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Pericardial FAT

U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Jane J Lee, Xiaoyan Yin, Udo Hoffmann, Caroline S Fox, Emelia J Benjamin
Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third-Generation Cohorts who participated in the multidetector computed tomography substudy examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Aline Nishizawa, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Daniela Souza Farias, Fernanda Marinho Campos, Karen Cristina Souza da Silva, Anderson Cuelho, Renata Elaine Paraízo Leite, Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, José Marcelo Farfel, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci
INTRODUCTION: Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated...
2016: Open Heart
Hussein Nafakhi, Abdulameer Al-Mosawi, Hayder Elwali, Hasan Al-Nafakh, Raad Tawfeq, Ahmed Nafakhi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the relationship between pericardial fat volume (PFV), aortic root calcification (ARC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: This cross-sectional study took place between January and December 2014 at the Kufa University Teaching Hospital, Najaf, Iraq. A total of 130 consecutive patients with an intermediate pretest probability of ischaemic heart disease who underwent 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography during the study period were recruited...
August 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Sheelagh M Duncan, Marlène S Magalhaes, Sharon M Campbell, Rick M Maizels, Henry J McSorley, Judith E Allen, Cécile Bénézech
Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALC) are inducible structures that support rapid innate-like B-cell immune responses in the serous cavities. Little is known about the physiological cues that activate FALCs in the pleural cavity and more generally the mechanisms controlling B-cell activation in FALCs. Here we show, using separate models of pleural nematode infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis and Altenaria alternata induced acute lung inflammation, that inflammation of the pleural cavity rapidly activates mediastinal and pericardial FALCs...
2016: Nature Communications
K G Kahl, J Herrmann, B Stubbs, T H C Krüger, J Cordes, M Deuschle, U Schweiger, K Hüper, S Helm, A Birkenstock, D Hartung
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an estimated fourfold risk for premature death, largely attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), a fat compartment surrounding the heart, has been implicated in the development of coronary artery disease. An unanswered question is whether people with chronic MDD are more likely to have elevated PAT volumes versus acute MDD and controls (CTRL). METHODS: The study group consists of sixteen patients with chronic MDD, thirty-four patients with acute MDD, and twenty-five CTRL...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G Athyros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Gilbert R Ferretti, Dominique Rigaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Po-Ching Chi, Shun-Chuan Chang, Chun-Ho Yun, Jen-Yuan Kuo, Chung-Lieh Hung, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Chia-Yuan Liu, Fei-Shih Yang, Tung-Hsin Wu, Hiram G Bezerra, Hung-I Yeh
BACKGROUND: The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF) and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT) using dedicated computed tomography (CT) software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA), with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI) and biochemical data obtained...
2016: PloS One
Gaston A Rodriguez-Granillo, Patricia Carrascosa, Alejandro Deviggiano, Carlos Capunay, Macarena C De Zan, Alejandro Goldsmit, Roxana Campisi
AIMS: We sought to explore the relationship between pericardial fat volume (PFV) and both coronary atherosclerosis (CA) extent and severity using coronary artery calcium score (CAC), computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA), and invasive coronary angiography in patients at high to intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients clinically referred to invasive angiography who underwent CTCA and CAC within 1 month before the procedure comprised the study population...
July 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Katsunari Matsuoka, Naoko Imanishi, Tetsu Yamada, Takahisa Matsuoka, Shinjiro Nagai, Mitsuhiro Ueda, Yoshihiro Miyamoto
OBJECTIVES: Bronchial fistula is a severe complication after thoracic surgery. Although many methods of coverage using various autologous tissues including pedicled pericardial fat pad have been reported to be useful for the prevention of bronchial fistula, the ideal roles of these approaches and the coverage techniques yielding the best results still remain unclear. The clinical use of an autologous free fat graft has been reported in the various surgical fields including otolaryngology, orthopaedics and plastic surgery...
October 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Jong-Ho Kim, Soon Jun Hong, Chi-Yeon Park, Jae Hyung Park, Seung-Cheol Choi, Sang-Keun Woo, Jung Woo Yu, Gi Jeong Cheon, Hyung Joon Joo, Do-Sun Lim
Intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with other cell types in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) animal models has consistently shown promising clinical regenerative capacities. We investigated the effects of intramyocardial injections of mouse ASC (mASC) with mouse endothelial cells (mEC) on left ventricular function and generation of pericardial fat in AMI rats. AMI rat models were created by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery and were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 10), mASC (n = 10), mEC (n = 10) and mASC+mEC (n = 10) via direct intramyocardial injections, and each rat received 1x106 cells around three peri-infarct areas...
