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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229932/neutral-fitness-outcomes-contradict-inferences-of-sexual-coercion-derived-from-male-s-damaging-mating-tactic-in-a-widow-spider
#1
Luciana Baruffaldi, Maydianne C B Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed 'coercive' and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive for females...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133072/treatment-of-pediatric-black-widow-spider-envenomation-a-national-poison-center-s-experience
#2
Miguel Glatstein, Gary Carbell, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Black widow species (Latrodectus species) envenomation can produce a syndrome characterized by painful muscle rigidity and autonomic disturbances. Symptoms tend to be more severe in young children and adults. We describe black widow spider exposures and treatment in the pediatric age group, and investigate reasons for not using antivenom in severe cases. METHODS: All black widow exposures reported to the Rocky Mountain Poison Center between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, were reviewed...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069933/envenomation-by-the-noble-false-widow-spider-steatoda-nobilis-thorell-1875-five-new-cases-of-steatodism-from-ireland-and-great-britain
#3
John P Dunbar, Sam Afoullouss, Ronan Sulpice, Michel M Dugon
OBJECTIVE: The noble false widow Steatoda nobilis is the only medically significant spider known to occur in the British Isles and Ireland, with a single case of steatodism ever reported from Great Britain. We present here five new cases of envenomations by S. nobilis, three from Ireland and two from Great Britain and describe symptoms not previously reported for the genus Steatoda. CASE PRESENTATION: Four adult males and one adult female with confirmed S. nobilis bites reported their symptoms to the authors...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032777/acute-urinary-retention-after-black-widow-envenomation-a-case-report
#4
Matthew Carere, Russel Sterret, Nicholas Timmerman, Ian Taylor
Latrodectism following Black Widow envenomation is rare in Canada. We present the case of a previously healthy 50 year old male who presented with an acute abdomen, hypertension, and urinary retention. After a thorough work up it was determined to be as a result of a Black Widow spider bite. Due to climate change we may see more cases of Latrodectism in the future and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in anyone presenting with an acute abdomen after an insect bite.
October 16, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587399/cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-activities-of-black-widow-spiderling-extract-against-hela-cells
#5
Xiaozhen Peng, Zhipan Dai, Qian Lei, Long Liang, Shuai Yan, Xianchun Wang
Black widow spiders contain toxic components not only in the venom glands but also in other parts of the spider body, including the legs and abdomen. Additionally, both the eggs and newborn spiderlings of the black widow spider contain venom. It is important to investigate their potential effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the effects of newborn black widow spiderling extract on human HeLa cells were evaluated in vitro. When applied at different concentrations, the total extract decreased HeLa cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 158 µg/ml...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469986/black-widow-spider-bites-experience-from-tertiary-care-center-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Ali Al Bshabshe, Musa Alfaifi, Ahmed Fouad Alsayed
INTRODUCTION: Black widow spiders are one of the most poisonous species to humans; there are more than 30 species of widow spiders in the globe but good thing that not all of them are dangerous. Some of these spiders produce toxic venoms, which cause broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including skin lesions, neurotoxicity, cardiac toxicity and death in some occasions. In Saudi Arabia there were no much reports of black widow spider bites apart from the case series by BUCUR and his group in ALBAHA region...
April 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430165/treatments-for-latrodectism-a-systematic-review-on-their-clinical-effectiveness
#7
REVIEW
Nicole M Ryan, Nicholas A Buckley, Andis Graudins
Latrodectism or envenomation by widow-spiders is common and clinically significant worldwide. Alpha-latrotoxin is the mammalian-specific toxin in the venom that results in toxic effects observed in humans. Symptoms may be incapacitating and include severe pain that can persist for days. The management of mild to moderate latrodectism is primarily supportive while severe cases have variously been treated with intravenous calcium, muscle relaxants, widow-spider antivenom and analgesic opioids. The object of this systematic review is to examine the literature on the clinical effectiveness of past and current treatments for latrodectism...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246022/toxicity-of-the-venom-of-latrodectus-araneae-theridiidae-spiders-from-different-regions-of-argentina-and-neutralization-by-therapeutic-antivenoms
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Vanessa Costa de Oliveira, Lucia Elvira Irazu, Alda González, Luis Giambelluca, Néstor Nicolai, Javier Hugo Barragán, Leticia Ramallo, Raúl Alfredo López, Jorge Lopardo, Oscar Jensen, Edmundo Larrieu, Arnoldo Calabró, Miriam Guadalupe Vurcharchuc, Néstor Rubén Lago, Susana Isabel García, Ernesto Horacio de Titto, Carlos Fabián Damín
"Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233057/co-segregation-of-sex-chromosomes-in-the-male-black-widow-spider-latrodectus-mactans-araneae-theridiidae
#9
Jeffrey G Ault, Kristen D Felt, Ryan N Doan, Alexander O Nedo, Cassondra A Ellison, Leocadia V Paliulis
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario...
