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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806408/microbiota-of-little-penguins-and-short-tailed-shearwaters-during-development
#1
Meagan L Dewar, John P Y Arnould, Theo R Allnutt, Tamsyn Crowley, Lutz Krause, John Reynolds, Peter Dann, Stuart C Smith
The establishment and early colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been recognised as a crucial stage in chick development, with pioneering microbial species responsible for influencing the development of the GI tract and influencing host health, fitness and disease status throughout life. Development of the microbiota in long lived seabirds is poorly understood. This study characterised the microbial composition of little penguin and short-tailed shearwater chicks throughout development, using Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797592/occurrence-of-anisakis-nematoda-anisakidae-larvae-in-unusual-hosts-in-southern-hemisphere
#2
Shokoofeh Shamsi, Marine J Briand, Jean-Lou Justine
Nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis are important parasites due to their abundance in seafood and health impacts on humans. In the present study Anisakis larvae were found in a number of uncommon hosts including the Grey petrel, Procellaria cinerea, the Little penguin, Eudyptula minor, Blue-lipped sea krait, Laticauda laticaudata and Spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna. Morphological examination showed nematodes in these animals are Anisakis larval type I. Genetic characterisation suggested that the larva from one Grey petrel was Anisakis berlandi, whereas the other larvae from the second Grey petrel and from the little penguin were Anisakis pegreffii...
August 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794274/stable-isotope-analyses-of-feather-amino-acids-identify-penguin-migration-strategies-at-ocean-basin-scales
#3
Michael J Polito, Jefferson T Hinke, Tom Hart, Mercedes Santos, Leah A Houghton, Simon R Thorrold
Identifying the at-sea distribution of wide-ranging marine predators is critical to understanding their ecology. Advances in electronic tracking devices and intrinsic biogeochemical markers have greatly improved our ability to track animal movements on ocean-wide scales. Here, we show that, in combination with direct tracking, stable carbon isotope analysis of essential amino acids in tail feathers provides the ability to track the movement patterns of two, wide-ranging penguin species over ocean basin scales...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767330/listening-to-prozac-by-peter-d-kramer-ordinarily-well-the-case-for-antidepressants-by-peter-d-kramernew-york-ny-penguin-books-1993-338-pages-isbn-13-978-0-14-026671-9-18-00-paperback-new-york-ny-farrar-straus-and-giroux-2016-241-pages-isbn-13-978-0-37-428067
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749255/pharmacokinetics-of-orally-administered-voriconazole-in-african-penguins-spheniscus-demersus-after-single-and-multiple-doses
#5
Michael W Hyatt, Nathan P Wiederhold, William W Hope, Katharine E Stott
Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Single and once daily multiple oral doses of 5 mg/kg voriconazole were evaluated with a 4-mo washout period between trials...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738733/cases-of-mortality-in-little-penguins-eudyptula-minor-in-new-zealand-associated-with-avian-malaria
#6
D C Sijbranda, S Hunter, L Howe, B Lenting, L Argilla, B D Gartrell
CASE HISTORY A little penguin (Eudyptula minor) of wild origin, in captivity at Wellington Zoo, became inappetent and lethargic in March 2013. Despite supportive care in the zoo's wildlife hospital, the bird died within 24 hours. CLINICAL FINDINGS Weight loss, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, weakness, increased respiratory effort and biliverdinuria were apparent on physical examination. Microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed intra-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. and a regenerative reticulocytosis in the absence of anaemia...
August 6, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738555/assessment-of-mercury-speciation-in-feathers-using-species-specific-isotope-dilution-analysis
#7
Marina Renedo, Paco Bustamante, Emmanuel Tessier, Zoyne Pedrero, Yves Cherel, David Amouroux
Seabirds are considered as effective sentinels of environmental marine contamination and their feathers are extensively used as non-lethal samples for contaminant biomonitoring. This tissue represents the main route for mercury (Hg) elimination in seabirds and contains predominantly methylmercury (MeHg). In this work, we developed a robust analytical technique for precise and accurate simultaneous quantification of MeHg, inorganic Hg (iHg) and consequently total Hg (THg), in feathers by gas-chromatography (GC)-ICPMS analyses using species-specific isotope dilution technique...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732330/legacy-persistent-organic-pollutants-including-pbdes-in-the-trophic-web-of-the-ross-sea-antarctica
#8
Simonetta Corsolini, Nicoletta Ademollo, Tania Martellini, Demetrio Randazzo, Marino Vacchi, Alessandra Cincinelli
The ecological features of the Ross Sea trophic web are peculiar and different from other polar food webs, with respect to the use of habitat and species interactions; due to its ecosystem integrity, it is the world's largest Marine Protected Area, established in 2016. Polar organisms are reported to bioaccumulate lipophilic contaminant, viz persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Legacy POPs and flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) were studied in key species of the Ross Sea (Euphausia superba, Pleuragramma antarctica) and their predators (Dissostichus mawsoni, Pygoscelis adeliae, Aptenodytes forsteri, Catharacta maccormicki, Leptonychotes weddellii)...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725416/contrasting-patterns-of-selection-between-mhc-i-and-ii-across-populations-of-humboldt-and-magellanic-penguins
#9
Nicole Sallaberry-Pincheira, Daniel González-Acuña, Pamela Padilla, Gisele P M Dantas, Guillermo Luna-Jorquera, Esteban Frere, Armando Valdés-Velásquez, Juliana A Vianna
The evolutionary and adaptive potential of populations or species facing an emerging infectious disease depends on their genetic diversity in genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In birds, MHC class I deals predominantly with intracellular infections (e.g., viruses) and MHC class II with extracellular infections (e.g., bacteria). Therefore, patterns of MHC I and II diversity may differ between species and across populations of species depending on the relative effect of local and global environmental selective pressures, genetic drift, and gene flow...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724705/apparent-changes-in-body-insulation-of-juvenile-king-penguins-suggest-an-energetic-challenge-during-their-early-life-at-sea
