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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699754/-tarantism-in-spain-in-the-eighteen-century-latrodectism-and-suggestion
#1
I Corral-Corral, C Corral-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. AIM: To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. DEVELOPMENT: An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681031/acidic-residues-control-the-dimerization-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-black-widow-spiders-major-ampullate-spidroin-1
#2
Joschka Bauer, Daniel Schaal, Lukas Eisoldt, Kristian Schweimer, Stephan Schwarzinger, Thomas Scheibel
Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651535/copulation-with-immature-females-increases-male-fitness-in-cannibalistic-widow-spiders
#3
M Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R Harari, Maydianne C B Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male 'widow' spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have similar fecundity to adult-mated females...
September 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649139/comprehensive-proteomic-analysis-of-spider-dragline-silk-from-black-widows-a-recipe-to-build-synthetic-silk-fibers
#4
Camille Larracas, Ryan Hekman, Simmone Dyrness, Alisa Arata, Caroline Williams, Taylor Crawford, Craig A Vierra
The outstanding material properties of spider dragline silk fibers have been attributed to two spidroins, major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1 and MaSp2). Although dragline silk fibers have been treated with different chemical solvents to elucidate the relationship between protein structure and fiber mechanics, there has not been a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the major ampullate (MA) gland, its spinning dope, and dragline silk using a wide range of chaotropic agents, inorganic salts, and fluorinated alcohols to elucidate their complete molecular constituents...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639243/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#5
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461115/vibration-transmission-through-sheet-webs-of-hobo-spiders-eratigena-agrestis-and-tangle-webs-of-western-black-widow-spiders-latrodectus-hesperus
#6
Samantha Vibert, Catherine Scott, Gerhard Gries
Web-building spiders construct their own vibratory signaling environments. Web architecture should affect signal design, and vice versa, such that vibratory signals are transmitted with a minimum of attenuation and degradation. However, the web is the medium through which a spider senses both vibratory signals from courting males and cues produced by captured prey. Moreover, webs function not only in vibration transmission, but also in defense from predators and the elements. These multiple functions may impose conflicting selection pressures on web design...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363053/intervention-program-for-nursing-staff-regarding-approach-to-a-patient-with-spider-phobia-and-or-bite
#7
REVIEW
Mahfouz Ahmad Al-Agroudi, Salwa Abdalla Mohammad Ahmed, Tosson A Morsy
Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders world-wide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders (worldwide), recluse spiders (mostly North and South America), Australian funnel web spiders (eastern coastal Australia) and Phoneutria spiders (Brazil)...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937627/the-contribution-of-developmental-experience-vs-condition-to-life-history-trait-variation-and-individual-differences
#8
Nicholas DiRienzo, Pierre-Olivier Montiglio
1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood...
July 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26875681/evidence-from-multiple-species-that-spider-silk-glue-component-asg2-is-a-spidroin
#9
Matthew A Collin, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders in the superfamily Araneoidea produce viscous glue from aggregate silk glands. Aggregate glue coats prey-capture threads and hampers the escape of prey from webs, thereby increasing the foraging success of spiders. cDNAs for Aggregate Spider Glue 1 (ASG1) and 2 (ASG2) have been previously described from the golden orb-weaver, Nephila clavipes, and Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. To further investigate aggregate glues, we assembled ASG1 and ASG2 from genomic target capture libraries constructed from three species of cob-web weavers and three species of orb-web weavers, all araneoids...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733576/effects-of-gene-duplication-positive-selection-and-shifts-in-gene-expression-on-the-evolution-of-the-venom-gland-transcriptome-in-widow-spiders
#10
Robert A Haney, Thomas H Clarke, Rujuta Gadgil, Ryan Fitzpatrick, Cheryl Y Hayashi, Nadia A Ayoub, Jessica E Garb
Gene duplication and positive selection can be important determinants of the evolution of venom, a protein-rich secretion used in prey capture and defense. In a typical model of venom evolution, gene duplicates switch to venom gland expression and change function under the action of positive selection, which together with further duplication produces large gene families encoding diverse toxins. Although these processes have been demonstrated for individual toxin families, high-throughput multitissue sequencing of closely related venomous species can provide insights into evolutionary dynamics at the scale of the entire venom gland transcriptome...
January 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26633495/recent-advances-in-research-on-widow-spider-venoms-and-toxins
#11
REVIEW
Shuai Yan, Xianchun Wang
Widow spiders have received much attention due to the frequently reported human and animal injures caused by them. Elucidation of the molecular composition and action mechanism of the venoms and toxins has vast implications in the treatment of latrodectism and in the neurobiology and pharmaceutical research. In recent years, the studies of the widow spider venoms and the venom toxins, particularly the α-latrotoxin, have achieved many new advances; however, the mechanism of action of the venom toxins has not been completely clear...