October 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#10
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028084/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#11
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999389/transcriptome-analysis-to-understand-the-toxicity-of-latrodectus-tredecimguttatus-eggs
#12
Dehong Xu, Xianchun Wang
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is a kind of highly venomous black widow spider, with toxicity coming from not only venomous glands but also other parts of its body as well as newborn spiderlings and eggs. Up to date, although L. tredecimguttatus eggs have been demonstrated to be rich in proteinaceous toxins, there is no systematic investigation on such active components at transcriptome level. In this study, we performed a high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. tredecimguttatus eggs with Illumina sequencing technology...
December 20, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699754/-tarantism-in-spain-in-the-eighteen-century-latrodectism-and-suggestion
#13
REVIEW
I Corral-Corral, C Corral-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. AIM: To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. DEVELOPMENT: An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681031/acidic-residues-control-the-dimerization-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-black-widow-spiders-major-ampullate-spidroin-1
#14
Joschka Bauer, Daniel Schaal, Lukas Eisoldt, Kristian Schweimer, Stephan Schwarzinger, Thomas Scheibel
Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651535/copulation-with-immature-females-increases-male-fitness-in-cannibalistic-widow-spiders
#15
M Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R Harari, Maydianne C B Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male 'widow' spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have similar fecundity to adult-mated females...
September 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649139/comprehensive-proteomic-analysis-of-spider-dragline-silk-from-black-widows-a-recipe-to-build-synthetic-silk-fibers
#16
Camille Larracas, Ryan Hekman, Simmone Dyrness, Alisa Arata, Caroline Williams, Taylor Crawford, Craig A Vierra
The outstanding material properties of spider dragline silk fibers have been attributed to two spidroins, major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1 and MaSp2). Although dragline silk fibers have been treated with different chemical solvents to elucidate the relationship between protein structure and fiber mechanics, there has not been a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the major ampullate (MA) gland, its spinning dope, and dragline silk using a wide range of chaotropic agents, inorganic salts, and fluorinated alcohols to elucidate their complete molecular constituents...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639243/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#17
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461115/vibration-transmission-through-sheet-webs-of-hobo-spiders-eratigena-agrestis-and-tangle-webs-of-western-black-widow-spiders-latrodectus-hesperus
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samantha Vibert, Catherine Scott, Gerhard Gries
Web-building spiders construct their own vibratory signaling environments. Web architecture should affect signal design, and vice versa, such that vibratory signals are transmitted with a minimum of attenuation and degradation. However, the web is the medium through which a spider senses both vibratory signals from courting males and cues produced by captured prey. Moreover, webs function not only in vibration transmission, but also in defense from predators and the elements. These multiple functions may impose conflicting selection pressures on web design...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363053/intervention-program-for-nursing-staff-regarding-approach-to-a-patient-with-spider-phobia-and-or-bite
#19
REVIEW
Mahfouz Ahmad Al-Agroudi, Salwa Abdalla Mohammad Ahmed, Tosson A Morsy
Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders world-wide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders (worldwide), recluse spiders (mostly North and South America), Australian funnel web spiders (eastern coastal Australia) and Phoneutria spiders (Brazil)...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937627/the-contribution-of-developmental-experience-vs-condition-to-life-history-trait-variation-and-individual-differences
#20
Nicholas DiRienzo, Pierre-Olivier Montiglio
1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood...
July 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
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