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Pericardial FAT

Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, Daniel Levy, Michelle T Long
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a heterogeneous condition and specific patterns of body fat distribution are differentially associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. It is not currently known which fat depots contribute most to individual cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the associations among eight different fat depots accumulated in various anatomical regions and the relationship between these fat depots and multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Participants were from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (seventh examination) and Third Generation (first examination) who also participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study between 2002 and 2005...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Hussein Nafakhi, Abdulameer A Al-Mosawi, Mohammed Alareedh, Hasan A Al-Nafakh
AIM: To assess the possible relationship between coronary atherosclerosis markers, pericardial fat volume (PFV) and coronary artery calcification, With ECG markers of index of the cardiac electrophysiological balance (iCEB) and transmural dispersion of the repolarization in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. METHODOLOGY: One hundred patients who underwent 64-slice multidetector computed tomography angiography were found to be eligible and were enrolled in the study...
March 8, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Wenjie Cai, Jiade J Lu, Rongyu Xu, Peiling Xin, Jun Xin, Yayun Chen, Bingzhong Gao, Jieyun Chen, Xiyang Yang
Most patients diagnosed with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have progressed beyond surgical resection as a therapeutic option. Difficulties in the proper assessment of tumor invasion depth before treatment complicate determination of the type and extent of therapy. Therefore, accurate tumor clinical staging is a necessity for identifying treatment options and aiding in patient prognosis. We investigated radiographic factors as prognostic indicators for survival in ESCC. Between July 2006 - July 2010, 324 thoracic ESCC patients who underwent surgery were selected...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Vicki Mattern, Hillary F Huber, Anthony Comuzzie, Laura Cox, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
Developmental programming by reduced maternal nutrition alters function in multiple offspring physiological systems, including lipid metabolism. We have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to offspring cardiovascular dysfunction with an accelerated aging phenotype in our nonhuman primate, baboon model. We hypothesized age-advanced pericardial fat and blood lipid changes. In pregnancy and lactation, pregnant baboons ate ad lib (control) or 70% ad lib diet (IUGR). We studied baboon offspring pericardial lipid deposition with magnetic resonance imaging at 5-6 years (human equivalent 20-24 years), skinfold thickness, and serum lipid profile at 8-9 years (human equivalent 32-36 years), comparing values with a normative life-course baboon cohort, 4-23 years...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Corey M Gill, Debora C Azevedo, Adriana L Oliveira, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Miriam A Bredella
Background Recent studies suggest that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is associated with whole body adiposity and insulin resistance. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) differs between men and women. Although CVD is more prevalent in men, women suffering from CVD have a higher mortality compared to men. Differences in PAT may account for some of the observed sex differences in manifestations of CVD. Purpose To assess pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) as a biomarker for cardiometabolic risk and to assess potential sex differences...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
C Monnereau, S Santos, A van der Lugt, V W V Jaddoe, J F Felix
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in adult fat distribution. Whether these SNPs also affect abdominal and organ-specific fat accumulation in children is unknown. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 1995 children (median age: 9.8 years, 95% range 9.4-10.8), we tested the associations of six genetic risk scores based on previously identified SNPs for childhood body mass index (BMI), adult BMI, liver fat, waist-hip ratio, pericardial fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio) and four individual SAT- and VAT-associated SNPs for association with SAT (N=1746), VAT (N=1742), VAT/SAT ratio (N=1738), liver fat fraction (N=1950) and pericardial fat mass (N=1803) measured by magnetic resonance imaging...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Xue Yu, Na Jia, Sanxia Ye, Min Zhou, Deping Liu
Primary chylopericardium (CP) is a rare clinical condition in which chylous fluid containing high concentrations of triglyceride accumulates in the pericardial cavity. The present study reports a case of CP that was successfully treated by reconstruction surgery of thoracic duct. To improve the ability to diagnosis and treat this rare disease, the current study also systematically extracted 104 reported cases of primary or idiopathic CP from the past 60 years (January 1950 to December of 2015), and reviewed the clinical manifestation, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of these cases...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yichen Jin, Loretta DiPietro, Namratha R Kandula, Alka M Kanaya, Sameera A Talegawkar
OBJECTIVE: Sedentary behaviors related to television (TV) viewing are associated with adiposity; however, few investigations have focused on South Asians, an ethnicity particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbations. This study examined the relationships between TV viewing and adiposity in a cohort of middle-aged and older South Asians. METHOD: Data were obtained from Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study (N = 906; mean age [standard deviation] = 55 [9...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shohei Tamura, Yui Koike, Hiroaki Takeda, Tomonari Koike, Yoshihiro Izumi, Ryosuke Nagasaka, Tetsuto Tsunoda, Motoo Tori, Kazuo Ogawa, Takeshi Bamba, Masashi Shiomi
Improvements induced in lipid metabolism in the liver by D-47, a newly developed compound, were examined herein. WHHLMI rabbits, an animal model of hypercholesterolemia and coronary atherosclerosis, was fed D-47-supplemented chow for 5 weeks at a dose of 30mg/kg. Lipid concentration were assayed using enzymatic methods. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated with an ultracentrifuge. mRNA expression was analyzed with real-time PCR. Lipidome analyses of lipoproteins were performed using supercritical fluid chromatography mass spectrometry...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Takao Sato, Yoshifusa Aizawa, Sho Yuasa, Shohei Kishi, Koichi Fuse, Satoshi Fujita, Yoshio Ikeda, Hitoshi Kitazawa, Minoru Takahashi, Masahito Sato, Masaaki Okabe
BACKGROUND: Glycosuria produced by sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors is associated with weight loss. SGLT-2 inhibitors reportedly might reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a pathogenic fat depot that may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The present study evaluated the relationship between an SGLT-2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) and EAT volume. METHODS: In 40 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease (10 women and 30 men; mean age of all 40 patients was 67...
