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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921303/registry-study-to-assess-hair-loss-prevention-with-the-penguin-cold-cap-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#1
Brooke A Rice, Elizabeth S Ver Hoeve, Amy N DeLuca, Laura J Esserman, Hope S Rugo, Michelle E Melisko
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a distressing side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this registry study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of scalp hypothermia using Penguin Cold Caps (Penguin) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Hair loss was assessed by patients using a 100-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and by physicians using the 5-point Dean Scale at baseline, every 3-4 weeks during chemotherapy, and at least 1 month after completion of chemotherapy...
September 18, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913165/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-peircei-and-babesia-ugwidiensis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-host-specificity-of-avian-piroplasmids
#2
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Barbara C Shock, Michaelle Purdee, Elizabeth C Horne, Michael A Peirce, Nola J Parsons
There are 16 recognized species of avian-infecting Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae). While the classification of piroplasmids has been historically based on morphological differences, geographic isolation and presumed host and/or vector specificities, recent studies employing gene sequence analysis have provided insight into their phylogenetic relationships and host distribution and specificity. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of two Babesia species from South African seabirds: Babesia peircei from African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and Babesia ugwidiensis from Bank and Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax neglectus and P...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910405/linking-extreme-interannual-changes-in-prey-availability-to-foraging-behaviour-and-breeding-investment-in-a-marine-predator-the-macaroni-penguin
#3
Cat Horswill, Philip N Trathan, Norman Ratcliffe
Understanding the mechanisms that link prey availability to predator behaviour and population change is central to projecting how a species may respond to future environmental pressures. We documented the behavioural responses and breeding investment of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus across five breeding seasons where local prey density changed by five-fold; from very low to highly abundant. When prey availability was low, foraging trips were significantly longer and extended overnight. Birds also foraged farther from the colony, potentially in order to reach more distant foraging grounds and allow for increased search times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898354/comparative-genome-wide-polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-in-antarctic-penguins-through-next-generation-sequencing
#4
Juliana A Vianna, Daly Noll, Isidora Mura-Jornet, Paulina Valenzuela-Guerra, Daniel González-Acuña, Cristell Navarro, David E Loyola, Gisele P M Dantas
Microsatellites are valuable molecular markers for evolutionary and ecological studies. Next generation sequencing is responsible for the increasing number of microsatellites for non-model species. Penguins of the Pygoscelis genus are comprised of three species: Adélie (P. adeliae), Chinstrap (P. antarcticus) and Gentoo penguin (P. papua), all distributed around Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic. The species have been affected differently by climate change, and the use of microsatellite markers will be crucial to monitor population dynamics...
July 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895509/mycoplasma-tullyi-sp-nov-isolated-from-penguins-of-the-genus-spheniscus
#5
Christine A Yavari, Ana S Ramírez, Robin A J Nicholas, Alan D Radford, Alistair C Darby, Janet M Bradbury
A mycoplasma isolated from the liver of a dead Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) and designated strain 56A97T, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the organism was most closely related to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma imitans(99.7 and 99.9 % similarity, respectively). The average DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 56A97T and M. gallisepticum and M. imitans were 39.5 and 30 %, respectively and the Genome to Genome Distance Calculator gave results of 29...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889801/do-health-professionals-have-a-prototype-concept-of-disease-the-answer-is-no
#6
Bjørn Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Health and disease are core concepts in health care and have attracted substantial interest and controversy. In recent and interesting contributions to the debate it has been argued that the challenges with the concept of disease can be resolved by a prototype concept of disease. As a robin is a more prototypical of a bird than a penguin, some diseases are more prototypical than others. If disease is a prototype concept, it would change nosology, but also health care and the study of health and disease...
September 11, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884647/professor-in-the-cage-why-men-fight-and-why-we-like-to-watch-jonathan-gottschall-professor-in-the-cage-why-men-fight-and-why-we-like-to-watch-new-york-ny-penguin-2015-288-pages-isbn-978-1-594205-63-7-hardcover-26-95
#7
Patrick A Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862028/book-review-extreme-measures-finding-a-better-path-to-the-end-of-life-zitter-jn-extreme-measures-finding-a-better-path-to-the-end-of-life-new-york-ny-penguin-random-house-2017-isbn-9781101982570
#8
Asa S Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843614/an-integrative-appraisal-of-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-changes-induced-by-acute-stress-using-king-penguins-as-a-model
#9
Vincent A Viblanc, Quentin Schull, Tina Cornioley, Antoine Stier, Jean-Jérôme Ménard, René Groscolas, Jean-Patrice Robin
A large number of studies have focused on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the consequences of glucocorticoids (GC) in mediating life-history trade-offs. Although short-term increases in GCs are viewed as adaptive, mobilizing energy substrates allowing animals to deal with impending threats (e.g. stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating lipolysis, mobilizing amino acids), few studies have actually measured the exact time-course of substrate mobilisation in response to acute stress in natural conditions...
August 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834350/processing-of-co-reference-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Philippa L Howard, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
Accuracy for reading comprehension and inferencing tasks has previously been reported as reduced for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to typically developing (TD) controls. In this study, we used an eye movements and reading paradigm to examine whether this difference in performance accuracy is underpinned by differences in the inferential work required to compute a co-referential link. Participants read two sentences that contained a category noun (e.g., bird) that was preceded by and co-referred to an exemplar that was either typical (e...