December 2015: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606730/spider-web-dna-a-new-spin-on-noninvasive-genetics-of-predator-and-prey
#12
Charles C Y Xu, Ivy J Yen, Dean Bowman, Cameron R Turner
Noninvasive genetic sampling enables biomonitoring without the need to directly observe or disturb target organisms. This paper describes a novel and promising source of noninvasive spider and insect DNA from spider webs. Using black widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) fed with house crickets (Acheta domesticus), we successfully extracted, amplified, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from spider web samples that identified both spider and prey to species. Detectability of spider DNA did not differ between assays with amplicon sizes from 135 to 497 base pairs...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26530954/efficacy-of-several-pesticide-products-on-brown-widow-spider-araneae-theridiidae-egg-sacs-and-their-penetration-through-the-egg-sac-silk
#13
Richard S Vetter, Jacob Tarango, Kathleen A Campbell, Christine Tham, Cheryl Y Hayashi, Dong-Hwan Choe
Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C...
February 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26509087/reversible-myocarditis-and-pericarditis-after-black-widow-spider-bite-or-kounis-syndrome
#14
Mehmet Yaman, Turkan Mete, Ismail Ozer, Elif Yaman, Osman Beton
Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myocarditis is caused by myocardial inflammation triggered by infectious pathogens, toxic, ischemic, or mechanical injuries, such as drug-related inflammation and other immune reactions...
2015: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495398/periumbilical-pain-with-radiation-to-both-legs-following-tarantula-bite-a-case-report
#15
Mahboob Pouraghaei, Samad Shams Vahdati, Ibrahim Mashhadi, Taranoom Mahmoudieh
Tarantulas have recently become as pets in most parts of the world that increased the probability of encountering emergency physicians with patients hurt with these spiders. Their attacks usually do not cause general manifestation, however there are some case reports in this regard. Here, a 40-year-old man was reported who was referred to the emergency department with severe periumbilical pain that radiated to both legs and diagnosed as a victim of tarantula bite. Such symptoms usually are belonging to other spiders like Black Widow spider, but it seems that tarantula can mimic them in some cases, too...
2015: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26336266/establishment-of-the-brown-widow-spider-araneae-theridiidae-and-infestation-of-its-egg-sacs-by-a-parasitoid-philolema-latrodecti-hymenoptera-eurytomidae-in-french-polynesia-and-the-cook-islands
#16
Jérôme Marie, Richard S Vetter
This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L...
November 2015: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322742/composition-and-function-of-spider-glues-maintained-during-the-evolution-of-cobwebs
#17
Dharamdeep Jain, Ci Zhang, Lydia Rose Cool, Todd A Blackledge, Chrys Wesdemiotis, Toshikazu Miyoshi, Ali Dhinojwala
Capture silks are an interesting class of biological glues that help spiders subdue their prey. Viscid capture silk produced by the orb web spiders is a combination of hygroscopic salts that aid in water uptake and interact with adhesive glycoproteins to make them soft and sticky. The orb was a stepping stone to the evolution of new web types, but little is known about the adhesives in these webs. For instance, cobweb spiders evolved from orb-weaving ancestors and utilize glue in specialized sticky gumfoot threads rather than an elastic spiral...
October 12, 2015: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309271/exposure-of-brown-recluse-and-brown-widow-spiders-araneae-sicariidae-theridiidae-to-a-commercial-sulfuryl-fluoride-fumigation
#18
Richard S Vetter, Mark S Hoddle, Dong-Hwan Choe, Ellen Thoms
The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304660/-neurotoxic-manifestations-of-black-widow-spider-envenomation-in-paediatric-patients
#19
N Sotelo-Cruz, N Gómez-Rivera
INTRODUCTION: Envenomation by black widow spiders manifests clinically with signs of neurotoxicity in paediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: Identify typical neurological signs and symptoms in paediatric patients of different ages, and describe treatment and outcomes in a paediatric hospital in northwest Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed 70 clinical records of patients hospitalised due to black widow spider bite between 1978 and 2014. We divided the total into 2 groups: Group 1, infants and preschool children; and Group 2, school-age children and adolescents...
May 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302244/proteomic-evidence-for-components-of-spider-silk-synthesis-from-black-widow-silk-glands-and-fibers
#20
Ro Crystal Chaw, Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spider silk research has largely focused on spidroins, proteins that are the primary components of spider silk fibers. Although a number of spidroins have been characterized, other types of proteins associated with silk synthesis are virtually unknown. Previous analyses of tissue-specific RNA-seq libraries identified 647 predicted genes that were differentially expressed in silk glands of the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. Only ∼5% of these silk-gland specific transcripts (SSTs) encode spidroins; although the remaining predicted genes presumably encode other proteins associated with silk production, this is mostly unverified...
October 2, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
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