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Gerald L Kooyman, Robert P van Dam, Luis A Hückstädt
All through the bird literature and feature films, there is much ado about dedicated emperor penguin males fasting for 115 days while they do all the incubation of the single egg. Sometimes, they may not fast for so long. Based on a winter visit to Cape Washington, we obtained evidence that some birds may feed before the egg is laid, and if they do, and some are males, then their fast is much less than 115 days. The consequence of a shorter fast for the male is a better chance of completing the 65 day incubation fast and success in fledging the chick...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ulrich Nierste, Stefan Schacht
We point out that the CP asymmetries in the decays D^{0}→K_{S}K^{*0} and D^{0}→K_{S}K[over ¯]^{*0} are potential discovery channels for charm CP violation in the standard model. We stress that no flavor tagging is necessary, the untagged CP asymmetry a_{CP}^{dir}(D[over (-)]→K_{S}K^{*0}) is essentially equal to the tagged one, so that the untagged measurement comes with a significant statistical gain. Depending on the relevant strong phase, |a_{CP}^{dir,untag}| can be as large as 0.003. The CP asymmetry is dominantly generated by exchange diagrams and does not require nonvanishing penguin amplitudes...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Casey Youngflesh, Stephanie Jenouvrier, Jefferson T Hinke, Lauren DuBois, Judy St Leger, Wayne Z Trivelpiece, Susan G Trivelpiece, Heather J Lynch
1.Phenological changes have been observed in a variety of systems over the past century. There is concern that, as a consequence, ecological interactions are becoming increasingly mismatched in time, with negative consequences for ecological function. 2.Significant spatial heterogeneity (inter-site) and temporal variability (inter-annual) can make it difficult to separate intrinsic, extrinsic, and stochastic drivers of phenological variability. The goal of this study was to understand the timing and variability of breeding phenology of Adélie penguins under fixed environmental conditions, and to use those data to identify a 'null model' appropriate for disentangling the sources of variation in wild populations...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Fábio P Sellera, Miriam R Fernandes, Quézia Moura, Tiago A Souza, Cristiane L Nascimento, Louise Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in wildlife animals has been investigated in order to improve the knowledge on the spreading of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance genes. The aim of this study was to report the first draft genome sequence of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST644 recovered from a Magellanic penguin with footpad infection undergoing rehabilitation process. METHODS: Genome was sequenced on Illumina NextSeq platform, using paired-end reads (150bp)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Jessica M Finlay
Therapeutic landscapes represent a lively field of inquiry in health geography. The health benefits of green and blue spaces feature prominently across this literature, and generate rich understanding of how it feels to encounter and move through natural environments. Juxtaposed against an abundant scholarship on green and blue (and growing attention to broader 'palettes of place' including grey and brown landscapes), white spaces - environmental snow and ice - have yet to be investigated. Research on everyday experiences of snow and ice is limited, particularly for older adults potentially more vulnerable to climactic conditions given health and mobility limitations...
December 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Katherine L Moon, Steven L Chown, Siew-May Loh, Charlotte L Oskam, Ceridwen I Fraser
Lyme borreliosis (or Lyme Disease) is an emerging threat to human health in the Northern Hemisphere caused by tick-borne bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) complex. Seabirds are important reservoir hosts of some members of the Bbsl complex in the Northern Hemisphere, and some evidence suggests this may be true of penguins in the Southern Hemisphere. While the Bbsl complex has not been detected in Australia, a novel Borrelia species ('Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi') was recently sequenced from native ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and Bothriocroton concolor) parasitising echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus), suggesting unidentified borreliae may be circulating amongst native wildlife and their ticks...
December 15, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Cristiano R Moreira, Flávio C T Lima
A new species of penguin tetra, Thayeria tapajonica, is described from the rio Tapajós basin. It is most similar to T. boehlkei by presenting a straight midlateral stripe running anteriorly to immediately posterior to the head, while in T. ifati and T. obliqua the midlateral stripe is restricted to the caudal peduncle, merging with an anterodorsal oblique stripe. The new species is restricted to the rio Tapajós basin downriver of the confluence of the rio Juruena and rio Teles Pires, and lower rio Teles Pires, where its distribution overlaps with T...