2016: PloS One
David S Wenger, Steven M Kawut, Jingzhong Ding, David A Bluemke, Catherine L Hough, Richard A Kronmal, Joao A Lima, Peter J Leary
BACKGROUND: Pericardial fat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms may be relevant in right heart failure, but relationships between pericardial fat and right ventricular (RV) morphology have not been explored. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort that enrolled participants without clinical cardiovascular disease. Pericardial fat was measured using computed tomography and RV parameters using cardiac MRI...
2016: PloS One
Chung-Lieh Hung, Chun-Ho Yun, Yau-Huei Lai, Kuo-Tzu Sung, Hiram G Bezerra, Jen-Yuan Kuo, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Tze-Fan Chao, Bernard E Bulwer, Hung-I Yeh, Shou-Chuan Shih, Shing-Jong Lin, Ricardo C Cury
Excessive visceral adiposity, hypothesized to be a key mediator in metabolic derangements, has recently been shown to exert toxic effects on cardiac structure and function. Data regarding the mechanistic link between regional adiposity, left atrial (LA) electromechanical remodeling, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been lacking.Various visceral adiposity measures, including pericardial fat (PCF), thoracic periaortic (TAT) fat, regional inter-atrial fat (IAF), and atrioventricular groove fat (AV Groove Fat), were assessed by multidetector computed tomography in 2 study cohorts (an annual health survey cohort and an outpatient cohort)...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Weng-Chio Tam, Yung-Kuo Lin, Wing-Pong Chan, Jen-Hung Huang, Ming-Hsiung Hsieh, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Pericardial fat is correlated with the occurrence of atrial fibrillation or coronary atherosclerosis. However, the role of pericardial fat in ventricular arrhythmia remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who had undergone dual-source computed tomography and 24-h Holter ECG were retrospectively enrolled. Quantification of the volume of pericardial fat surrounding the ventricles was analyzed using threshold attenuation of dual-source CT. The volume of pericardial fat was significantly different among those without ventricular premature beats (VPBs) in 24 h (n=28), those with occasional VPBs (n=54) and those with frequent VPBs (n=34) (12...
July 25, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Claire Kaufman, S A Jamal Bokhari
Pneumothoraces are a possible sequela of chest trauma with potential morbidity and mortality if not recognized and treated promptly. A portable supine chest radiograph is frequently the first radiologic study performed in the setting of trauma. While large pneumothoraces can be readily recognized on these radiographs, smaller pneumothoraces are missed in up to 15 % of trauma patients. There are many radiographic signs of occult pneumothoraces, and we are presenting a new radiographic sign of occult pneumothorax...
August 2016: Emergency Radiology
Yau-Huei Lai, Chun-Ho Yun, Cheng-Huang Su, Fei-Shih Yang, Hung-I Yeh, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Tung-Hsin Wu, Ricardo C Cury, Hiram G Bezerra, Chung-Lieh Hung
PURPOSE: Pericardial adipose tissue had been shown to exert local effects on adjacent cardiac structures. Data regarding the mechanistic link between such measures and left atrial (LA) structural/functional remodeling, a clinical hallmark of early stage heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) incidence, in asymptomatic population remain largely unexplored. METHODS: This retrospective analysis includes 356 subjects free from significant valvular disorders, atrial fibrillation, or clinical HF...
March 2016: Echo Research and Practice
Tomoki Fukuoka, Masaaki Sano, Nasa Tominaga, Shotaro Sanada, Yasuo Uno, Hisaharu Oya, Tetsuo Nishi, Katsumi Koshikawa
Bronchial stump fistula is a post-operative complication with poor outcome after pulmonary lobectomy. In order to prevent this complication, the bronchial stump is covered with pericardial fat tissue in our hospital. The case was 58 year old male who received adjuvant chemotherapy after sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. As he developed multiple pulmonary metastases, 48 courses of chemotherapy were performed. The lesions had been localized at the right lower lobe, and neither increase in the size of these lesions nor development of other lesions were observed...
May 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
M E Symonds, N Dellschaft, M Pope, M Birtwistle, R Alagal, D Keisler, H Budge
Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Rami Homsi, Alois M Sprinkart, Juergen Gieseke, Seyrani Yuecel, Michael Meier-Schroers, Julian Luetkens, Darius Dabir, Daniel Kuetting, Christian Marx, Jennifer Nadal, Hans H Schild, Daniel Thomas
PURPOSE: Using a three-dimensional ECG- and respiratory navigator gated magnetization prepared mDixon-sequence (3D-Dixon) we quantified epi- and pericardial fat volumes (EFV, PFV) in hypertensive men compared to a healthy control group and related the amount of fat volumes in hypertensive men to the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 55 hypertensive men (mean age 63.02±10.73years [y]) with MI (n=22; mean age 61...
May 2016: European Journal of Radiology
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