#10
Manfred R Enstipp, Charles-André Bost, Céline Le Bohec, Caroline Bost, Yvon Le Maho, Henri Weimerskirch, Yves Handrich
Little is known about the early life at sea of marine top predators, like deep-diving king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), although this dispersal phase is probably a critical phase in their life. Apart from finding favourable foraging sites, they have to develop effective prey search patterns as well as physiological capacities that enable them to capture sufficient prey to meet their energetic needs. To investigate the ontogeny of their thermoregulatory responses at sea, we implanted 30 juvenile king penguins and 8 adult breeders with a small data logger that recorded pressure and subcutaneous temperature continuously for up to 2...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708488/sperm-structure-and-sperm-motility-of-the-african-and-rockhopper-penguins-with-special-reference-to-multiple-axonemes-of-the-flagellum
#11
Patrick Siyambulela Mafunda, Liana Maree, Antoinette Kotze, Gerhard van der Horst
This study evaluated the semen of two penguin species from separate genera with reference to unique features in sperm structure using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ejaculates from African penguin (n = 51) and Rockhopper penguin (n = 9) contained on average more than 60% motile spermatozoa and a sperm concentration of 3274 × 10(6)/ml and 1423 × 10(6)/ml, respectively. The percentage progressive motility was similar for the two species as well as all the kinematics parameters...
May 7, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694838/how-animals-distribute-themselves-in-space-variable-energy-landscapes
#12
Juan F Masello, Akiko Kato, Julia Sommerfeld, Thomas Mattern, Petra Quillfeldt
BACKGROUND: Foraging efficiency determines whether animals will be able to raise healthy broods, maintain their own condition, avoid predators and ultimately increase their fitness. Using accelerometers and GPS loggers, features of the habitat and the way animals deal with variable conditions can be translated into energetic costs of movement, which, in turn, can be translated to energy landscapes.We investigated energy landscapes in Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua from two colonies at New Island, Falkland/Malvinas Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692861/getting-to-the-elephants-gesture-and-preschoolers-comprehension-of-route-direction-information
#13
Elizabeth E Austin, Naomi Sweller
During early childhood, children find spatial tasks such as following novel route directions challenging. Spatial tasks place demands on multiple cognitive processes, including language comprehension and memory, at a time in development when resources are limited. As such, gestures accompanying route directions may aid comprehension and facilitate task performance by scaffolding cognitive processes, including language and memory processing. This study examined the effect of presenting gesture during encoding on spatial task performance during early childhood...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692132/plasma-protein-electrophoresis-as-a-prognostic-indicator-in-aspergillus-species-infected-gentoo-penguins-pygoscelis-papua-papua
#14
Adam D Naylor, Simon J Girling, Donna Brown, Claire G Crompton, Romain Pizzi
BACKGROUND: Avian aspergillosis presents a significant threat to captive penguin populations. Currently, a lack of objective prognostic factors limits disease staging, objective reassessment throughout treatment, comparative evaluation of treatment regimes, and appropriate timing of euthanasia. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate absolute and relative plasma protein fractions by agarose gel electrophoresis (EPH) as predictors of survival in Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua) under treatment for aspergillosis...
July 10, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664139/analysis-of-seven-animation-characters-in-pororo-the-little-penguin-with-sasang-typology
#15
Yeo-Jin Yoon, Bo Kyung Hwang, Soo Jin Lee, Jin Oh Lee, Han Chae
BACKGROUND: Animation characters are created to embody distinctive personalities and body images; however, these features have not been analyzed with objective measures based on East Asian theory. The purpose of this study was to analyze the biopsychological features of seven animation characters in Pororo the Little Penguin, which scored unprecedented success in Korea, with clinically validated and standardized measures of Sasang typology. METHODS: Forty-one graduate students completed a survey examining body mass index (BMI) and Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) of seven characters in Pororo the Little Penguin after watching three selected episodes...
June 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#16
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
September 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628443/novel-avulaviruses-in-penguins-antarctica
#17
Víctor Neira, Rodrigo Tapia, Claudio Verdugo, Gonzalo Barriga, Sunil Mor, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Victoria García, José Del Río, Pedro Rodrigues, Cristóbal Briceño, Rafael A Medina, Daniel González-Acuña
We identified 3 novel and distinct avulaviruses from Gentoo penguins sampled in Antarctica. We isolated these viruses and sequenced their complete genomes; serologic assays demonstrated that the viruses do not have cross-reactivity between them. Our findings suggest that these 3 new viruses represent members of 3 novel avulavirus species.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626619/african-penguins-follow-the-gaze-direction-of-conspecifics
#18
Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro
Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623225/high-peripheral-temperatures-in-king-penguins-while-resting-at-sea-thermoregulation-versus-fat-deposition
#19
Agnes Lewden, Manfred R Enstipp, Baptiste Picard, Tessa van Walsum, Yves Handrich
Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616186/at-sea-distribution-and-habitat-use-in-king-penguins-at-sub-antarctic-marion-island
#20
Pierre Pistorius, Mark Hindell, Robert Crawford, Azwianewi Makhado, Bruce Dyer, Ryan Reisinger
King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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