November 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Jin Won Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Hyun-Jun Kang, Hoon Ryu, Pyung Cheon Lee
A novel type strain, Planococcus faecalis AJ003T, isolated from the feces of Antarctic penguins, synthesizes a rare C30 carotenoid, glycosyl-4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-ol-4-oic acid. The complete genome of P. faecalis AJ003T comprises a single circular chromosome (3,495,892bp; 40.9% G+C content). Annotation analysis has revealed 3511 coding DNA sequences and 99 RNAs; seven genes associated with the MEP pathway and five genes involved in the carotenoid pathway have been identified. The functionality and complementation of 4,4'-diapophytoene synthase (CrtM) and two copies of heterologous 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed in Escherichia coli...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Gerald Mayr, R Paul Scofield, Vanesa L De Pietri, Alan J D Tennyson
One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the new species outside a clade including all post-Paleocene giant penguins...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Giancarlo D'Ambrosio, Teppei Kitahara
A rare decay K_{L}→μ^{+}μ^{-} has been measured precisely, while a rare decay K_{S}→μ^{+}μ^{-} will be observed by an upgrade of the LHCb experiment. Although both processes are almost CP-conserving decays, we point out that an interference contribution between K_{L} and K_{S} in the kaon beam emerges from a genuine direct CP violation. It is found that the interference contribution can change K_{S}→μ^{+}μ^{-} standard-model predictions at O(60%). We also stress that an unknown sign of A(K_{L}→γγ) can be determined by a measurement of the interference, which can much reduce a theoretical uncertainty of B(K_{L}→μ^{+}μ^{-})...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Jun Ho Lee, Jin Won Kim, Pyung Cheon Lee
A novel species, Flavobacterium kingsejongi WV39, isolated from feces of Antarctic penguins and a type species of the genus Flavobacterium, is yellow because it synthesizes a C40 carotenoid zeaxanthin. The complete genome of F. kingsejongi WV39 is made up of a single circular chromosome (4,224,053bp, 39.8% G+C content). Annotation analysis revealed 3,955 coding sequences, 72 RNAs (18 rRNA+54 tRNA), and five genes involved in zeaxanthin biosynthesis. The key gene encoding β-carotenoid hydroxylase (CrtZ), which is the last enzyme in the zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway, was cloned and subjected to complementary analysis in a heterologous E...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Lorien Pichegru, Reason Nyengera, Alistair M McInnes, Pierre Pistorius
Seismic surveys in search for oil or gas under the seabed, produce the most intense man-made ocean noise with known impacts on invertebrates, fish and marine mammals. No evidence to date exists, however, about potential impacts on seabirds. Penguins may be expected to be particularly affected by loud underwater sounds, due to their largely aquatic existence. This study investigated the behavioural response of breeding endangered African Penguins Spheniscus demersus to seismic surveys within 100 km of their colony in South Africa, using a multi-year GPS tracking dataset...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Per Eriksson, Evangelos Mourkas, Daniel González-Acuna, Björn Olsen, Patrik Ellström
Introduction: Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Avian fecal DNA extraction has proved challenging, partly due to the mixture of fecal and urinary excretions and the deficiency of optimized protocols. This study presents an evaluation of the performance in avian fecal DNA extraction of six commercial kits from different bird species, focusing on penguins...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
B Presswell, M García-Varela, L R Smales
Two new species of Andracantha (Polymorphidae) are described from the intestine of the shags Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray) and Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman), and the penguin Eudyptula minor (Forster) from southern South Island, New Zealand. Andracantha leucocarboi n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by having no genital or ventral trunk spines, but possessing a scattering of small spines between the anterior fields of spines. This is the first record of a species of Andracantha from a penguin. Circumbursal papillae are illustrated in a scanning electron micrograph for the first time in the polymorphids...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Rory P Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D Holton, Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Samoa Asigau, Daniel A Hartman, Jenni M Higashiguchi, Patricia G Parker
An avian malaria parasite (genus Plasmodium) has been detected consistently in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) and less frequently in some passerines. We sampled three resident mosquito species (Aedes taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti) using CDC light and gravid traps on three islands in 2012, 2013, and 2014. We sampled along altitudinal gradients to ask whether there are mosquito-free refugia at higher elevations as there are in Hawaii. We captured both Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Zoe E Smeele, David G Ainley, Arvind Varsani
The Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands and surrounding sea-ice provide a unique environment for the existence of organisms. Nonetheless, birds and seals of a variety of species inhabit them, particularly during their breeding seasons. Early research on Antarctic wildlife health, using serology-based assays, showed exposure to viruses in the families Birnaviridae, Flaviviridae, Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae circulating in seals (Phocidae), penguins (Spheniscidae), petrels (Procellariidae) and skuas (Stercorariidae)...
October 27, 2017: Virus Research
K Mezgec, B Stenni, X Crosta, V Masson-Delmotte, C Baroni, M Braida, V Ciardini, E Colizza, R Melis, M C Salvatore, M Severi, C Scarchilli, R Traversi, R Udisti, M Frezzotti
The causes of the recent increase in Antarctic sea ice extent, characterised by large regional contrasts and decadal variations, remain unclear. In the Ross Sea, where such a sea ice increase is reported, 50% of the sea ice is produced within wind-sustained latent-heat polynyas. Combining information from marine diatom records and sea salt sodium and water isotope ice core records, we here document contrasting patterns in sea ice variations between coastal and open sea areas in Western Ross Sea over the current interglacial period...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
Ricardo José Gunski, Andrés Delgado Cañedo, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Mario Angel Ledesma, Nestor Coria, Diego Montalti, Tiago Marafiga Degrandi
Penguins are classified in the order Sphenisciformes into a single family, Spheniscidae. The genus Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, is composed of three species, Pygoscelis antarcticus Forster, 1781, P. papua Forster, 1781 and P. adeliae Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841. In this work, the objective was to describe and to compare the karyotypes of Pygoscelis penguins contributing genetic information to Sphenisciformes. The metaphases were obtained by lymphocyte culture, and the diploid number and the C-banding pattern were determined...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
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