fossa, and paramedian skull base preserving the orbital rim...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922752/current-understanding-of-the-pathways-of-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-model-and-crop-plants
#2
Takayuki Tohge, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Alisdair R Fernie
Flavonoids are a signature class of secondary metabolites formed from a relatively simple collection of scaffolds. They are extensively decorated by chemical reactions including glycosylation, methylation, and acylation. They are present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables and as such in Western populations it is estimated that 20-50 mg of flavonoids are consumed daily per person. In planta they have demonstrated to contribute to both flower color and UV protection. Their consumption has been suggested to presenta wide range of health benefits...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922533/catalytic-enantioselective-carbopalladation-c-h-functionalization-with-statistical-amplification-of-product-enantiopurity-a-convertible-linker-approach
#3
Shuo Tong, Aurore Limouni, Qian Wang, Mei-Xiang Wang, Jieping Zhu
We demonstrated that combining a catalytic enantioselective reaction with dimerization in a single operation is an efficient way to upgrade the enantiomeric excesses (ee) of the product. Palladium-catalyzed reaction of N-(2-iodophenyl)-N-methyl methacrylamide derivatives with oxadiazole afforded, via a double enantioselective carbopalladation/intermolecular direct heteroarene C-H alkylation cascade, homodimers in good yields with excellent ee. The dimer was subsequently elaborated to the monomer in which the linker (oxadiazole) was incorporated into the target product...
September 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922497/mutual-independence-of-alkaline-and-calcium-mediated-signalling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-refutes-the-existence-of-a-conserved-druggable-signalling-nexus
#4
Omar Loss, Margherita Bertuzzi, Yu Yan, Natalie Fedorova, Bethany L McCann, Darius Armstrong-James, Eduardo A Espeso, Nick D Read, William C Nierman, Elaine M Bignell
Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca(2+) , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has therefore been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922495/formation-of-ni-fe-mixed-diselenide-nanocages-as-a-superior-oxygen-evolution-electrocatalyst
#5
Jianwei Nai, Yan Lu, Le Yu, Xin Wang, Xiong Wen David Lou
Exploring effective electrocatalysts is a crucial requirement for boosting the efficiency of water splitting to obtain clean fuels. Here, a self-templating strategy is reported to synthesize Ni-Fe mixed diselenide cubic nanocages for the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The diselenide nanocages are derived from corresponding Prussian-blue analog nanocages, which are first obtained by treating the nanocube precursor with a site-selective ammonia etchant. The resulting Ni-Fe mixed diselenide nanocages perform as a superior OER electrocatalyst, which affords a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a small overpotential of 240 mV; a high current density, mass activity, and turnover frequency of 100 mA cm(-2) , 1000 A g(-1) , and 0...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921781/valganciclovir-vgcv-followed-by-cytomegalovirus-cmv-hyperimmune-globulin-compared-to-vgcv-for-200-days-in-abdominal-organ-transplant-recipients-at-high-risk-for-cmv-infection-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study
#6
James N Fleming, David J Taber, Nicole A Weimert, Satish Nadig, John W McGillicuddy, Charles F Bratton, Prabhakar K Baliga, Kenneth D Chavin
BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV immunoglobulin G may allow patients to achieve immunity and decrease late CMV infections. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized, open-label, pilot study comparing valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis for 200 days vs VGCV for 100 days followed by CMV HIG in abdominal transplant recipients at high risk for CMV...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921690/tissue-specific-and-time-dependent-clonal-expansion-of-enu-induced-mutant-cells-in-gpt-delta-mice
#7
Takafumi Nakayama, Tomoko Sawai, Ikuko Masuda, Shinya Kaneko, Kazumi Yamauchi, Benjamin J Blyth, Yoshiya Shimada, Akira Tachibana, Shizuko Kakinuma
DNA mutations play a crucial role in the origins of cancer, and the clonal expansion of mutant cells is one of the fundamental steps in multistage carcinogenesis. In this study, we correlated tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice during the period after exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) with the persistence of ENU-induced mutant clones in transgenic gpt delta B6C3F1 mice. The induced gpt mutations afforded no selective advantage in the mouse cells and could be distinguished by a mutational spectrum that is characteristic of ENU treatment...
