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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774076/the-human-somatostatin-receptor-type-2-as-an-imaging-and-suicide-reporter-gene-for-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-therapy-of-myocardial-infarction
#1
Katrien Neyrinck, Natacha Breuls, Bryan Holvoet, Wouter Oosterlinck, Esther Wolfs, Hubert Vanbilloen, Olivier Gheysens, Robin Duelen, Willy Gsell, Ivo Lambrichts, Uwe Himmelreich, Catherine M Verfaillie, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Christophe M Deroose
Rationale: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are being investigated as a cell source for regenerative medicine since they provide an infinitive pool of cells that are able to differentiate towards every cell type of the body. One possible therapeutic application involves the use of these cells to treat myocardial infarction (MI), a condition where billions of cardiomyocytes (CMs) are lost. Although several protocols have been developed to differentiate PSCs towards CMs, none of these provide a completely pure population, thereby still posing a risk for neoplastic teratoma formation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772552/pet-ct-in-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-osteosarcoma
#2
Xiaojuan Zhang, Zhe Guan
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy that usually occurs in children and young adults, and long-term survival is only about 20% in patients with metastasis or recurrent disease. Traditional non-invasive techniques, such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scanning, may not identify single lesions in the early stage or accurately detect small lesions. A novel technique, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which is widely used in clinical practice, shows more accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771090/-the-role-of-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-detecting-nodal-metastases-in-cn0-head-neck-cancer-patients%C3%AF-a-meta-analysis
#3
X Y Li, C L Sun, X D Du
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT(¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT) for the diagnosis of cervical node metastases in cN0 head neck cancer patients. Method: An electronic database search(PubMed,EMBASE,Cochrane Library,WanFang and CNKI databases)was performed. Updated quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies-2(QUADAS-2) was used to assess study quality. Data analyses were performed with Meta-Disc1.4. Result: Eight studies were included in the present Meta-analysis...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770486/direct-estimation-of-17-o-mr-images-diesis-for-quantification-of-oxygen-metabolism-in-the-human-brain-with-partial-volume-correction
#4
Dmitry Kurzhunov, Robert Borowiak, Marco Reisert, Ali Caglar Özen, Michael Bock
PURPOSE: To provide a data post-processing method that corrects for partial volume effects (PVE) and fast T2* decay in dynamic 17 O MRI for the mapping of cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO2 ). METHODS: CMRO2 is altered in neurodegenerative diseases and tumors and can be measured after 17 O gas inhalation using dynamic 17 O MRI. CMRO2 quantification is difficult because of PVE. To correct for PVE, a direct estimation of the MR images (DIESIS) method is proposed and used in 4 dynamic 17 O MRI data sets of a healthy volunteer acquired on a 3T MRI system...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769199/metabolic-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-hyperpolarized-13c-pyruvate-demonstrates-13c-lactate-production-in-brain-tumor-patients
#5
Vesselin Z Miloushev, Kristin L Granlund, Rostislav Boltyanskiy, Serge K Lyashchenko, Lisa M DeAngelis, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Cameron W Brennan, Viviane Tabar, T Jonathan Yang, Andrei I Holodny, Ramon E Sosa, YanWei W Guo, Albert P Chen, James Tropp, Fraser Robb, Kayvan R Keshari
Hyperpolarized (HP) magnetic resonance imaging using [1-13C] pyruvate is a novel method that can characterize energy metabolism in the human brain and brain tumors. Here we present the first dynamically acquired human brain HP 13C metabolic spectra and spatial metabolite maps in cases of both untreated and recurrent tumors. In vivo production of HP lactate from HP pyruvate by tumors was indicative of altered cancer metabolism, while production of HP lactate in the entire brain was likely due to baseline metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766311/monitoring-scanner-calibration-using-the-image-derived-arterial-blood-suv-in-whole-body-fdg-pet
#6
Jens Maus, Frank Hofheinz, Ivayla Apostolova, Michael C Kreissl, Jörg Kotzerke, Jörg van den Hoff
BACKGROUND: The current de facto standard for quantification of tumor metabolism in oncological whole-body PET is the standardized uptake value (SUV) approach. SUV determination requires accurate scanner calibration. Residual inaccuracies of the calibration lead to biased SUV values. Especially, this can adversely affect multicenter trials where it is difficult to ensure reliable cross-calibration across participating sites. The goal of the present work was the evaluation of a new method for monitoring scanner calibration utilizing the image-derived arterial blood SUV (BSUV) averaged over a sufficiently large number of whole-body FDG-PET investigations...
