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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334669/anti-obesity-effects-of-clausena-excavata-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Young-Rak Cho, Jung A Lee, Yoon Yeon Kim, Jae-Shin Kang, Jae-Ho Lee, Eun-Kyung Ahn
Clausena excavata (C. excavata) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, enteritis, dysentery, and malaria. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 50% ethanol extract of C. excavata (ECE) on weight loss, adipocyte size, and obesity-related biochemical parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. After 6 weeks of HFD + ECE administration, HFD-induced total fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were evaluated with a biochemical analyzer, and leptin and adiponectin levels in the serum were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334561/preoperative-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas-allows-for-precision-surgery
#2
Pavel Nockel, Mustapha El Lakis, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Roxanne Merkel, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol, Tamara Prodanov, Karel Pacak, Electron Kebebew
BACKGROUND: Fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging is recommended in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma (PC) and paraganglioma (PGL). There are no data on whether routine preoperative F-FDG PET/CT in all patients with PC/PGL impacts surgical management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether routine preoperative F-FDG PET/CT imaging affects the surgical management of patients with PC/PGLs...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334516/computer-based-training-in-eating-and-nutrition-facilitates-person-centered-hospital-care-a-group-concept-mapping-study
#3
Albert Westergren, Ellinor Edfors, Erika Norberg, Anna Stubbendorff, Gita Hedin, Martin Wetterstrand, Scott R Rosas, Peter Hagell
Studies have shown that computer-based training in eating and nutrition for hospital nursing staff increased the likelihood that patients at risk of undernutrition would receive nutritional interventions. This article seeks to provide understanding from the perspective of nursing staff of conceptually important areas for computer-based nutritional training, and their relative importance to nutritional care, following completion of the training. Group concept mapping, an integrated qualitative and quantitative methodology, was used to conceptualize important factors relating to the training experiences through four focus groups (n = 43), statement sorting (n = 38), and importance rating (n = 32), followed by multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis...
January 12, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334463/torquoselective-mechanochemical-activation-of-the-staudinger-reaction-to-form-%C3%AE-lactams
#4
Dominik Marx, M Isabel Menendez
The Staudinger reaction yielding β-lactam rings via [2+2] cycloaddition is a torquoselective reaction where the stereochemistry of the product can be steered by suitable substituents. Although the mechanochemical ring-opening of β-lactams has been investigated recently, the force-assisted synthesis of this important functional four-ring motif remains unexplored. As it will be computationally demonstrated, mechanochemical activation greatly reduces the barrier of the rate limiting ring-closure step while, at the same time, preserves its torquoselectivity...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334461/enhanced-proton-loss-from-neutral-free-radicals-towards-carbon-centered-superacids
#5
John C Walton
Radical centers close to protons are known to enhance their dissociation. Investigation of the generality of this Radical Enhanced Deprotonation (RED-shift) phenomenon and the kinds of structures in which it operates are reported. The pKas for sulfinic, sulfonic, pentan-2,4-dione and Meldrum's acid species, with adjacent radicals centered on C-, N- and O-atoms, were computed by a DFT method from free energies of deprotonation. All series showed significant RED-shifts that increased with the electronegativity of the radical center...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334430/preclinical-therapeutic-efficacy-of-the-ciprofloxacin-eluting-sinus-stent-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sinusitis
#6
Do-Yeon Cho, Dong-Jin Lim, Calvin Mackey, Daniel Skinner, Christopher Weeks, Gobind S Gill, Robert W Hergenrother, William E Swords, Bradford A Woodworth
BACKGROUND: The ciprofloxacin-coated sinus stent (CSS) has unique therapeutic potential to deliver antibiotics to the sinuses. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CSS stent in eliminating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rabbit model of sinusitis. METHODS: A ciprofloxacin-eluting sinus stent was created by coating ciprofloxacin/Eudragit RS100 on biodegradable poly-D/L-lactic acid (2 mg). After analyzing in-vitro inhibition of P aeruginosa (PAO-1 strain) biofilm formation, a total of 8 stents (4 shams, 4 CSSs) were placed unilaterally in rabbit maxillary sinuses via dorsal sinusotomy after inducing infection for 1 week with PAO-1...
