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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103531/characterization-of-transcriptome-and-identification-of-biomineralization-genes-in-winged-pearl-oyster-pteria-penguin-mantle-tissue
#1
Haimei Li, Baosuo Liu, Guiju Huang, Sigang Fan, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
The winged pearl oyster Pteria penguin is a commercially important marine pearl oyster species, with pearls that are quite different from those of other pearl oysters. Among such species, mantle tissue is the main organ responsible for shell and pearl formation, a biomineralization process that is regulated by a series of genes, most of which remain unknown. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of P. penguin mantle tissue using the HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 93,204 unique transcripts were assembled from 51,580,076 quality reads, with a mean length of 608bp, and 40,974 unigenes were annotated...
January 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091764/isolation-of-campylobacter-spp-from-three-species-of-antarctic-penguins-in-different-geographic-locations
#2
F J García-Peña, M T Llorente, T Serrano, M J Ruano, J Belliure, J Benzal, S Herrera-León, V Vidal, V D'Amico, D Pérez-Boto, A Barbosa
The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P...
January 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#3
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074343/interspecies-sexual-behaviour-between-a-male-japanese-macaque-and-female-sika-deer
#4
Marie Pelé, Alexandre Bonnefoy, Masaki Shimada, Cédric Sueur
Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal...
January 10, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073384/do-blood-parasites-infect-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus-in-the-wild-prospective-investigation-and-climatogeographic-considerations
#5
Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels, Marcela Uhart, Virginia Rago, Renata Hurtado, Sabrina Epiphanio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062221/extreme-intra-clutch-egg-size-dimorphism-is-not-coupled-with-corresponding-differences-in-antioxidant-capacity-and-stable-isotopes-between-eggs
#6
Maud Poisbleau, Michaël Beaulieu, Nina Dehnhard, Laurent Demongin, Gilles Lepoint, Nicolas Sturaro, Marcel Eens
Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during egg formation, can greatly affect the development and survival of the embryo and chick. In crested penguins, incubation starts after the second and last egg is laid and, as opposed to many other bird species, this egg hatches first, thereby enhancing the survival of the chick. Here, we assessed whether antioxidant and isotopic composition could underlie these differences between eggs within clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)...
January 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036249/a-novel-alphaherpesvirus-associated-with-fatal-diseases-in-banded-penguins
#7
Florian Pfaff, Christoph Schulze, Patricia König, Kati Franzke, Sabine Bock, Andreas Hlinak, Jens Kämmerling, Andreas Ochs, André Schüle, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer
A novel avian alphaherpesvirus, preliminarily designated as sphenicid alphaherpesvirus 1 (SpAHV-1) has been independently isolated from juvenile Humboldt and African penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and S. demersus) kept in German zoos suffering from diphtheroid oropharyngitis / laryngotracheitis and necrotizing enteritis (collectively designated as penguin-diphtheria-like disease). High-throughput sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequences of the first two SpAHV-1 isolates. SpAHV-1 comprises a class D genome with a length of about 164 kbp, a G+C content of 45...
December 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031274/escherichia-coli-carrying-incx4-plasmid-mediated-mcr-1-and-blactx-m-genes-in-infected-migratory-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus
#8
Fábio P Sellera, Miriam R Fernandes, Luciana Sartori, Marcelo P N Carvalho, Fernanda Esposito, Cristiane L Nascimento, Gustavo H P Dutra, Elsa M Mamizuka, Paula J Pérez-Chaparro, John A McCulloch, Nilton Lincopan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991828/enterococcus-species-diversity-in-fecal-samples-of-wild-marine-species-as-determined-by-real-time-pcr
#9
Aline Weber Medeiros, Derek Blaese Amorim, Maurício Tavares, Tiane Martin de Moura, Ana Claudia Franco, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo, Jeverson Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon
Analyses using culture-independent molecular techniques have improved our understanding of microbial composition. The aim of this work was to identify and quantify enterococci in fecal samples of wild marine species using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven Enterococcus species were examined in fecal DNA of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis), green turtles (Chelonia mydas), Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), snowy-crowned tern (Sterna trudeaui), white-backed stilt (Himantopus melanurus), white-chinned petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis), red knot (Calidris canutus), and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris)...