September 16, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921684/generation-of-stable-ruthenium-iv-ketimido-complexes-via-oxidative-addition-of-oxime-esters-to-ruthenium-ii-reactivity-studies-based-on-electronic-properties-of-the-ru-n-bond
#8
Takuya Shimbayashi, Kazuhiro Okamoto, Kouichi Ohe
The reaction of an oxime ester with RuX2(PPh3)3 proceeded smoothly at room temperature to afford a stable Ru(IV)-ketimido complex as an oxidative adduct. The structure of the complex was unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, which showed an almost linear Ru-N-C array. The electronic properties of the nitrogen atom were estimated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and results suggested the double-bond character of the Ru-N bond. Kinetic studies combined with consideration of the substituent effect on the oxime ester led to proposing the reaction mechanism involving oxidative addition, which could proceed via N,O-chelate coordination to the Ru center prior to N-O bond cleavage...
September 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921682/construction-of-condensed-polycyclic-aromatic-frameworks-through-intramolecular-cycloaddition-reactions-involving-arynes-bearing-an-internal-alkyne-moiety
#9
Suguru Yoshida, Keita Shimizu, Keisuke Uchida, Yuki Hazama, Kazunobu Igawa, Katsuhiko Tomooka, Takamitsu Hosoya
Facile synthetic methods for condensed polycyclic aromatic compounds via aryne intermediates are reported. The generation of arynes bearing a (3-arylpropargyl)oxy group from the corresponding o-iodoaryl triflate-type precursors efficiently afforded arene-fused oxaacenaphthene derivatives, which were formed through intramolecular [2+4] cycloaddition. Extending the method to the generation of arynes bearing a 1,3-diyne moiety led to a continuous generation of naphthalyne intermediate through the hexadehydro Diels-Alder reaction involving the triple bond of aryne...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921499/synthesis-of-the-phosphoramidite-units-for-benzene-glycol-nucleic-acid
#10
Yusuke Maeda, Nazuki Niwa, Yoshihito Ueno
Benzene-glycol nucleic acid-DNA chimeras form thermally and thermodynamically stable duplexes with complementary RNAs, and have base-discriminating abilities. This unit describes the synthesis of four nucleoside analogs, an adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine analogs with base-benzene-glycol structure. The synthesis starts with conversion of (S)-mandelic acid in arylboronic acid derivative, common intermediate. Nucleobase coupling of the intermediate and phosphitylation afford to phosphoroamidite units...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921498/synthesis-of-4-selenoribonucleosides-the-building-blocks-of-4-selenorna-using-a-hypervalent-iodine
#11
Noriko Saito-Tarashima, Masashi Ota, Noriaki Minakawa
Herein is described a detailed protocol for the synthesis of 4'-selenoribonucleoside derivatives that involves the use of a hypervalent iodine species. These derivatives are versatile units for the preparation of 4'-selenoRNA. Large-scale synthesis of a 4-selenosugar starting from D-ribose is achieved in eight steps, including a final chromatographic purification. The resulting 4-selenosugar is then subjected to the one-pot Pummerer-like reaction using hypervalent iodine in the presence of silylated nucleobases...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920985/enantioselective-synthesis-of-sterically-hindered-%C3%AE-allyl-%C3%AE-aryl-oxindoles-via-palladium-catalysed-decarboxylative-asymmetric-allylic-alkylation
#12
Mark Jackson, Calvin Quince O'Broin, Helge Müller-Bunz, Patrick J Guiry
The highly enantioselective synthesis of sterically hindered α-allyl-α-aryl oxindoles possessing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter at the oxindole 3-position has been developed. The key step in the synthetic route employed was a novel one-pot, two-step synthesis of α-aryl-β-amido allyl ester substituted oxindoles in good yields of 41-75% (13 examples) by interception of an unstable allyl ester intermediate through reaction with aryllead triacetate reagents. Pd-Catalyzed decarboxylative asymmetric allylic alkylation (DAAA) was optimized with 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl as the aryl-containing substrate...
September 18, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920922/g%C3%AE-13-ablation-reprograms-myofibers-to-oxidative-phenotype-and-enhances-whole-body-metabolism
#13
Ja Hyun Koo, Tae Hyun Kim, Shi-Young Park, Min Sung Joo, Chang Yeob Han, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920703/prognostic-usefulness-of-an-age-adapted-equation-for-renal-function-assessment-in-older-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#14
Lucía Rioboo Lestón, Emad Abu-Assi, Sergio Raposeiras-Roubin, Rafael Cobas-Paz, Berenice Caneiro-Queija, Jose Manuel Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Andres Íñiguez-Romo
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction negatively impacts survival in acute coronary syndrome patients. The Berlin Initiative Study creatinine-based (BIScrea) equation has recently been proposed for renal function assessment in older persons. However, up to now it is unknown if the superiority of the new BIScrea equation, with respect to the most recommended chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration creatinine-based (CKD-EPIcrea) formula, would translate into better risk prediction of adverse events in older patients with acute coronary syndrome...
