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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202976/conservation-penguins-caught-in-ecological-trap
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199318/acoustic-correlates-of-body-size-and-individual-identity-in-banded-penguins
#2
Livio Favaro, Marco Gamba, Claudia Gili, Daniela Pessani
Animal vocalisations play a role in individual recognition and mate choice. In nesting penguins, acoustic variation in vocalisations originates from distinctiveness in the morphology of the vocal apparatus. Using the source-filter theory approach, we investigated vocal individuality cues and correlates of body size and mass in the ecstatic display songs the Humboldt and Magellanic penguins. We demonstrate that both fundamental frequency (f0) and formants (F1-F4) are essential vocal features to discriminate among individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190725/metapopulation-tracking-juvenile-penguins-reveals-an-ecosystem-wide-ecological-trap
#3
Richard B Sherley, Katrin Ludynia, Bruce M Dyer, Tarron Lamont, Azwianewi B Makhado, Jean-Paul Roux, Kylie L Scales, Les G Underhill, Stephen C Votier
Climate change and fisheries are transforming the oceans, but we lack a complete understanding of their ecological impact [1-3]. Environmental degradation can cause maladaptive habitat selection, inducing ecological traps with profound consequences for biodiversity [4-6]. However, whether ecological traps operate in marine systems is unclear [7]. Large marine vertebrates may be vulnerable to ecological traps [6], but their broad-scale movements and complex life histories obscure the population-level consequences of habitat selection [8, 9]...
January 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186493/telomeres-shorten-and-then-lengthen-before-fledging-in-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus
#4
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age...
February 8, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173531/bayesian-total-evidence-dating-reveals-the-recent-crown-radiation-of-penguins
#5
Alexandra Gavryushkina, Tracy A Heath, Daniel T Ksepka, Tanja Stadler, David Welch, Alexei J Drummond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160127/the-good-gut-by-justin-and-erica-sonnenburg-bantam-press-2015-penguin-books-2016-isbn-978-0143-108-085
#6
Ingvar Bjarnason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159398/metals-and-metalloids-in-little-penguin-eudyptula-minor-prey-blood-and-faeces
#7
Annett Finger, Jennifer L Lavers, Peter Dann, Nicole D Kowalczyk, Carol Scarpaci, Dayanthi Nugegoda, John D Orbell
Piscivorous species like the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) are particularly at risk of being negatively impacted by pollution due to their heightened exposure through aquatic food chains. Therefore, determining the concentration of heavy metals in the fish prey of seabirds is an essential component of assessing such risk. In this study, we report on arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and selenium concentrations in three fish species, which are known to comprise a substantial part of the diet of Little Penguins at the urban colony of St Kilda, Melbourne, Australia...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154216/northern-ireland-disease-surveillance-report-october-to-december-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
Parasitic pneumonia in calvesAbomasitis in calvesActinobacillosis in a bullCopper toxicity in ram lambsFasciolosis in ewes and lambsLarval paramphistomosis in shearlingsAspergillosis in a gentoo penguin These are among matters discussed in the Northern Ireland animal disease surveillance quarterly report for October to December 2016.
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129431/circumpolar-analysis-of-the-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-reveals-the-importance-of-environmental-variability-in-phenological-mismatch
#9
Casey Youngflesh, Stephanie Jenouvrier, Yun Li, Rubao Ji, David G Ainley, Grant Ballard, Christophe Barbraud, Karine Delord, Katie M Dugger, Louise M Emmerson, William R Fraser, Jefferson T Hinke, Phil O'B Lyver, Silvia Olmastroni, Colin J Southwell, Susan G Trivelpiece, Wayne Z Trivelpiece, Heather J Lynch
Evidence of climate change-driven shifts in plant and animal phenology have raised concerns that certain trophic interactions may be increasingly mismatched in time, resulting in declines in reproductive success. Given the constraints imposed by extreme seasonality at high latitudes and the rapid shifts in phenology seen in the Arctic, we would also expect Antarctic species to be highly vulnerable to climate change-driven phenological mismatches with their environment. However, few studies have assessed the impacts of phenological change in Antarctica...
January 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124141/identification-of-a-polyomavirus-in-weddell-seal-leptonychotes-weddellii-from-the-ross-sea-antarctica
#10
Arvind Varsani, Greg Frankfurter, Daisy Stainton, Maketalena F Male, Simona Kraberger, Jennifer M Burns
Viruses are ubiquitous in nature, however, very few have been identified that are associated with Antarctic animals. Here we report the identification of a polyomavirus in the kidney tissue of a deceased Weddell seal from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The circular genome (5186 nt) has typical features of polyomaviruses with a small and larger T-antigen open reading frames (ORFs) and three ORFs encoding VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. The genome of the Weddell seal polyomavirus (WsPyV) shares 85.4% genome-wide pairwise identity with a polyomavirus identified in a California sea lion...