January 15, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334421/a-survey-of-tooth-morphology-teaching-methods-employed-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#7
M Lone, J P McKenna, J F Cryan, E J Downer, A Toulouse
BACKGROUND: Tooth morphology is a central component of the dental curriculum and is applicable to all dental specialities. Traditional teaching methods are being supplemented with innovative strategies to tailor teaching and accommodate the learning styles of the recent generation of students. METHODS: An online survey was compiled and distributed to the staff involved in teaching tooth morphology in the United Kingdom and Ireland to assess the importance of tooth morphology in the dentistry curriculum and the methodologies employed in teaching...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334373/prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-rhesus-macaques-by-a-cytomegalovirus-based-vaccine
#8
Scott G Hansen, Daniel E Zak, Guangwu Xu, Julia C Ford, Emily E Marshall, Daniel Malouli, Roxanne M Gilbride, Colette M Hughes, Abigail B Ventura, Emily Ainslie, Kurt T Randall, Andrea N Selseth, Parker Rundstrom, Lauren Herlache, Matthew S Lewis, Haesun Park, Shannon L Planer, John M Turner, Miranda Fischer, Christina Armstrong, Robert C Zweig, Joseph Valvo, Jackie M Braun, Smitha Shankar, Lenette Lu, Andrew W Sylwester, Alfred W Legasse, Martin Messerle, Michael A Jarvis, Lynn M Amon, Alan Aderem, Galit Alter, Dominick J Laddy, Michele Stone, Aurelio Bonavia, Thomas G Evans, Michael K Axthelm, Klaus Früh, Paul T Edlefsen, Louis J Picker
Despite widespread use of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of global mortality from a single infectious agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mtb). Here, over two independent Mtb challenge studies, we demonstrate that subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques (RMs) with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors encoding Mtb antigen inserts (hereafter referred to as RhCMV/TB)-which elicit and maintain highly effector-differentiated, circulating and tissue-resident Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses-can reduce the overall (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) extent of Mtb infection and disease by 68%, as compared to that in unvaccinated controls, after intrabronchial challenge with the Erdman strain of Mtb at ∼1 year after the first vaccination...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334360/self-consistent-description-of-local-density-dynamics-in-simple-liquids-the-case-of-molten-lithium
#9
Anatolii Mokshin, Bulat N Galimzyanov
The dynamic structure factor is the quantity, which can be measured by means of Brillouin light-scattering as well as by means of inelastic scattering of neutrons and X-rays. The spectral (or frequency) moments of the dynamic structure factor define directly the sum rules of the scattering law. The theoretical scheme formulated in this study allows one to describe the dynamics of local density fluctuations in simple liquids and to obtain the expression of the dynamic structure factor in terms of the spectral moments...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334352/the-multimorbidity-cluster-analysis-tool-identifying-combinations-and-permutations-of-multiple-chronic-diseases-using-a-record-level-computational-analysis
#10
Kathryn Nicholson, Michael Bauer, Amanda Terry, Martin Fortin, Tyler Williamson, Amardeep Thind
Multimorbidity, or the co-occurrence of multiple chronic health conditions within an individual, is an increasingly dominant presence and burden in modern health care systems.  To fully capture its complexity, further research is needed to uncover the patterns and consequences of these co-occurring health states.  As such, the Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool and the accompanying Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Toolkit have been created to allow researchers to identify distinct clusters that exist within a sample of participants or patients living with multimorbidity...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334277/validation-of-dpoae-screening-conducted-by-village-health-workers-in-a-rural-community-with-real-time-click-evoked-tele-auditory-brainstem-response
#11
Vidya Ramkumar, C S Vanaja, James W Hall, K Selvakumar, Roopa Nagarajan
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the validity of DPOAE screening conducted by village health workers (VHWs) in a rural community. Real-time click evoked tele-auditory brainstem response (tele-ABR) was used as the gold standard to establish validity. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was utilised to compare the results of screening by VHWs to those obtained via tele-ABR. Study samples: One hundred and nineteen subjects (0 to 5 years) were selected randomly from a sample of 2880 infants and young children who received DPOAE screening by VHWs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334259/development-of-three-dimensional-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-model-for-patient-communication-and-young-neurosurgeon-education
#12
Mengqi Dong, Guangzhong Chen, Kun Qin, Xiaowen Ding, Dong Zhou, Chao Peng, Shaojian Zeng, Xianming Deng
PURPOSE: Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. METHODS: Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#13
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to achieve the necessary balance between satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 Neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334220/computational-design-synthesis-and-structure-property-evaluation-of-1-3-thiazole-based-colour-tunable-multiheterocyclic-small-organic-fluorophores-as-multifunctional-molecular-materials
#14
Rakesh Radhakrishnan, Kumaran G Sreejalekshmi