September 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920694/gold-catalyzed-synthesis-of-1-indol-3-yl-carbazoles-selective-1-2-alkyl-vs-1-2-vinyl-migration
#15
Anisley Suárez, Samuel Suárez-Pantiga, Olalla Nieto-Faza, Roberto Sanz
Gold(III)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of α-bis(indol-3-yl)methyl alkynols selectively affords 1-(indol-3-yl)carbazoles, in a transformation that takes place through a selective 1,2-alkyl vs 1,2-vinyl migration step in the vinyl-gold intermediate generated from the initial 5-endo-spirocyclization. The reaction proceeds well with either tertiary or secondary starting alkynols as well as with a wide variety of alkyne substituents. The key role of the other indol-3-yl substituent for the unexpected selectivity in the 1,2 rearrangement has also been supported by DFT calculations that reveal a low barrier, two-step mechanism in the alkyl migration path where the second indole significantly stabilizes a carbocationic intermediate...
September 18, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920627/site-preferences-in-hetero-metallic-fe9-xnix-clusters-a-combined-crystallographic-spectroscopic-and-theoretical-analysis
#16
Anastasia N Georgopoulou, Karrar Al-Ameed, Athanassios K Boudalis, Dimitrios F Anagnostopoulos, Vassilis Psycharis, John E McGrady, Yiannis Sanakis, Catherine P Raptopoulou
The reaction of mixtures of Fe(O2CMe)2·2H2O and Ni(O2CMe)2·4H2O of various compositions with di-2-pyridyl ketone (py2CO, dpk) in MeCN under an inert atmosphere afforded a family of hetero-metallic enneanuclear clusters with general formula [Fe9-xNix(μ4-OH)2(O2CMe)8(py2CO2)4] (2, x = 1.00; 3: x = 6.02; 4, x = 7.46; 5, x = 7.81). Clusters 2-5 are isomorphous to the homo-metallic [Fe9] cluster (1) previously reported by some of us, and also isostructural to the known homo-metallic [Ni9] cluster. All four clusters contain a central M(II) ion in an unusual 8-coordinate site and eight peripheral M(II) ions in distorted octahedral environments...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920612/visible-light-mediated-oxidative-demethylation-of-n-6-methyl-adenines
#17
Li-Jun Xie, Rui-Li Wang, Dong Wang, Li Liu, Liang Cheng
We report a simple protocol that affords oxidative demethylation of N(6)-methyl groups in N(6)-methyl adenines (m(6)A). The biologically compatible photocatalyst riboflavin prompts a highly selective C-H abstraction from N(6)-methyl in adenines under the irradiation of a visible blue LED light, affording a novel and highly selective biomimetic demethylation of m(6)A and related N-methyl adenine analogues.
September 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920456/child-sexual-abuse-prevention-opportunities-parenting-programs-and-the-reduction-of-risk
#18
Julia Rudolph, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Dianne C Shanley, Russell Hawkins
To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920447/synthesis-and-cytotoxic-activity-of-4-o-%C3%AE-d-galactopyranosyl-derivatives-of-phenolic-acids-esters
#19
Nader Al Bujuq, Sharif Arar, Raida Khalil
The glycosylation of naturally occurring phenolic acids has a significant impact on their solubility, stability and physiochemical properties. D-Galactose residue was found to form a part of glycoconjugates in several tissues and involved in a variety of physiological process. To the best of our knowledge, we have noticed a little information about the glycosylation of the phenolic acids with galactose residue. In this work, we describe the glycosylation of methyl vanillate and methyl ferulate with peracetylated-β-D-galactopyranose in the presence of BF3·OEt2...
September 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920422/dual-activator-codoped-upconversion-nanoprobe-with-core-multishell-structure-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-detection-of-hydroxyl-radical
#20
Xin-Yue Song, Jiayu Zhang, Zihong Yue, Zonghua Wang, Zhihong Liu, Shusheng Zhang
Monitoring the fluctuation of hydroxyl radical (•OH) in the body can serve as an effective tool for the prediction of relative diseases, which, however, is highly challenging due to its short lifetime, high reactivity and extremely low concentration. Sandwich structured lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) exhibit unique luminescence properties and great prospects in bioimaging. Nonetheless, their rather low luminescence efficiency and intensity are serious limitations for their application...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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