May 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765421/retention-and-functional-effect-of-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-administered-in-alginate-hydrogel-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#7
Bjarke Follin, Adam Ali Ghotbi, Andreas Ettrup Clemmensen, Simon Bentsen, Morten Juhl, Rebekka Harary Søndergaard, Lisbeth Drozd Lund, Mandana Haack-Sørensen, Philip Hasbak, Smadar Cohen, Rasmus Sejersten Ripa, Jens Kastrup, Annette Ekblond, Andreas Kjær
Background: Cell therapy for heart disease has been proven safe and efficacious, despite poor cell retention in the injected area. Improving cell retention is hypothesized to increase the treatment effect. In the present study, human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) were delivered in an in situ forming alginate hydrogel following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. Methods: ASCs were transduced with luciferase and tested for ASC phenotype. AMI was inducted in nude rats, with subsequent injection of saline (controls), 1 × 106 ASCs in saline or 1 × 106 ASCs in 1% ( w / v ) alginate hydrogel...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763511/a-review-of-non-invasive-imaging-in-extramammary-paget-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Claire-Audrey Y Bayan, Trisha Khanna, Veronica Rotemberg, Faramarz H Samie, Nathalie C Zeitouni
Extramammary Paget's Disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma that classically manifests with pruritic, erythematous, scaling plaques. The clinical picture frequently mimics inflammatory or infectious conditions, and is thus commonly misdiagnosed. The assessment of tumor margins is equally challenging as tumors have a propensity to spread beyond clinically visible boundaries. Appropriate non-invasive diagnostic tools can assist in the early detection, diagnosis, and management of EMPD. This paper will review the literature on non-invasive imaging modalities used in EMPD...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762233/adrenal-histoplasmosis
#9
Vanessa Sanders, Joseph Donald, Barry A Siegel
An 89-year-old woman presented with seizure and hyponatremia. CT and MRI demonstrated mass-like enlargement of the adrenal glands and multiple pulmonary nodules. PET/CT performed to evaluate for metastatic disease demonstrated intense 18F-FDG uptake within enlarged adrenal glands. Given mild uptake in the pulmonary nodules, the differential diagnosis for the adrenal uptake included lymphoma, granulomatous infection, and less likely, metastatic lung cancer.
May 14, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762152/alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging
#10
Jennifer L Whitwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the contribution of neuroimaging studies to our understanding of Alzheimer's disease. We now have the capability of measuring both tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ) proteins in the brain, which together with more traditional neuroimaging modalities, has led the field to focus on using neuroimaging to better characterize disease mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have utilized tau and Aβ PET, as well as [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET, and structural and functional MRI, to investigate the following topics: phenotypic variability in Alzheimer's disease , including how neuroimaging findings are related to clinical phenotype and age; multimodality analyses to investigate the relationships between different neuroimaging modalities and what that teaches us about disease mechanisms; disease staging by assessing neuroimaging changes in the very earliest phases of the disease in cognitively normal individuals and individuals carrying an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation; and influence of other comorbidities and proteins to the disease process...
May 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762132/initial-performance-evaluation-of-a-preclinical-pet-scanner-available-as-a-clip-on-assembly-in-a-sequential-pet-mri-system
#11
Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, John McGrath, Alan Courteau, Rosie Pegg, Alberto Sanchez-Pastor Gomis, Angela Camacho, Gary Martin, Nils Schramm, François Brunotte
We evaluated the performance characteristics of a prototype preclinical PET scanner available as an easy clippable assembly that can dock to an MRI system. The single ring version of the PET system consists of 8 detectors, each of which comprises a 12 × 12 silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) array coupled with a dual layer of offset scintillation crystals to measure depth of interaction. The crystal arrays have 29 × 29 (30 × 30 for the outer layer) 4 mm long LYSO crystals (6 mm for the outer layer). The ring diameter is 119...
May 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762090/alzheimer-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-integrated-pulsed-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-and-18-f-fdg-pet
#12
Isabelle Riederer, Karl Peter Bohn, Christine Preibisch, Eva Wiedemann, Claus Zimmer, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Stefan Förster
Purpose To compare PET/MR hypoperfusion and hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared with healthy control (HC) participants. Materials and Methods Maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF; pulsed arterial spin-labeling [ASL] MRI), glucose metabolism (fluorine 18 [18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET), and gray matter (GM) volume (structural T1-weighted MRI) were calculated from integrated PET/MR data in 45 patients with AD (mean age, 69 years ± 9 [standard deviation]; age range, 51-89 years), 20 patients with MCI (mean age, 64 years ± 10; age range, 45-82 years), and 11 HC participants (mean age, 65 years ± 8; age range, 54-80 years) between 2011 and 2014...