January 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Shinji Nakashima, Toshiyuki Maeda, Satoshi Muraki, Taku Sakurada, Jun Sasaki, Eiji Araki, Hisayoshi Osawa, Atsushi Watanabe
A 57-year-old woman visited our hospital with left chest pain. Chest computed tomography (CT) scanning showed left pneumothorax with apical bullae and a nodular shadow in the left anterior mediastinum accidentally. However, a week later, we could not detect a mediastinal shadow on chest CT image after healing of left pneumothorax. Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was scheduled in order to remove bullae and evaluate an anterior mediastinal lesion. The mediastinal lesion was tumorous and resected with around pericardial fat tissue...
December 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin, Unjali P Gujral, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, John Jeffrey Carr, Cheryl A M Anderson
Few studies have investigated the association between ectopic fat from different depots and cardiovascular risk scores and their components in the same population, and none have investigated these relations in South Asians. In a cross-sectional analysis of 796 participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study who had measurements of visceral, subcutaneous, pericardial, hepatic, and intermuscular fat from abdominal and cardiac computed tomography scans, we used linear regression to determine the associations of 1 standard deviation difference in each ectopic fat depot with pooled cohort risk score and its components...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Miriam A Bredella
Body composition differs between men and women. Men have more lean mass, and women have more fat mass than men. Men are more likely to accumulate adipose tissue around the trunk and abdomen, whereas women usually accumulate adipose tissue around the hips and thighs. Less is known about sex differences in ectopic fat depots. Advances in imaging allow the noninvasive assessment of abdominal and femorogluteal fat compartments, intramyocellular lipids, intrahepatic lipids, pericardial adipose tissue, and neck adipose tissue including brown adipose tissue and tongue adipose tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alessandra Stacchiotti, Gaia Favero, Lorena Giugno, Igor Golic, Aleksandra Korac, Rita Rezzani
Cardiomyocytes are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage due to the link between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for calcium flux and contraction. Melatonin, important indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland during darkness, also has important cardioprotective properties. We designed the present study to define morphological and ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes and mainly in mitochondria of an animal model of obesity ( ob / ob mice), when treated orally or not with melatonin at 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (from 5 up to 13 week of life)...
December 5, 2017: Nutrients
Gabriela Gayer
Necrosis of the fat adjacent to the heart, referred to as pericardial fat necrosis, epipericardial fat necrosis, and mediastinal fat necrosis, is a rare, self-limited condition. It presents as a sudden onset of severe chest pain that mimics symptoms of pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome. Computed tomography (CT) findings are quite typical and consist of a round- or oval-shaped mass-like lesion containing soft tissue and fat density components in the cardiophrenic space. Lack of familiarity with this condition has led in the past to surgical interventions to remove the mass-like mediastinal fat necrosis...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
J Ruppert, D Hartung, M Westhoff-Bleck, J Herrmann, B Stubbs, J Cordes, T H C Krüger, R Lichtinghagen, K G Kahl
Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality versus the general population. Increased intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue are associated with elevated CVD and mortality in the general population, but little is known about these in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined pericardial and intra-abdominal adipose tissue in schizophrenia and compared this to healthy controls. Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia (mean age 41...
November 23, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, Christopher J O'Donnell, Emelia J Benjamin, Michelle T Long
Cross-sectional studies have shown that pericardial fat is associated with atherosclerotic burden above and beyond generalized and central adiposity. Whether pericardial fat is longitudinally associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been firmly established. We examined the associations between cardiac ectopic fat including pericardial and intrathoracic fat with CAC progression and incidence in a community-based study setting. Study participants were from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who underwent multidetector computed tomography at 2 consecutive examinations (2002 to 2005 and 2008 to 2011) for the assessment of CAC...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
Irfan Zeb, Naser Ahmadi, Ferdinand Flores, Matthew J Budoff
AIMS: Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT. METHODS: Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment...
November 14, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
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