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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437941/effect-of-scattering-on-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-cars-signals
#1
Janaka C Ranasinghesagara, Giuseppe De Vito, Vincenzo Piazza, Eric O Potma, Vasan Venugopalan
We develop a computational framework to examine the factors responsible for scattering-induced distortions of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals in turbid samples. We apply the Huygens-Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method combined with the radiating dipole approximation to compute the effects of scattering-induced distortions of focal excitation fields on the far-field CARS signal. We analyze the effect of spherical scatterers, placed in the vicinity of the focal volume, on the CARS signal emitted by different objects (2μm diameter solid sphere, 2μm diameter myelin cylinder and 2μm diameter myelin tube)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437939/exploiting-high-order-phase-shift-keying-modulation-and-direct-detection-in-silicon-photonic-systems
#2
Jie You, Nicolae C Panoiu
A computational approach to evaluate the bit-error ratio (BER) in silicon photonic systems employing high-order phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation formats is presented. Specifically, the investigated systems contain a silicon based optical interconnect, namely a strip silicon photonic waveguide or a silicon photonic crystal waveguide, and direct-detection receivers suitable to detect PSK and amplitude-shaped PSK signals. The superposition of a PSK signal and complex additive white Gaussian noise passes through the optical interconnect and subsequently through two detection-branch receivers...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437900/model-and-reconstruction-of-a-k-edge-contrast-agent-distribution-with-an-x-ray-photon-counting-detector
#3
Bo Meng, Wenxiang Cong, Yan Xi, Bruno De Man, Jian Yang, Ge Wang
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) helps enhance the visibility for tumor imaging. When a high-Z contrast agent interacts with X-rays across its K-edge, X-ray photoelectric absorption would experience a sudden increment, resulting in a significant difference of the X-ray transmission intensity between the left and right energy windows of the K-edge. Using photon-counting detectors, the X-ray intensity data in the left and right windows of the K-edge can be measured simultaneously. The differential information of the two kinds of intensity data reflects the contrast-agent concentration distribution...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437735/detective-quantum-efficiency-dqe-in-pet-scanners-a-simulation-study
#4
George E Karpetas, Christos M Michail, George P Fountos, Nektarios I Kalyvas, Ioannis G Valais, Ioannis S Kandarakis, George S Panayiotakis
The aim of the present study is to introduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the image quality assessment of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. For this purpose, a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source was simulated using a previously validated, scanner and source geometry, Monte Carlo (MC) model. The model was developed with the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR), with cluster computing...
April 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437685/rapid-label-free-identification-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-antibiotic-resistant-strains-by-the-drop-coating-deposition-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-method
#5
Youjin Cheong, Young Jin Kim, Heeyoon Kang, Samjin Choi, Hee Joo Lee
Although many methodologies have been developed to identify unknown bacteria, bacterial identification in clinical microbiology remains a complex and time-consuming procedure. To address this problem, we developed a label-free method for rapidly identifying clinically relevant multilocus sequencing typing-verified quinolone-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. We also applied the method to identify three strains from colony samples, ATCC70063 (control), ST11 and ST15; these are the prevalent quinolone-resistant K...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437676/superior-inferior-position-of-patellar-component-affects-patellofemoral-kinematics-and-contact-forces-in-computer-simulation
#6
Shinichiro Nakamura, Yoshihisa Tanaka, Shinichi Kuriyama, Kohei Nishitani, Hiromu Ito, Moritoshi Furu, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Anterior knee pain has been reported as a major postoperative complication after total knee arthroplasty, which may lead to patient dissatisfaction. Rotational alignment and the medial-lateral position correlate with patellar maltracking, which can cause knee pain postoperatively. However, the superior-inferior position of the patellar component has not been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the patellar superior-inferior position on patellofemoral kinematics and kinetics...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437672/eosinophilic-funiculitis-initially-diagnosed-as-irreducible-inguinal-hernia-a-case-report
#7
Kohei Yamada, Akashi Ikubo, Shota Ikeda, Satoko Koga, Yasuhiro Tsuru, Hideo Kuroki, Naohiko Koya, Ryuichiro Samejima, Masashi Sakai, Masanobu Tabuchi, Seiji Yunotani, Shinichi Kido, Kazushige Nishimura, Hiroyuki Meiri
BACKGROUND: Most groin masses are first suspected to be groin hernias. More than 80% of bulging groin lesions are reportedly diagnosed as hernias by ultrasonography. Establishment of the correct diagnosis of hernia among all differential diagnoses is not easy. We herein describe a very rare case of groin eosinophilic funiculitis that presented as an irreducible groin hernia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man presented to our hospital with suspicion of a right groin hernia...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437618/state-of-the-art-calculations-of-sublimation-enthalpies-for-selected-molecular-crystals-and-their-computational-uncertainty
