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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645207/development-and-validation-of-an-electronic-medical-record-emr-based-computed-phenotype-of-hiv-1-infection
#1
Devon W Paul, Nigel B Neely, Meredith Clement, Isaretta Riley, Mashael Al-Hegelan, Matthew Phelan, Monica Kraft, David M Murdoch, Joseph Lucas, John Bartlett, Mehri McKellar, Loretta G Que
Background: Electronic medical record (EMR) computed algorithms allow investigators to screen thousands of patient records to identify specific disease cases. No computed algorithms have been developed to detect all cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection using administrative, laboratory, and clinical documentation data outside of the Veterans Health Administration. We developed novel EMR-based algorithms for HIV detection and validated them in a cohort of subjects in the Duke University Health System (DUHS)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645193/irf6-regulates-alternative-activation-by-suppressing-ppar%C3%AE-in-male-murine-macrophages
#2
Chuan Li, Wei Ying, Zheping Huang, Tyler Brehm, Andrew Morin, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Aberrant pro-inflammatory and suppressed anti-inflammatory (alternative) macrophage activation underlies the chronic inflammation associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study demonstrates a novel role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) in regulating macrophage alternative activation (M2) by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression, a critical regulator of alternative macrophage polarization. The data demonstrate suppression of IRF6 in both M2 macrophages and obese adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
June 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645151/the-genetic-architecture-of-heterochrony-as-a-quantitative-trait-lessons-from-a-computational-model
#3
Lidan Sun, Mengmeng Sang, Chenfei Zheng, Dongyang Wang, Hexin Shi, Kaiyue Liu, Yanfang Guo, Tangren Cheng, Qixiang Zhang, Rongling Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645121/effect-of-obesity-on-gestational-and-perinatal-outcomes
#4
Sônia Regina Cabral Madi, Rosa Maria Rahmi Garcia, Vandrea Carla de Souza, Renato Luís Rombaldi, Breno Fauth de Araújo, José Mauro Madi
Purpose To assess the impact of pre-pregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) on the gestational and perinatal outcomes. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 731 pregnant women with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) at the first prenatal care visit, comparing them with 3,161 women with a BMI between 18.5 kg/m(2) and 24.9 kg/m(2). Maternal and neonatal variables were assessed. Statistical analyses reporting the demographic features of the pregnant women (obese and normal) were performed with descriptive statistics followed by two-sided independent Student's t tests for the continuous variables, and the chi-squared (χ(2)) test, or Fisher's exact test, for the categorical variables...
June 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645092/examining-effectiveness-of-tailorable-computer-assisted-therapy-programmes-for-substance-misuse-programme-usage-and-clinical-outcomes-data-from-breaking-free-online
#5
Sarah Elison, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Ward, Glyn Davies, Stephanie Dugdale
RATIONALE: When evaluating complex, tailorable digital behavioural interventions, additional approaches may be required alongside established methodologies such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Research evaluating a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Online (BFO), is informed by Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance recommending examination of 'mechanisms of action' of individual intervention strategies, which is relevant when evaluating digital interventions with content that may evolve over time...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645090/the-impact-of-tidal-and-mesoscale-eddy-advection-on-the-long-term-dispersion-of-99-tc-from-sellafield
#6
Magne Simonsen, Øyvind Saetra, Pål Erik Isachsen, Ole Christian Lind, Hilde Kristin Skjerdal, Brit Salbu, Hilde Elise Heldal, Justin P Gwynn
In the present work, numerical models are used to study the fate of the (99)Tc discharges from Sellafield with a specific focus on the role of mesoscale eddy and tidal advection on the transport and dispersion of this radionuclide. Transport estimates are made with an ocean model that resolves a large part of the ocean mesoscale eddy field and also includes tides. Equivalent estimates are also computed with another model in which these processes are either absent or parametrized. Comparison with field observations shows that the coarse-resolution model can reproduce the general features of the observed time-space (99)Tc distribution if the diffusivity in its eddy parametrization scheme is suitably chosen...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645065/cross-validation-of-short-forms-of-the-screener-and-opioid-assessment-for-patients-with-pain-revised-soapp-r
