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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144212/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-two-new-species-of-andracantha-acanthocephala-polymorphidae-from-new-zealand-shags-phalacrocoracidae-and-penguins-spheniscidae-with-a-key-to-the-species
#1
B Presswell, M García-Varela, L R Smales
Two new species of Andracantha (Polymorphidae) are described from the intestine of the shags Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray) and Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman), and the penguin Eudyptula minor (Forster) from southern South Island, New Zealand. Andracantha leucocarboi n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by having no genital or ventral trunk spines, but possessing a scattering of small spines between the anterior fields of spines. This is the first record of a species of Andracantha from a penguin. Circumbursal papillae are illustrated in a scanning electron micrograph for the first time in the polymorphids...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142117/long-necks-enhance-and-constrain-foraging-capacity-in-aquatic-vertebrates
#2
Rory P Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D Holton, Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125252/the-distribution-of-mosquitoes-across-an-altitudinal-gradient-in-the-galapagos-islands
#3
Samoa Asigau, Daniel A Hartman, Jenni M Higashiguchi, Patricia G Parker
An avian malaria parasite (genus Plasmodium) has been detected consistently in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) and less frequently in some passerines. We sampled three resident mosquito species (Aedes taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti) using CDC light and gravid traps on three islands in 2012, 2013, and 2014. We sampled along altitudinal gradients to ask whether there are mosquito-free refugia at higher elevations as there are in Hawaii. We captured both Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111456/viruses-associated-with-antarctic-wildlife-from-serology-based-detection-to-identification-of-genomes-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#4
REVIEW
Zoe E Smeele, David G Ainley, Arvind Varsani
The Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands and surrounding sea-ice provide a unique environment for the existence of organisms. Nonetheless, birds and seals of a variety of species inhabit them, particularly during their breeding seasons. Early research on Antarctic wildlife health, using serology-based assays, showed exposure to viruses in the families Birnaviridae, Flaviviridae, Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae circulating in seals (Phocidae), penguins (Spheniscidae), petrels (Procellariidae) and skuas (Stercorariidae)...
October 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109395/holocene-sea-ice-variability-driven-by-wind-and-polynya-efficiency-in-the-ross-sea
#5
K Mezgec, B Stenni, X Crosta, V Masson-Delmotte, C Baroni, M Braida, V Ciardini, E Colizza, R Melis, M C Salvatore, M Severi, C Scarchilli, R Traversi, R Udisti, M Frezzotti
The causes of the recent increase in Antarctic sea ice extent, characterised by large regional contrasts and decadal variations, remain unclear. In the Ross Sea, where such a sea ice increase is reported, 50% of the sea ice is produced within wind-sustained latent-heat polynyas. Combining information from marine diatom records and sea salt sodium and water isotope ice core records, we here document contrasting patterns in sea ice variations between coastal and open sea areas in Western Ross Sea over the current interglacial period...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093802/multiple-sex-chromosome-system-in-penguins-pygoscelis-spheniscidae
#6
Ricardo José Gunski, Andrés Delgado Cañedo, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Mario Angel Ledesma, Nestor Coria, Diego Montalti, Tiago Marafiga Degrandi
Penguins are classified in the order Sphenisciformes into a single family, Spheniscidae. The genus Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, is composed of three species, Pygoscelis antarcticus Forster, 1781, P. papua Forster, 1781 and P. adeliae Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841. In this work, the objective was to describe and to compare the karyotypes of Pygoscelis penguins contributing genetic information to Sphenisciformes. The metaphases were obtained by lymphocyte culture, and the diploid number and the C-banding pattern were determined...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079931/a-global-overview-of-exposure-levels-and-biological-effects-of-trace-elements-in-penguins
#7
Winfred Espejo, José E Celis, Daniel GonzÃlez-Acuña, Andiranel Banegas, Ricardo Barra, Gustavo Chiang
Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included...