#8
Ctirad Červinka, Michal Fulem
A computational methodology for calculation of sublimation enthalpies of molecular crystals from first principles is developed and validated by comparison to critically evaluated literature experimental data. Temperature dependent sublimation enthalpies for a set of selected 22 molecular crystals in their low-temperature phases are calculated. The computational methodology consists in several building blocks based on high level electronic structure methods of quantum chemistry and statistical thermodynamics...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437615/experimental-demonstration-of-feature-extraction-and-dimensionality-reduction-using-memristor-networks
#9
Shinhyun Choi, Jong Hoon Shin, Jihang Lee, Patrick Sheridan, Wei D Lu
Memristors have been considered as a leading candidate for a number of critical applications ranging from non-volatile memory to non-Von Neumann computing systems. Feature extraction, which aims to transform input data from a high dimensional space to a space with fewer dimensions, is an important technique widely used in machine learning and pattern recognition applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that memristor arrays can be used to perform principal component analysis (PCA), one of the most commonly-used feature extraction techniques, through online, unsupervised learning...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437575/the-24-segment-sphericity-index-a-new-technique-to-evaluate-fetal-cardiac-diastolic-shape
#10
Greggory R DeVore, Berthold Klas, Gary Satou, Mark Sklansky
INTRODUCTION: Because of parallel circulation in the fetus and the differential effect various disease states may have on the shape of the right and left ventricles, this study was conducted to evaluate the Sphericity Index (SI) of 24 transverse segments distributed from the base to the apex of the ventricular chambers. METHODS: Two hundred control fetuses were examined between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The displacement of the ventricular endocardium during the cardiac cycle was computed using offline software...
April 24, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437561/semiparametric-probit-models-with-univariate-and-bivariate-current-status-data
#11
Hao Liu, Jing Qin
Multivariate current-status data are frequently encountered in biomedical and public health studies. Semiparametric regression models have been extensively studied for univariate current-status data, but most existing estimation procedures are computationally intensive, involving either penalization or smoothing techniques. It becomes more challenging for the analysis of multivariate current-status data. In this article, we study the maximum likelihood estimations for univariate and bivariate current-status data under the semiparametric probit regression models...
April 24, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437548/arthroscopic-treatment-of-a-displaced-nonunion-of-the-anterior-inferior-iliac-spine-causing-extra-articular-impingement
#12
Motoi Shibahara, Yasuo Ohnishi, Eisaburo Honda, Dean K Matsuda, Soshi Uchida
This report describes a case of nonunion of an anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) apophyseal avulsion fracture with resultant subspine impingement combined with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). A 16-year-old male soccer player presented with a 6-month history of right groin pain exacerbated by kicking and running. The patient was diagnosed with a displaced nonunion of the AIIS apophysis avulsion fracture causing secondary extra-articular impingement beyond cam-type FAI by physical examination and radiological findings...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437516/a-rare-case-of-misdiagnosed-silent-lung-cancer-with-solitary-metastasis-to-the-temporomandibular-joint-condyle
#13
Luca Guarda-Nardini, Edoardo Stellini, Adolfo Di Fiore, Daniele Manfredini
This article describes the case history of a 59-year-old female patient who sought advice for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and sounds but who was actually diagnosed with a primary lung cancer with metastasis to the TMJ. The patient had a history of TMJ pain and deflection in jaw movement that progressively worsened over a few months and did not improve with the usual standard of care treatment provided by an orofacial pain practitioner. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) prescribed at a tertiary clinic showed an osteolytic bone mass within the right TMJ condyle...
April 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437496/novel-solution-for-massive-glenoid-defects-in-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-patient-specific-glenoid-vault-reconstruction-system
#14
David M Dines, Lawrence Gulotta, Edward V Craig, Joshua S Dines
Complex glenoid deformities present the most difficult challenges in shoulder arthroplasty. These deformities may be caused by severe degenerative or congenital deformity, posttraumatic anatomy, tumor, or, in most cases, bone loss after glenoid failure in anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods of treating severe bone loss have included inlay and onlay bone-graft options with augmented fixation and, in severe cases, salvage hemiarthroplasty with limited goal expectations. Unfortunately, none of these methods has provided consistently satisfactory reproducible results...
