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Diet and weight loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737568/systematic-review-nutrition-and-physical-activity-in-the-management-of-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Philippa S Gibson, Sarah Lang, Anil Dhawan, Emer Fitzpatrick, Michelle L Blumfield, Helen Truby, Kathryn H Hart, J Bernadette Moore
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of nutrition and physical activity interventions in the clinical management of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease continues to rise alongside childhood obesity. Weight loss through lifestyle modification is currently first-line treatment, although supplementation of specific dietary components may be beneficial. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials assessing nutritional and physical activity interventions...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733520/the-ketogenic-diet-is-not-feasible-as-a-therapy-in-a-cd-1-nu-nu-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-features-of-stauffer-s-syndrome
#2
Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Renaud Vatrinet, Andreas Koller, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Bridget Lambert, Thomas Klaus Felder, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of certain types of tumors such as brain tumors and neuroblastoma. These tumors are characterized by the Warburg effect. Because renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents similar energetic features as neuroblastoma, KD might also be effective in the treatment of RCC. To test this, we established xenografts with RCC 786-O cells in CD-1 nu/nu mice and then randomized them to a control diet or to KDs with different triglyceride contents...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728364/growth-rate-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-of-growing-lambs-fed-buckwheat-or-maize-silage
#3
Gurhan Keles, Veli Kocaman, Ahmet Onder Ustundag, Asli Zungur, Mursel Ozdogan
Objective: This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods: Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter (DM)) harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM). A total of 18 growing lambs were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR) for 75 d that either contains buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727247/acceptability-of-a-very-low-energy-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-patient-experiences-and-behaviour-regulation
#4
L Rehackova, V Araújo-Soares, A J Adamson, S Steven, R Taylor, F F Sniehotta
AIMS: To evaluate the acceptability of an 8-week very-low-energy diet for remission of Type 2 diabetes, and to identify the barriers and facilitators of adherence and the behavioural strategies used by participants of the Counterbalance study. METHODS: Eighteen of the 30 participants in the Counterbalance study (ISRCTN88634530) took part in semi-structured interviews. Of these, 15 participants were interviewed before and after the 8-week very-low-energy diet intervention...
July 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727059/dynamics-of-nitrogen-retention-at-two-feeding-levels-in-gestating-parity-2-and-3-sows
#5
E G Miller, C L Levesque, N L Trottier, C F M de Lange
Parity-2 ( = 39) and -3 ( = 28; same sows from parity-2 sows) Yorkshire sows were used to measure whole body protein deposition (Pd) during gestation (maternal and pregnancy-associated) at 2 feeding levels to test the hypothesis that the pattern of whole body and maternal Pd during gestation does not differ when feeding either 15% above or 15% below estimated ME requirements, both exceeding AA requirements. Initial BW and backfat (BF) at d 26 ± 0.3 of gestation were 195.4 ± 5.2 kg and 15.1 ± 0.5 mm, and 223...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726110/supplementation-of-selenium-vitamin-e-chromium-and-betaine-above-recommended-levels-improves-lactating-performance-of-sows-over-summer
#6
Fan Liu, Jeremy James Cottrell, Cherie Louise Collins, David James Henman, Kirrily Sharon Beatrice O'Halloran, Frank Rowland Dunshea
Heat stress (HS) exacerbates the body weight loss of lactating sows and reduces litter weight gain. Selenium (Se), vitamin E (VE), chromium (Cr) and betaine have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of HS, and yeast nucleotides and mannan oligosaccharides have been reported to improve lactational performance and immune response in pigs. Therefore, a combination of these nutrients may improve lactational performance of sows in summer. The effects of two nutritionally enhanced diets on lactational performance of sows in summer were investigated in two experiments...