September 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991520/the-safety-limits-of-an-extended-fast-lessons-from-a-non-model-organism
#10
Fabrice Bertile, Laetitia Fouillen, Thierry Wasselin, Pauline Maes, Yvon Le Maho, Alain Van Dorsselaer, Thierry Raclot
While safety of fasting therapy is debated in humans, extended fasting occurs routinely and safely in wild animals. To do so, food deprived animals like breeding penguins anticipate the critical limit of fasting by resuming feeding. To date, however, no molecular indices of the physiological state that links spontaneous refeeding behaviour with fasting limits had been identified. Blood proteomics and physiological data reveal here that fasting-induced body protein depletion is not unsafe "per se". Indeed, incubating penguins only abandon their chick/egg to refeed when this state is associated with metabolic defects in glucose homeostasis/fatty acid utilization, insulin production and action, and possible renal dysfunctions...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990010/a-case-of-endoscopic-retrieval-of-a-long-bamboo-stick-from-a-humboldt-penguin-spheniscus-humboldti
#11
Woo-Sung Jung, Minho Ko, Hyun Kee Cho, Byung-Jae Kang, Jung Hoon Choi, Jin-Young Chung
An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977380/the-nurses-of-steeple-street-douglas-donna-the-nurses-of-steeple-street-432pp-%C3%A2-5-99-penguin-9780099599593-0099599597-formula-see-text
#12
(no author information available yet)
This new novel from the author of the Nightingale series does not disappoint.
December 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940333/marked-phylogeographic-structure-of-gentoo-penguin-reveals-an-ongoing-diversification-process-along-the-southern-ocean
#13
Juliana A Vianna, Daly Noll, Gisele P M Dantas, Maria Virginia Petry, Andrés Barbosa, Daniel González-Acuña, Céline Le Bohec, Francesco Bonadonna, Elie Poulin
Two main hypotheses have been debated about the biogeography of the Southern Ocean: (1) the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), acting as a barrier between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic provinces, and (2) the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), promoting gene flow among sub-Antarctic areas. The Gentoo penguin is distributed throughout these two provinces, separated by the APF. We analyzed mtDNA (HVR1) and 12 microsatellite loci of 264 Gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, from 12 colonies spanning from the Western Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands (WAP) to the sub-Antarctic Islands (SAI)...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938628/anthropogenic-antibiotic-resistance-genes-mobilization-to-the-polar-regions
#14
REVIEW
Jorge Hernández, Daniel González-Acuña
Anthropogenic influences in the southern polar region have been rare, but lately microorganisms associated with humans have reached Antarctica, possibly from military bases, fishing boats, scientific expeditions, and/or ship-borne tourism. Studies of seawater in areas of human intervention and proximal to fresh penguin feces revealed the presence of Escherichia coli strains least resistant to antibiotics in penguins, whereas E. coli from seawater elsewhere showed resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trim-sulfa...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928519/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-septic-ocular-surface-disease-in-different-animal-species
#15
L Leigue, F Montiani-Ferreira, B A Moore
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratocojnuctivits sicca and ulcerative keratitis. These isolates were tested against 11 different antimicrobials agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method...
2016: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919180/investigation-of-a-mortality-cluster-in-wild-adult-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-at-otago-peninsula-new-zealand
#16
Brett Gartrell, David Agnew, Maurice Alley, Tim Carpenter, Hye Jeong Ha, Laryssa Howe, Stuart Hunter, Kate McInnes, Rex Munday, Roe Wendi, Young Melanie
We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established...
December 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878069/both-natural-selection-and-isolation-by-distance-explain-phenotypic-divergence-in-bill-size-and-body-mass-between-south-australian-little-penguin-colonies
#17
Diane Colombelli-Négrel
Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by <150 km. To help understand patterns driving the differences, I investigated these variations in relation to environmental parameters (air temperature, sea surface temperature, and water depth) and geographic distances between the colonies...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859185/unravelling-the-relative-roles-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-forces-driving-population-change-in-an-oceanic-predator
#18
C Horswill, N Ratcliffe, J A Green, R A Phillips, P N Trathan, J Matthiopoulos
In the open ocean ecosystem, climate and anthropogenic changes have driven biological change at both ends of the food chain. Understanding how the population dynamics of pelagic predators are simultaneously influenced by nutrient-driven processes acting from the "bottom-up" and predator-driven processes acting from the "top-down" is therefore considered an urgent task. Using a state-space demographic model, we evaluated the population trajectory of an oceanic predator, the Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and numerically assessed the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down drivers acting through different demographic rates...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855179/analysis-of-web-spam-for-non-english-content-toward-more-effective-language-based-classifiers
#19
Mansour Alsaleh, Abdulrahman Alarifi
Web spammers aim to obtain higher ranks for their web pages by including spam contents that deceive search engines in order to include their pages in search results even when they are not related to the search terms. Search engines continue to develop new web spam detection mechanisms, but spammers also aim to improve their tools to evade detection. In this study, we first explore the effect of the page language on spam detection features and we demonstrate how the best set of detection features varies according to the page language...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812838/katherine-zoepf-excellent-daughters-the-secret-lives-of-young-women-who-are-transforming-the-arab-world-penguin-press-new-york-ny-2016-243-pp-isbn-978-1-59420-388-6
#20
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