March 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437460/an-aggregation-removal-model-for-the-formation-and-size-determination-of-post-synaptic-scaffold-domains
#15
Jonas Ranft, Leandro G Almeida, Pamela C Rodriguez, Antoine Triller, Vincent Hakim
The formation and stability of synapses are key questions in neuroscience. Post-synaptic domains have been classically conceived as resulting from local insertion and turnover of proteins at the synapse. However, insertion is likely to occur outside the post-synaptic domains and advances in single-molecule imaging have shown that proteins diffuse in the plane of the membrane prior to their accumulation at synapses. We quantitatively investigated this scenario using computer simulations and mathematical analysis, taking for definiteness the specific case of inhibitory synapse components, i...
April 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437450/esprit-forest-parallel-clustering-of-massive-amplicon-sequence-data-in-subquadratic-time
#16
Yunpeng Cai, Wei Zheng, Jin Yao, Yujie Yang, Volker Mai, Qi Mao, Yijun Sun
The rapid development of sequencing technology has led to an explosive accumulation of genomic sequence data. Clustering is often the first step to perform in sequence analy- sis, and hierarchical clustering is one of the most commonly used approaches for this purpose. However, it is currently computationally expensive to perform hierarchical clustering of extremely large sequence datasets due to its quadratic time and space complexities. In this paper we developed a new algorithm called ESPRIT-Forest for parallel hierarchical clustering of sequences...
April 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437443/relative-predictive-value-of-lung-cancer-screening-ct-versus-myocardial-perfusion-attenuation-correction-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-coronary-calcium
#17
Grant Bailey, Abigail Healy, Bryan D Young, Esseim Sharma, Judith Meadows, Hyung J Chun, Wen-Chih Wu, Gaurav Choudhary, Alan R Morrison
Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) from lung cancer screening computed tomography (LCSCT) or myocardial perfusion attenuation correction computed tomography (ACCT) are not routinely performed or reported. CACS from LCSCT and ACCT have not been directly compared in the same patient population. We identified 66 patients who underwent both LCSCT (non-gated) and ECG-gated cardiac CT (CCT) within a 2-year span. Of this population, 40 subjects had also undergone ACCT. Using the Agatston method, CACS for 264 individual vessels from the LCSCT population and for 160 vessels from ACCT population were calculated and evaluated for agreement with ECG-gated CCT as the gold standard...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437426/representational-models-a-common-framework-for-understanding-encoding-pattern-component-and-representational-similarity-analysis
#18
Jörn Diedrichsen, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Representational models specify how activity patterns in populations of neurons (or, more generally, in multivariate brain-activity measurements) relate to sensory stimuli, motor responses, or cognitive processes. In an experimental context, representational models can be defined as hypotheses about the distribution of activity profiles across experimental conditions. Currently, three different methods are being used to test such hypotheses: encoding analysis, pattern component modeling (PCM), and representational similarity analysis (RSA)...
April 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437362/sonotubometric-assessment-for-severity-of-patulous-eustachian-tube
#19
Iori Takata, Ryoukichi Ikeda, Tetsuaki Kawase, Yoko Suzuki, Takeshi Sato, Yukio Katori, Toshimitsu Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the morphological patency of the eustachian tube (ET) and sound transmission via the ET. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review and model experiment. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS: A total of 56 ears of 28 patients (9 men and 19 women, aged from 12 to 82 yr, mean 40.4 ± 21.5 yr) who underwent sonotubometric measurement using postural change as well as computed tomography (CT) of the ET in the sitting position, including 26 ears with definite patulous ET, 9 ears with possible patulous ET, and 21 ears without patulous ET...
April 21, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437349/a-new-navigational-tool-for-pedicle-screw-placement-in-patients-with-severe-scoliosis-a-pilot-study-to-prove-feasibility-accuracy-and-identify-operative-challenges
#20
Michael Putzier, Patrick Strube, Riccardo Cecchinato, Claudio Lamartina, Eike K Hoff
STUDY DESIGN: Pilot study. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate the feasibility and accuracy of a newly designed navigational spinal instrument guiding tool for patient-matched thoracic and lumbar pedicle screw placement in patients with severe scoliosis, and to identify intraoperative challenges that may be relevant. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screw placement is challenging in severely rotated scoliotic spine with small diameters and asymmetrical shape of the pedicles and vertebrae...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
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