September 13, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059011/prognostic-indicators-of-rehabilitation-outcomes-for-adult-african-penguins-spheniscus-demersus
#8
Nola J Parsons, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Adam M Schaefer
The Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds facility near Cape Town, South Africa, receives ∼900 African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) for rehabilitation every year. Data were analyzed from 3,657 adult African Penguins over a 12-yr period (2002-2013), and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether individual history and clinical parameters upon admission could predict the outcome of rehabilitation. Penguins admitted due to molt or debilitation were more likely to die during rehabilitation than those admitted due to oiling...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051228/thermal-strategies-of-king-penguins-during-prolonged-fasting-in-water
#9
Agnès Lewden, Manfred R Enstipp, Batshéva Bonnet, Caroline Bost, Jean-Yves Georges, Yves Handrich
Most animals experience periods of unfavourable conditions, challenging their daily energy balance. During breeding, king penguins fast voluntarily for up to 1.5 months in the colony, after which they replenish their energy stores at sea. However, at sea, birds might encounter periods of low foraging profitability, forcing them to draw from previously stored energy (e.g. subcutaneous fat). Accessing peripheral fat stores requires perfusion, increasing heat loss and thermoregulatory costs. Hence, how these birds balance the conflicting demands of nutritional needs and thermoregulation is unclear...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026649/unique-genome-organization-of-non-mammalian-papillomaviruses-provides-insights-into-the-evolution-of-viral-early-proteins
#10
Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Valeria Ruoppolo, Annie Schmidt, Amelie Lescroël, Dennis Jongsomjit, Megan Elrod, Simona Kraberger, Daisy Stainton, Katie M Dugger, Grant Ballard, David G Ainley, Arvind Varsani
The family Papillomaviridae contains more than 320 papillomavirus types, with most having been identified as infecting skin and mucosal epithelium in mammalian hosts. To date, only nine non-mammalian papillomaviruses have been described from birds (n = 5), a fish (n = 1), a snake (n = 1), and turtles (n = 2). The identification of papillomaviruses in sauropsids and a sparid fish suggests that early ancestors of papillomaviruses were already infecting the earliest Euteleostomi. The Euteleostomi clade includes more than 90 per cent of the living vertebrate species, and progeny virus could have been passed on to all members of this clade, inhabiting virtually every habitat on the planet...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021539/aerial-photography-based-census-of-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-and-its-application-in-ch4-and-n2o-budget-estimation-in-victoria-land-antarctic
#11
Hong He, Xiao Cheng, Xianglan Li, Renbin Zhu, Fengming Hui, Wenhui Wu, Tiancheng Zhao, Jing Kang, Jianwu Tang
Penguin guano provides favorable conditions for production and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Many studies have been conducted to determine the GHG fluxes from penguin colonies, however, at regional scale, there is still no accurate estimation of total GHG emissions. We used object-based image analysis (OBIA) method to estimate the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) population based on aerial photography data. A model was developed to estimate total GHG emission potential from Adélie penguin colonies during breeding seasons in 1983 and 2012, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018199/pan-antarctic-analysis-aggregating-spatial-estimates-of-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-abundance-reveals-robust-dynamics-despite-stochastic-noise
#12
Christian Che-Castaldo, Stephanie Jenouvrier, Casey Youngflesh, Kevin T Shoemaker, Grant Humphries, Philip McDowall, Laura Landrum, Marika M Holland, Yun Li, Rubao Ji, Heather J Lynch
Colonially-breeding seabirds have long served as indicator species for the health of the oceans on which they depend. Abundance and breeding data are repeatedly collected at fixed study sites in the hopes that changes in abundance and productivity may be useful for adaptive management of marine resources, but their suitability for this purpose is often unknown. To address this, we fit a Bayesian population dynamics model that includes process and observation error to all known Adélie penguin abundance data (1982-2015) in the Antarctic, covering >95% of their population globally...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989785/group-foraging-increases-foraging-efficiency-in-a-piscivorous-diver-the-african-penguin
#13
Alistair M McInnes, Cuan McGeorge, Samuel Ginsberg, Lorien Pichegru, Pierre A Pistorius
Marine piscivores have evolved a variety of morphological and behavioural adaptations, including group foraging, to optimize foraging efficiency when targeting shoaling fish. For penguins that are known to associate at sea and feed on these prey resources, there is nonetheless a lack of empirical evidence to support improved foraging efficiency when foraging with conspecifics. We examined the hunting strategies and foraging performance of breeding African penguins equipped with animal-borne video recorders...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981550/from-mammals-back-to-birds-host-switch-of-the-acanthocephalan-corynosoma-australe-from-pinnipeds-to-the-magellanic-penguin-spheniscus-magellanicus
#14
Jesús Servando Hernández-Orts, Martha Brandão, Simona Georgieva, Juan Antonio Raga, Enrique Alberto Crespo, José Luis Luque, Francisco Javier Aznar
Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations). This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975600/randomized-clinical-trial-of-immersive-virtual-reality-tour-of-the-operating-theatre-in-children-before-anaesthesia
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J-H Ryu, S-J Park, J-W Park, J-W Kim, H-J Yoo, T-W Kim, J S Hong, S-H Han
BACKGROUND: A virtual reality (VR) tour of the operating theatre before anaesthesia could provide a realistic experience for children. This study was designed to determine whether a preoperative VR tour could reduce preoperative anxiety in children. METHODS: Children scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into a control or VR group. The control group received conventional information regarding anaesthesia and surgery. The VR group watched a 4-min video showing Pororo, the famous little penguin, visiting the operating theatre and explaining what is in it...