#7
Matthew D Finkelman, Robert N Jamison, Ronald J Kulich, Stephen F Butler, William C Jackson, Niels Smits, Scott G Weiner
BACKGROUND: The Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R) is a 24-item assessment designed to assist in the prediction of aberrant drug-related behavior (ADB) among patients with chronic pain. Recent work has created shorter versions of the SOAPP-R, including a static 12-item short form and two computer-based methods (curtailment and stochastic curtailment) that monitor assessments in progress. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate these shorter versions in two new populations...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645054/computational-analysis-of-the-toxcast-estrogen-receptor-agonist-assays-to-predict-vitellogenin-induction-by-chemicals-in-male-fish
#8
David A Dreier, Nancy D Denslow, Christopher J Martyniuk
Endocrine disruptors, especially estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, have received considerable research attention. While there are several mechanistic endpoints for ER agonism in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, there have been growing efforts to develop high-throughput screening assays and computational models to reduce testing cost, time, and animal use. For example, there are 16 ER agonist assays and an integrated computational model in ToxCast. In the present study, we examined the relationship between ToxCast ER agonist assays and model activity to male vitellogenin induction in the Fish-Short Term Reproduction Assay...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645011/transient-portal-venous-gas-associated-with-reversible-non-occlusive-mesenteric-ischemia-a-case-report
#9
Gaël Piton, Brice Paquette, Eric Delabrousse, Gilles Capellier
OBJECTIVES: To report the utility of abdominal ultrasonography (US) to identify the presence of portal venous gas (PVG) during non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), and to follow the disappearance of portal venous gas after resolution of the NOMI. DATA SOURCES: This was a clinical observation of a patient, with images of abdominal computed tomography (CT), and a video of portal venous gas identified by ultrasonography. DATA SYNTHESIS: We describe the case of an adult patient admitted to our ICU for NOMI developing 48h after cardiac surgery...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644987/thiophene-thiazole-benzene-replacement-on-guanidine-derivatives-targeting-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors
#10
Aoife Flood, Cristina Trujillo, Goar Sanchez-Sanz, Brendan Kelly, Carolina Muguruza, Luis F Callado, Isabel Rozas
Searching for improved antagonists of α2-adrenoceptors, a thorough theoretical study comparing the aromaticity of phenyl-, pyridinyl-, thiophenyl- and thiazolylguanidinium derivatives has been carried out [at M06-2X/6-311++G(p,d) computational level] confirming that thiophene and thiazole will be good 'ring equivalents' to benzene in these guanidinium systems. Based on these results, a small but chemically diverse library of guanidine derivatives (15 thiophenes and 2 thiazoles) were synthesised to explore the effect that the bioisosteric change has on affinity and activity at α2-adrenoceptors in comparison with our previously studied phenyl derivatives...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644923/examining-transfer-effects-of-dual-task-training-protocols-for-a-complex-locomotor-task
#11
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644920/genome-scale-metabolic-models-applied-to-human-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Daniel J Cook, Jens Nielsen
Advances in genome sequencing, high throughput measurement of gene and protein expression levels, data accessibility, and computational power have allowed genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to become a useful tool for understanding metabolic alterations associated with many different diseases. Despite the proven utility of GEMs, researchers confront multiple challenges in the use of GEMs, their application to human health and disease, and their construction and simulation in an organ-specific and disease-specific manner...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644887/sarcopenia-is-a-predictive-factor-for-intestinal-resection-in-admitted-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#13
Shigeki Bamba, Masaya Sasaki, Azusa Takaoka, Kenichiro Takahashi, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Atsushi Nishida, Osamu Inatomi, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
