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Smoking and Atherosclerosis: Mechanisms of Disease and New Therapeutic Approaches

Gerasimos Siasos, Vasiliki Tsigkou, Eleni Kokkou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Alexis Verveniotis, Maria Limperi, Vasiliki Genimata, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Dimitris Tousoulis
It has been clear that at least 1 billion adults worldwide are smokers and at least 700 million children are passive smokers at home. Smoking exerts a detrimental effect to many organ systems and is responsible for illnesses such as lung cancer, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer of head and neck, cancer of the urinary and gastrointestinal tract, periodontal disease, cataract and arthritis. Additionally, smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, stable angina, acute coronary syndromes, sudden death, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, erectile dysfunction and aortic aneurysms via initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
2014: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Mark A Babizhayev, Anne Kasus-Jacobi, Khava S Vishnyakova, Yegor E Yegorov
Telomere length is emerging as a biomarker for aging and survival is paternally inherited and associated with parental lifespan. Telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, including an increase in cancer incidence, wrinkling and diminished skin elasticity, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, weight loss, age-related cataract, glaucoma and others. Shorter telomere length in leukocytes was associated cross-sectionally with cardiovascular disorders and its risk factors, including pulse pressure and vascular aging, obesity, vascular dementia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (although not in all studies), cellular turnover and exposure to oxidative and inflammatory damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
2014: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
D Dobarro, M C Gómez-Rubín, A Sanchez-Recalde, R Moreno, G Galeote, S Jimenez-Valero, L Calvo, E López de Sá, J L López-Sendón
Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. It has been linked to each of the known atherogenic risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cigarette smoking, menopause, etc. A number of recent studies have shown that the severity of endothelial dysfunction correlates with the development of coronary artery disease and predicts future cardiovascular events. Therefore, these findings strengthen the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction may be an early stage of coronary atherosclerosis...
July 2009: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
P-A Ureña Torres
Extrarenal calcifications, particularly affecting the cardiovascular system, are common observations which can be a source of serious complications in patients with chronic renal disease, especially those on dialysis. In these patients, cardiovascular disease - myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, calcified valvulopathy, stroke, peripheral ischemic arteriopathy, calciphylaxy, etc. - is the leading cause of death (more than 50%). These complications are closely related to the presence of vascular calcifications (VC) which are much more frequent, severe, and progressive than in the general population...
May 2009: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
Michael T Gewaltig, Georg Kojda
Endothelial production of nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO) has become a major research area in vascular biology. Some of the most important effects that NO exerts in the vascular wall are potentially vasoprotective, because these effects maintain important physiological functions such as vasodilation, anticoagulation, leucocyte adhesion, smooth muscle proliferation, and the antioxidative capacity. During the last 2 decades it has become apparent that a variety of diseases are associated with an impairment of endothelium-dependent NO activity...
August 1, 2002: Cardiovascular Research
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