November 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958439/marine-debris-boost-in-juvenile-magellanic-penguins-stranded-in-south-eastern-brazil-in-less-than-a-decade-insights-into-feeding-habits-and-habitat-use
#16
Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto, Salvatore Siciliano
The Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is a marine sentinel for the southern Atlantic Ocean that is a proxy of environmental quality. The presence of marine debris (macro-debris) in the stomach contents of emaciated juvenile penguins stranded from 21°S to 23°S was compared at different times (2000 and 2008), and the debris ingestion pathway was determined. The frequency of marine debris in the stomachs doubled in less than a decade, and flexible plastics remained the main ingested item over time (68-70%)...
September 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943375/independent-pseudogenization-of-cyp2j19-in-penguins-owls-and-kiwis-implicates-gene-in-red-carotenoid-synthesis
#17
Christopher A Emerling
Carotenoids have important roles in bird behavior, including pigmentation for sexual signaling and improving color vision via retinal oil droplets. Yellow carotenoids are diet-derived, but red carotenoids (ketocarotenoids) are typically synthesized from yellow precursors via a carotenoid ketolase. Recent research on passerines has provided evidence that a cytochrome p450 enzyme, CYP2J19, is responsible for this reaction, though it is unclear if this function is phylogenetically restricted. Here I provide evidence that CYP2J19 is the carotenoid ketolase common to Aves using the genomes of 65 birds and the retinal transcriptomes of 15 avian taxa...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930498/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-a-brazilian-lineage-of-plasmodium-novyella-unalis-in-turdus-spp-passeriformes-of-the-atlantic-forest-with-remarks-on-new-hosts-and-high-genetic-variation
#18
Raquel Tostes, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Luísa de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Xavier Senra, Carlos Luiz Massard, Marta D'Agosto
Plasmodium spp. are haemosporidian protozoans that alternate their live cycles between bloodsucking Culicidae dipterans and vertebrate hosts (mammals, reptiles and birds). In birds, these parasites are the causative agents of the so called avian malaria, a disease associated with considerable declines and extinctions in the avifauna in different geographical regions. In this work, we applied a multidisciplinary approach, light microscopy and cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) gene sequence analysis for characterization of Plasmodium found in association with wild birds of the genus Turdus, collected in Atlantic forest fragments of southeastern Brazil...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921303/registry-study-to-assess-hair-loss-prevention-with-the-penguin-cold-cap-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#19
Brooke A Rice, Elizabeth S Ver Hoeve, Amy N DeLuca, Laura J Esserman, Hope S Rugo, Michelle E Melisko
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a distressing side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this registry study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of scalp hypothermia using Penguin Cold Caps (Penguin) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Hair loss was assessed by patients using a 100-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and by physicians using the 5-point Dean Scale at baseline, every 3-4 weeks during chemotherapy, and at least 1 month after completion of chemotherapy...
September 18, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913165/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-peircei-and-babesia-ugwidiensis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-host-specificity-of-avian-piroplasmids
#20
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Barbara C Shock, Michaelle Purdee, Elizabeth C Horne, Michael A Peirce, Nola J Parsons
There are 16 recognized species of avian-infecting Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae). While the classification of piroplasmids has been historically based on morphological differences, geographic isolation and presumed host and/or vector specificities, recent studies employing gene sequence analysis have provided insight into their phylogenetic relationships and host distribution and specificity. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of two Babesia species from South African seabirds: Babesia peircei from African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and Babesia ugwidiensis from Bank and Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax neglectus and P...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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