January 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103531/characterization-of-transcriptome-and-identification-of-biomineralization-genes-in-winged-pearl-oyster-pteria-penguin-mantle-tissue
#11
Haimei Li, Baosuo Liu, Guiju Huang, Sigang Fan, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
The winged pearl oyster Pteria penguin is a commercially important marine pearl oyster species, with pearls that are quite different from those of other pearl oysters. Among such species, mantle tissue is the main organ responsible for shell and pearl formation, a biomineralization process that is regulated by a series of genes, most of which remain unknown. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of P. penguin mantle tissue using the HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 93,204 unique transcripts were assembled from 51,580,076 quality reads, with a mean length of 608bp, and 40,974 unigenes were annotated...
January 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091764/isolation-of-campylobacter-spp-from-three-species-of-antarctic-penguins-in-different-geographic-locations
#12
F J García-Peña, M T Llorente, T Serrano, M J Ruano, J Belliure, J Benzal, S Herrera-León, V Vidal, V D'Amico, D Pérez-Boto, A Barbosa
The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P...
January 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#13
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074343/interspecies-sexual-behaviour-between-a-male-japanese-macaque-and-female-sika-deer
#14
Marie Pelé, Alexandre Bonnefoy, Masaki Shimada, Cédric Sueur
Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal...
January 10, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073384/do-blood-parasites-infect-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus-in-the-wild-prospective-investigation-and-climatogeographic-considerations
#15
Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels, Marcela Uhart, Virginia Rago, Renata Hurtado, Sabrina Epiphanio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062221/extreme-intra-clutch-egg-size-dimorphism-is-not-coupled-with-corresponding-differences-in-antioxidant-capacity-and-stable-isotopes-between-eggs
#16
Maud Poisbleau, Michaël Beaulieu, Nina Dehnhard, Laurent Demongin, Gilles Lepoint, Nicolas Sturaro, Marcel Eens
Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during egg formation, can greatly affect the development and survival of the embryo and chick. In crested penguins, incubation starts after the second and last egg is laid and, as opposed to many other bird species, this egg hatches first, thereby enhancing the survival of the chick. Here, we assessed whether antioxidant and isotopic composition could underlie these differences between eggs within clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036249/a-novel-alphaherpesvirus-associated-with-fatal-diseases-in-banded-penguins
#17
Florian Pfaff, Christoph Schulze, Patricia König, Kati Franzke, Sabine Bock, Andreas Hlinak, Jens Kämmerling, Andreas Ochs, André Schüle, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer
A novel avian alphaherpesvirus, preliminarily designated as sphenicid alphaherpesvirus 1 (SpAHV-1) has been independently isolated from juvenile Humboldt and African penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and S. demersus) kept in German zoos suffering from diphtheroid oropharyngitis / laryngotracheitis and necrotizing enteritis (collectively designated as penguin-diphtheria-like disease). High-throughput sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequences of the first two SpAHV-1 isolates. SpAHV-1 comprises a class D genome with a length of about 164 kbp, a G+C content of 45...
December 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031274/escherichia-coli-carrying-incx4-plasmid-mediated-mcr-1-and-blactx-m-genes-in-infected-migratory-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus
#18
Fábio P Sellera, Miriam R Fernandes, Luciana Sartori, Marcelo P N Carvalho, Fernanda Esposito, Cristiane L Nascimento, Gustavo H P Dutra, Elsa M Mamizuka, Paula J Pérez-Chaparro, John A McCulloch, Nilton Lincopan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991828/enterococcus-species-diversity-in-fecal-samples-of-wild-marine-species-as-determined-by-real-time-pcr
#19
Aline Weber Medeiros, Derek Blaese Amorim, Maurício Tavares, Tiane Martin de Moura, Ana Claudia Franco, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo, Jeverson Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon
Analyses using culture-independent molecular techniques have improved our understanding of microbial composition. The aim of this work was to identify and quantify enterococci in fecal samples of wild marine species using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven Enterococcus species were examined in fecal DNA of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis), green turtles (Chelonia mydas), Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), snowy-crowned tern (Sterna trudeaui), white-backed stilt (Himantopus melanurus), white-chinned petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis), red knot (Calidris canutus), and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris)...
February 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991520/the-safety-limits-of-an-extended-fast-lessons-from-a-non-model-organism
#20
Fabrice Bertile, Laetitia Fouillen, Thierry Wasselin, Pauline Maes, Yvon Le Maho, Alain Van Dorsselaer, Thierry Raclot
While safety of fasting therapy is debated in humans, extended fasting occurs routinely and safely in wild animals. To do so, food deprived animals like breeding penguins anticipate the critical limit of fasting by resuming feeding. To date, however, no molecular indices of the physiological state that links spontaneous refeeding behaviour with fasting limits had been identified. Blood proteomics and physiological data reveal here that fasting-induced body protein depletion is not unsafe "per se". Indeed, incubating penguins only abandon their chick/egg to refeed when this state is associated with metabolic defects in glucose homeostasis/fatty acid utilization, insulin production and action, and possible renal dysfunctions...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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