The relationship between skeletal muscle volume and the prognosis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains undetermined. We conducted a retrospective study of 72 IBD patients who were admitted to the hospital due to disease exacerbation. We enrolled IBD patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography and assessed the nutritional indices, such as the Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (O-PNI) and the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) index. The L3 skeletal muscle index (SMI), which is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles at the level of the third lumbar (L3) vertebra to the height squared, was used to identify sarcopenia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644871/predicting-the-bounds-of-large-chaotic-systems-using-low-dimensional-manifolds
#14
Asger M Haugaard
Predicting extrema of chaotic systems in high-dimensional phase space remains a challenge. Methods, which give extrema that are valid in the long term, have thus far been restricted to models of only a few variables. Here, a method is presented which treats extrema of chaotic systems as belonging to discretised manifolds of low dimension (low-D) embedded in high-dimensional (high-D) phase space. As a central feature, the method exploits that strange attractor dimension is generally much smaller than parent system phase space dimension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644851/comorbidities-in-the-diseasome-are-more-apparent-than-real-what-bayesian-filtering-reveals-about-the-comorbidities-of-depression
#15
Peter Marx, Peter Antal, Bence Bolgar, Gyorgy Bagdy, Bill Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz
Comorbidity patterns have become a major source of information to explore shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between disorders. In hypothesis-free exploration of comorbid conditions, disease-disease networks are usually identified by pairwise methods. However, interpretation of the results is hindered by several confounders. In particular a very large number of pairwise associations can arise indirectly through other comorbidity associations and they increase exponentially with the increasing breadth of the investigated diseases...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644841/low-dimensional-spike-rate-models-derived-from-networks-of-adaptive-integrate-and-fire-neurons-comparison-and-implementation
#16
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644840/linking-structure-and-activity-in-nonlinear-spiking-networks
#17
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Krešimir Josić, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael A Buice
Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644820/investigation-of-real-tissue-water-equivalent-path-lengths-using-an-efficient-dose-extinction-method
#18
Rongxiao Zhang, Esther Baer, Kyung-Wook Jee, Gregory C Sharp, Jay Flanz, Hsiao-Ming Lu
For proton therapy, an accurate conversion of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) is essential. Validation of the conversion based on real tissue samples is more direct than the current practice solely based on tissue substitutes and can potentially address variations over the population. Based on a novel dose extinction method, we measured water equivalent path lengths (WEPL) on animal tissue samples to evaluate the accuracy of CT HU to RSP conversion and potential variations over a population. A broad proton beam delivered a spread out Bragg peak to the samples sandwiched between a water tank and a 2D ion-chamber detector...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644816/fast-and-accurate-poisson-denoising-with-trainable-nonlinear-diffusion
#19
Wensen Feng, Peng Qiao, Yunjin Chen
The degradation of the acquired signal by Poisson noise is a common problem for various imaging applications, such as medical imaging, night vision, and microscopy. Up to now, many state-of-the-art Poisson denoising techniques mainly concentrate on achieving utmost performance, with little consideration for the computation efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we aim to propose an efficient Poisson denoising model with both high computational efficiency and recovery quality. To this end, we exploit the newly developed trainable nonlinear reaction diffusion (TNRD) model which has proven an extremely fast image restoration approach with performance surpassing recent state-of-the-arts...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644808/esim-edge-similarity-for-screen-content-image-quality-assessment
#20
Zhangkai Ni, Lin Ma, Huanqiang Zeng, Jing Chen, Canhui Cai, Kai-Kuang Ma
In this paper, an accurate full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) model developed for assessing screen content images (SCIs), called the edge similarity (ESIM), is proposed. It is inspired by the fact that the human visual system (HVS) is highly sensitive to edges that are often encountered in SCIs; therefore, essential edge features are extracted and exploited for conducting IQA for the SCIs. The key novelty of the proposed ESIM lies in the extraction and use of three salient edge features-i.e., edge contrast, edge width, and edge direction...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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