Probing chemical space of luminescent organic materials built on novel cores is highly imperative for its potential to expand the horizons of advanced functional materials. Small organic fluorophores possessing therapeutic traits can contribute to theranostics. We coupled computational and classical synthetic chemistry strategies for the rational design of 5-(hetero-2-yl)-1,3-thiazoles as colour tunable fluorophore core. With the aid of DFT and TD-DFT, we prove multiheterocyclic system built on thiazole-het core with three inherent tunable sites on thiazole (C2, C4 and C5) capable of accommodating panoply of substituents, as a multifunctional molecular materials' platform...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334218/photochemically-induced-intramolecular-radical-cyclization-reactions-with-imines
#15
Corentin Lefebvre, Clément Michelin, Thomas Martzel, Vaneck Djou'ou Mvondo, Véronique Bulach, Manabu Abe, Norbert Hoffmann
The photochemically induced intramolecular hydrogen abstraction or hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) in cyclic imines 8a,b followed by a cyclization is investigated. Two types of products are observed, one resulting from the formation of a C-C bond, the other from the formation of a C-N bond. A computational study reveals that hydrogen is exclusively transferred to the imine nitrogen leading to a triplet diradical intermediate. After intersystem crossing the zwitterionic intermediate undergoes cyclization leading to the final product...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334187/surveying-the-landscape-of-optogenetic-methods-for-detection-of-protein-protein-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Matthew D Wiens, Robert E Campbell
Mapping the protein-protein interaction (PPi) landscape is of critical importance to furthering our understanding how cells and organisms function. Optogenetic methods, that is, approaches that utilize genetically encoded fluorophores or fluorogenic enzyme reactions, uniquely enable the visualization of biochemical phenomena in live cells with high spatial and temporal accuracy. Applying optogenetic methods to the detection of PPis requires the engineering of protein-based systems in which an optical signal undergoes a substantial change when the two proteins of interest interact...
January 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334156/the-retinal-ganglion-cell-layer-predicts-normal-appearing-white-matter-tract-integrity-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-optical-coherence-tomography-approach
#17
Carolina Alves, Sónia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Lívia Sousa, Luís Cunha, Rui Bernardes, Miguel Castelo-Branco
We investigated the relationship between retinal layers and normal-appearing white matter (WM) integrity in the brain of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), using a combined diffusion tensor imaging and high resolution optical coherence tomography approach. Fifty patients and 62 controls were recruited. The patients were divided into two groups according to presence (n = 18) or absence (n = 32) of optic neuritis. Diffusion tensor data were analyzed with a voxel-wise whole brain analysis of diffusion metrics in WM with tract-based spatial statistics...
January 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334144/acute-gastrointestinal-bleeding-from-appendiceal-diverticulitis-diagnosed-preoperatively-by-combined-short-interval-computed-tomography-and-colonoscopy-a-case-report
#18
Yutaro Ogawa, Naoki Asayama, Shinji Nagata
Colonic diverticular bleeding is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding1,2 . Appendiceal diverticulosis is an uncommon clinical entity, with an incidence of 0.004%-2% in surgical pathologic specimens3,4 . Appendiceal diverticulitis in symptomatic patients should be treated with early resection, because of the risk of perforation and peritonitis; the rate of perforation is higher in appendicitis (27%) with diverticulosis than in appendicitis alone (6.6%)5 . Untreated appendiceal diverticulitis can also lead to massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage and abscess formation, and has a potential role in the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei...
January 15, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334137/calcium-phosphate-precipitation-in-experimental-gaps-between-fluoride-containing-fast-setting-calcium-silicate-cement-and-dentin
#19
Bahram Ranjkesh, Ming Ding, Michel Dalstra, Jens R Nyengaard, Jacques Chevallier, Flemming Isidor, Henrik Løvschall
A novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement containing fluoride (novel-CSC) has been developed for applications in tooth crowns. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the novel-CSC to close the experimental gaps at the dentin-cement interface. The novel-CSC was tested against Vitrebond and GC Fuji II LC. Experimental gaps of 50 or 300 μm width were created between the materials and dentin. Specimens with the 300-μm-wide gap were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline and the closed gap area was measured during 96 h...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334127/non-enzymatic-cross-linking-of-collagen-type-ii-fibrils-is-tuned-via-osmolality-switch
#20
Behdad Pouran, Parisa R Moshtagh, Vahid Arbabi, Jessica Snabel, Reinout Stoop, Jeffrey Ruberti, Jos Malda, Amir A Zadpoor, Harrie Weinans
An important aspect in cartilage ageing is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) after exposure to sugars. Advanced glycation results in crosslinks formation between the collagen fibrils in articular cartilage, hampering their flexibility and making cartilage more brittle. In the current study, we investigate whether collagen crosslinking after exposure to sugars depends on the stretching condition of the collagen fibrils. Healthy equine cartilage specimens were exposed to L-threose sugar and placed in hypo-, iso- or hyper-osmolal conditions that expanded or shrank the tissue and changed the 3D conformation of collagen fibrils...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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