July 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725310/refractory-celiac-disease-successfully-treated-with-azathioprine
#7
Umair Iqbal, Ahmad Chaudhary, Muhammad Arsalan Karim, Hafsa Anwar, Nancy Merrell
Refractory celiac disease (CD) is a clinical diagnosis defined by the persistence of signs/symptoms, laboratory abnormalities or villous atrophy typical of CD despite strict adherence to a gluten-free diet for at least 6 - 12 months. It should be suspected when patients with CD fail to respond primarily or secondarily to a gluten-free diet, especially if there is significant weight loss. Differentiation between types is important both for management and predicting prognosis. Type I can be managed with mild immunosuppression with nutritional support...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724854/improvement-of-pulmonary-function-after-comprehensive-obesity-rehabilitation-program-in-obese-patients
#8
Tamao Takahashi, Satoru Ebihara, Masahiro Kohzuki
Obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular, osteoarthritis, metabolic and pulmonary disorders, and exercise is an efficient method for treating obesity. However, obese patients often complain of dyspnea on exertion, which makes it difficult to continue exercise program. Obesity is also known to have an adverse effect on pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive obesity rehabilitation (COR) program on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with morbid obesity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#9
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723705/dietary-guidelines-in-type-2-diabetes-the-nordic-diet-or-the-ketogenic-diet
#10
Ola K Magnusdottir, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Bryndís E Birgisdóttir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent developments in research regarding nutrition therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a focus on the different approaches of the Nordic diet and the ketogenic diet. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent short-term studies have revealed that similar beneficial outcomes are seen after different dietary treatments for T2DM, with different approaches resulting in comparable weight loss and impacts on metabolic factors. SUMMARY: More individualized approaches in nutrition therapy should be considered for T2DM patients and clinical guidelines should reflect this...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719494/hockey-fans-in-training-a-pilot-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Robert J Petrella, Dawn P Gill, Guangyong Zou, Ashleigh De Cruz, Brendan Riggin, Cassandra Bartol, Karen Danylchuk, Kate Hunt, Sally Wyke, Cindy M Gray, Christopher Bunn, Merrick Zwarenstein
INTRODUCTION: Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program. We investigated: 1) feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight and obese men into a pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial; and 2) potential for Hockey FIT to lead to weight loss and improvements in other outcomes at 12 weeks and 12 months. METHODS: Male fans of 2 ice hockey teams (35-65 years; body-mass index ≥28 kg/m) located in Ontario (Canada) were randomized to intervention (Hockey FIT) or comparator (Wait-list Control)...
July 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716404/partial-jejunal-diversion-using-an-incisionless-magnetic-anastomosis-system-1-year-interim-results-in-subjects-with-obesity-and-diabetes
#12
Evžen Machytka, Marek Bužga, Pavel Zonca, David B Lautz, Marvin Ryou, Donald C Simonson, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have obesity. Studies show that bariatric surgery is superior to medical treatment for remission of T2DM. Nevertheless, very few patients undergo surgery, and a less-invasive endoscopic alternative is desirable. METHODS: This was a single-arm first-in-human pilot study, designed to evaluate the technical feasibility, safety, and clinical performance of the incisionless magnetic anastomosis system (IMAS) in creation of a partial jejunal diversion (PJD)...