August 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832641/departure-time-influences-foraging-associations-in-little-penguins
#11
Grace J Sutton, Andrew J Hoskins, Maud Berlincourt, John P Y Arnould
Recent studies have documented that little penguins (Eudyptula minor) associate at sea, displaying synchronised diving behaviour throughout a foraging trip. However, previous observations were limited to a single foraging trip where only a small number of individuals were simultaneously tracked. Consequently, it is not known whether coordinated behaviour is consistent over time, or what factors influence it. In the present study, breeding adults were concurrently instrumented with GPS and dive behaviour data loggers for at least 2 consecutive foraging trips during guard and post-guard stage at two breeding colonies (London Bridge and Gabo Island, south-eastern Australia) of contrasting population size (approximately 100 and 30,000-40,000, respectively)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819102/group-association-and-vocal-behaviour-during-foraging-trips-in-gentoo-penguins
#12
Noori Choi, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Nobuo Kokubun, Seongseop Park, Hosung Chung, Won Young Lee
In contrast to their terrestrial call, the offshore call of penguins during their foraging trips has been poorly studied due to the inaccessibility of the foraging site-the open ocean-to researchers. Here, we present the first description of the vocal behaviour of penguins in the open ocean and discuss the function of their vocal communication. We deployed an animal-borne camera on gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) and recorded their foraging behaviour during chick guarding. From the video recordings, we collected 598 offshore calls from 10 individuals in two breeding seasons (2014-2015 and 2015-2016), and we analysed the acoustic characteristics and behavioural contexts of these calls, including diving patterns, group association events, and foraging behaviour...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813428/soil-features-in-rookeries-of-antarctic-penguins-reveal-sea-to-land-biotransport-of-chemical-pollutants
#13
Anna C Santamans, Rafael Boluda, Antonio Picazo, Carlos Gil, Joaquín Ramos-Miras, Pablo Tejedo, Luis R Pertierra, Javier Benayas, Antonio Camacho
The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811878/magellanic-penguin-telomeres-do-not-shorten-with-age-with-increased-reproductive-effort-investment-and-basal-corticosterone
#14
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806408/microbiota-of-little-penguins-and-short-tailed-shearwaters-during-development
#15
Meagan L Dewar, John P Y Arnould, Theo R Allnutt, Tamsyn Crowley, Lutz Krause, John Reynolds, Peter Dann, Stuart C Smith
The establishment and early colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been recognised as a crucial stage in chick development, with pioneering microbial species responsible for influencing the development of the GI tract and influencing host health, fitness and disease status throughout life. Development of the microbiota in long lived seabirds is poorly understood. This study characterised the microbial composition of little penguin and short-tailed shearwater chicks throughout development, using Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797592/occurrence-of-anisakis-nematoda-anisakidae-larvae-in-unusual-hosts-in-southern-hemisphere
#16
Shokoofeh Shamsi, Marine J Briand, Jean-Lou Justine
Nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis are important parasites due to their abundance in seafood and health impacts on humans. In the present study Anisakis larvae were found in a number of uncommon hosts including the Grey petrel, Procellaria cinerea, the Little penguin, Eudyptula minor, Blue-lipped sea krait, Laticauda laticaudata and Spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna. Morphological examination showed nematodes in these animals are Anisakis larval type I. Genetic characterisation suggested that the larva from one Grey petrel was Anisakis berlandi, whereas the other larvae from the second Grey petrel and from the little penguin were Anisakis pegreffii...
August 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794274/stable-isotope-analyses-of-feather-amino-acids-identify-penguin-migration-strategies-at-ocean-basin-scales
#17
Michael J Polito, Jefferson T Hinke, Tom Hart, Mercedes Santos, Leah A Houghton, Simon R Thorrold
Identifying the at-sea distribution of wide-ranging marine predators is critical to understanding their ecology. Advances in electronic tracking devices and intrinsic biogeochemical markers have greatly improved our ability to track animal movements on ocean-wide scales. Here, we show that, in combination with direct tracking, stable carbon isotope analysis of essential amino acids in tail feathers provides the ability to track the movement patterns of two, wide-ranging penguin species over ocean basin scales...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767330/listening-to-prozac-by-peter-d-kramer-ordinarily-well-the-case-for-antidepressants-by-peter-d-kramernew-york-ny-penguin-books-1993-338-pages-isbn-13-978-0-14-026671-9-18-00-paperback-new-york-ny-farrar-straus-and-giroux-2016-241-pages-isbn-13-978-0-37-428067
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749255/pharmacokinetics-of-orally-administered-voriconazole-in-african-penguins-spheniscus-demersus-after-single-and-multiple-doses
#19
Michael W Hyatt, Nathan P Wiederhold, William W Hope, Katharine E Stott
Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Single and once daily multiple oral doses of 5 mg/kg voriconazole were evaluated with a 4-mo washout period between trials...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738733/cases-of-mortality-in-little-penguins-eudyptula-minor-in-new-zealand-associated-with-avian-malaria
#20
D C Sijbranda, S Hunter, L Howe, B Lenting, L Argilla, B D Gartrell
CASE HISTORY A little penguin (Eudyptula minor) of wild origin, in captivity at Wellington Zoo, became inappetent and lethargic in March 2013. Despite supportive care in the zoo's wildlife hospital, the bird died within 24 hours. CLINICAL FINDINGS Weight loss, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, weakness, increased respiratory effort and biliverdinuria were apparent on physical examination. Microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed intra-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. and a regenerative reticulocytosis in the absence of anaemia...
August 6, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
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