May 15, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760644/an-algorithm-for-preclinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Tapan K Khan
Almost all Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials have failed in recent years. One of the main reasons for failure is due to designing the disease-modifying clinical trials at the advanced stage of the disease when irreversible brain damage has already occurred. Diagnosis of the preclinical stage of AD and therapeutic intervention at this phase, with a perfect target, are key points to slowing the progression of the disease. Various AD biomarkers hold enormous promise for identifying individuals with preclinical AD and predicting the development of AD dementia in the future, but no single AD biomarker has the capability to distinguish the AD preclinical stage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760596/-11-c-methionine-positron-emission-tomography-for-target-delineation-of-recurrent-glioblastoma-in-re-irradiation-planning
#14
Hidekazu Tanaka, Takahiro Yamaguchi, Kae Hachiya, Kazuhiro Miwa, Jun Shinoda, Masahide Hayashi, Shinichi Ogawa, Hironori Nishibori, Satoshi Goshima, Masayuki Matsuo
Aim: To define the optimal margin on MRI scans in the re-radiation planning of recurrent glioblastoma using methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET). Background: It would be very useful if the optimal margin on MRI to cover the uptake area on MET-PET is known. Materials and Methods: CT, MRI, and MET-PET were performed separately over the course of 2 weeks. Among the MRI scans, we used the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-MRI) and T2-weighted images (T2-MRI)...
May 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758503/mri-and-pet-ct-for-evaluation-of-the-pathological-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Huimin Li, Liang Yao, Penghui Jin, Lidong Hu, Xiaofei Li, Tiankang Guo, Kehu Yang
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has become an essential treatment for breast cancer. However, there is still no consensus on the best tool to evaluate pathological response to NAC. METHODS: Two reviewers systematically searched Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CBM (last updated in February 2017) for eligible articles. We independently screened and selected studies that conformed to the inclusion criteria and extracted the requisite data. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the SROC curve were calculated to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT)...
May 11, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758089/current-commercial-techniques-for-mri-guided-attenuation-correction-are-insufficient-and-will-limit-the-wider-acceptance-of-pet-mri-technology-in-the-clinic
#16
Ciprian Catana, Harald H Quick, Habib Zaidi
Whole-body hybrid PET/MR imaging has been used since its introduction in 2010 in clinical and research settings for diagnosis, staging and restaging, assessment of response to treatment and radiation therapy planning. However, the quantitative potential of PET/MRI is challenged by the lack of reliable and accurate MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) owing to the lack of direct relationship between MRI signal, reflecting proton density and relaxation time properties, and electron density, which is linked to photon attenuation properties of biological tissues...
May 14, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756581/musculoskeletal-involvements-in-sarcoidosis-a-narrative-review
#17
Roshanak Salari, Somayeh Shariatmaghani, Maryam Sahebari, Payman Shalchiantabrizi, Masoumeh Salari
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease with an etiology that is not clearly understood. Amongst the different organs that may be affected, the lungs are the most common. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease are uncommon. They include arthropathy, bone lesions, or myopathy, all of which may occur as initial symptoms or develop during the course of the disease. Articular involvement my present as arthralgia or arthritis. Skeletal complications usually develop in the chronic state of the disease...
May 14, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756310/folate-receptor-targeted-19-f-mr-molecular-imaging-and-proliferation-evaluation-of-lung-cancer
#18
Xiuan Xu, Yuling Yan, Fang Liu, Lina Wu, Mengping Shao, Kai Wang, Xilin Sun, Yingbo Li, Ernest Sanyare Warmann Beinpuo, Baozhong Shen
BACKGROUND: Folate receptors (FRs) hold great potential as important diagnostic and prognostic biological marker for cancer. PURPOSE: To assess the targeted capability of the FR-targeted perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles and to assess in vivo the relationship between FR expression and tumor proliferation with fluorine-19 (19 F) MR molecular imaging. STUDY TYPE: Prospective animal cancer model. ANIMAL MODEL: H460 (n = 14) and A549 (n = 14) nude mice subcutaneous tumor models...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754968/recurrent-pseudoprogression-in-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-mutant-glioblastoma
#19
Sied Kebir, Laurèl Rauschenbach, Gerrit H Gielen, Niklas Schäfer, Theophilos Tzaridis, Björn Scheffler, Frank A Giordano, Lazaros Lazaridis, Ulrich Herrlinger, Martin Glas
In a subset of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, the differentiation between tumor progression and tumor pseudoprogression (PsP) is challenging. This case describes a male patient suffering from isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant GBM who demonstrated an increasing contrast-enhancing (CE) lesion on a cranial magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) scan 8 months after radiochemotherapy. In accordance with the response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria, the cMRI lesion was classified as recurrent tumor, although 18 F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography (18 F-FET-PET) did not indicate vital tumor tissue...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754940/radioguided-hepatic-resection-with-18-f-dopa-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#20
J López-Gómez, S Medina-Ornelas, M A Salazar-Álvarez, M Álvarez-Bojórquez, N Zaragoza-Cruz, J Melchor-Ruan, A Álvarez-Cano
INTRODUCTION: Medullary carcinoma accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid malignancies. 13-20% of patients present with distant metastasis, with 45% of the cases affecting the liver. CLINICAL CASE: A 50-year-old woman, diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma, was treated with total thyroidectomy and a modified neck dissection in 1999. Two lymph node recurrences in the neck were treated with surgical resection; during surveillance, she developed elevated calcitonin levels, the recurrence site was identified with 18 F-DOPA PET/CT in the liver...
May 10, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
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