July 14, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713583/effects-of-supervised-and-unsupervised-physical-activity-programmes-for-weight-loss
#13
S A Creasy, R J Rogers, K K Davis, B B Gibbs, E E Kershaw, J M Jakicic
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is important for weight management. However, it remains unclear what type of physical activity prescription/programme is optimal for increasing physical activity during a standard behavioural weight loss intervention. This study examined changes in physical activity after a 12-week supervised programme prescribed in minutes per week (SUP-PA), an unsupervised programme prescribed in minutes per week (UNSUP-PA) and an unsupervised programme prescribed in steps per day (STEP)...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711517/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Safa Anwar, Nigar Shikalgar
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age, associated with metabolic sequelae which includes increased risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The adverse effects of DM2 affects a woman throughout her lifespan. Health care expenditure of DM2 highlights the need for prevention through appropriate screening, diagnosis and intervention. Lifestyle modification (LSM) programs that include diet and/or physical activity are suggested for patients characterized as prediabetic to delay the onset of adult DM2...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710554/morphofunctional-changes-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-very-low-calorie-diet-in-an-animal-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Eider Talavera-Urquijo, Sarai Rodríguez-Navarro, Marc Beisani, Maria Teresa Salcedo-Allende, Aisha Chakkur, Marc Arús-Avilés, Manel Cremades, Salvador Augustin, María Martell, José M Balibrea
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease and is found in 70% of obese people. The evidence available to date suggests that bariatric surgery could be an effective treatment by reducing weight and also by improving metabolic complications in the long term. This work aimed to compare, in a diet-induced NAFLD animal model, the effect of both sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and very-low calorie diet (VLCD). METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into control rats (n = 7) and obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
July 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710347/effects-of-lipoic-acid-on-high-fat-diet-induced-alteration-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-brain-glucose-metabolism-a-pet-ct-and-13-c-nmr-study
#16
Zhigang Liu, Ishan Patil, Harsh Sancheti, Fei Yin, Enrique Cadenas
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is accompanied by insulin resistance and compromised brain synaptic plasticity through the impairment of insulin-sensitive pathways regulating neuronal survival, learning, and memory. Lipoic acid is known to modulate the redox status of the cell and has insulin mimetic effects. This study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary administration of lipoic acid on a HFD-induced obesity model in terms of (a) insulin signaling, (b) brain glucose uptake and neuronal- and astrocytic metabolism, and (c) synaptic plasticity...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710205/effect-of-interdisciplinary-care-on-weight-loss-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Linda C Tapsell, Maureen Lonergan, Marijka J Batterham, Elizabeth P Neale, Allison Martin, Rebecca Thorne, Frank Deane, Gregory Peoples
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a novel interdisciplinary treatment compared with usual care on weight loss in overweight and obese adult volunteers. DESIGN: Single blinded controlled trial. Participants randomly assigned to usual care (C, general guideline-based diet and exercise advice), intervention (I, interdisciplinary protocol) or intervention + a healthy food supplement (30 g walnuts/day) (IW). SETTING: Community based study, Illawarra region, south of Sydney, Australia...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708478/diabetes-with-obesity-is-there-an-ideal-diet
#18
REVIEW
Zahrae Sandouk, M Cecilia Lansang
For individuals who are overweight or obese, weight loss is effective in preventing and improving the management of type 2 diabetes. Together with other lifestyle factors like exercise and behavior modification, diet plays a central role in achieving weight loss. Diets vary based on the type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein consumed to meet daily caloric intake goals. A number of popular diets are reviewed as well as studies evaluating the effect of various diets on weight loss, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708086/celiac-disease-presenting-with-peripheral-neuropathy-in-children-a-case-report
#19
Alessandra Pacitto, Alessandra Paglino, Lorenza Di Genova, Alberto Leonardi, Edoardo Farinelli, Nicola Principi, Giuseppe di Cara, Susanna Esposito
Background: Clinically relevant neurological manifestations in children with celiac disease (CD) are unusual, especially when they are considered as signs of the onset of the disease. In this paper, a case of Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) as the first manifestation of CD in a 23-month-old child is reported. Case presentation: We describe a case of CD onset with peripheral neuropathy in a 23-month-old Bulgarian boy presenting with a sudden refusal to walk and absence of deep tendon reflexes in both lower limbs...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707359/the-feasibility-of-using-pedometers-for-self-report-of-steps-and-accelerometers-for-measuring-physical-activity-in-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-across-an-18-month-intervention
#20
L T Ptomey, E A Willis, J Lee, R A Washburn, C A Gibson, J J Honas, J E Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Improving physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) is recommended to improve weight loss and general health. However, in order to determine the success of physical activity interventions, identification of feasible methods for assessment of physical activities is necessary. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of adults with IDD to track daily steps and wear an accelerometer. METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD followed a diet and physical activity program for 18 months...
August 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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