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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878069/both-natural-selection-and-isolation-by-distance-explain-phenotypic-divergence-in-bill-size-and-body-mass-between-south-australian-little-penguin-colonies
#1
Diane Colombelli-Négrel
Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by <150 km. To help understand patterns driving the differences, I investigated these variations in relation to environmental parameters (air temperature, sea surface temperature, and water depth) and geographic distances between the colonies...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859185/unravelling-the-relative-roles-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-forces-driving-population-change-in-an-oceanic-predator
#2
C Horswill, N Ratcliffe, J A Green, R A Phillips, P N Trathan, J Matthiopoulos
In the open ocean ecosystem, climate and anthropogenic changes have driven biological change at both ends of the food chain. Understanding how the population dynamics of pelagic predators are simultaneously influenced by nutrient-driven processes acting from the "bottom-up" and predator-driven processes acting from the "top-down" is therefore considered an urgent task. Using a state-space demographic model, we evaluated the population trajectory of an oceanic predator, the Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and numerically assessed the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down drivers acting through different demographic rates...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855179/analysis-of-web-spam-for-non-english-content-toward-more-effective-language-based-classifiers
#3
Mansour Alsaleh, Abdulrahman Alarifi
Web spammers aim to obtain higher ranks for their web pages by including spam contents that deceive search engines in order to include their pages in search results even when they are not related to the search terms. Search engines continue to develop new web spam detection mechanisms, but spammers also aim to improve their tools to evade detection. In this study, we first explore the effect of the page language on spam detection features and we demonstrate how the best set of detection features varies according to the page language...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812838/katherine-zoepf-excellent-daughters-the-secret-lives-of-young-women-who-are-transforming-the-arab-world-penguin-press-new-york-ny-2016-243-pp-isbn-978-1-59420-388-6
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801957/a-new-marker-based-on-the-avian-spindlin-gene-that-is-able-to-sex-most-birds-including-species-problematic-to-sex-with-chd-markers
#5
Deborah A Dawson, Natalie Dos Remedios, Gavin J Horsburgh
We have developed a new marker (Z43B) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. We utilized the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata EST microsatellite sequence (CK309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the avian spindlin gene. This gene is known to be present on the Z and W chromosomes. To maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consensus sequence created from homologs of CK309496 that were isolated from multiple distantly related species...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796116/health-evaluation-of-african-penguins-i-spheniscus-demersus-i-in-southern-africa
#6
Nola J Parsons, Tertius A Gous, Adam M Schaefer, Ralph E T Vanstreels
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre...
September 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792768/correction-spatially-extensive-standardized-surveys-reveal-widespread-multi-decadal-increase-in-east-antarctic-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-populations
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139877.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788054/diphtheritic-stomatitis-in-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-in-new-zealand
#8
Maurice R Alley, Rod B Suepaul, Bruce McKinlay, Melanie J Young, Jianning Wang, Kerri J Morgan, Stuart A Hunter, Brett D Gartrell
Diphtheritic stomatitis is a seasonal disease that has been recognized as a syndrome in Yellow-eyed Penguin ( Megadyptes antipodes ) chicks in New Zealand for >10 yr. It was present in about 50% of 234 chicks examined since 2002 and is characterized by a thick serocellular exudate in the oral cavity of 1-4-wk-old chicks. The syndrome includes inanition, weight loss, and death in many affected birds. Microscopically, the lesions varied in severity. Most affected chicks had severe, locally extensive, ulcerative stomatitis with large amounts of exudate containing numerous bacteria; a smaller number had mild focal lesions with smaller amounts of exudate and bacteria...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786162/lesions-associated-with-drowning-in-bycaught-penguins
#9
Ralph Eric Vanstreels, Renata Hurtado, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Carolina Pacheco Bertozzi, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality that occurs as a result of entanglement in fishing gear, is an important conservation threat to penguins and other seabirds. Identification of entanglement and drowning in beach-cast carcasses of seabirds remains a challenge, as it is still unclear what lesions are to be expected in a bycaught seabird. We necropsied 2 Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus that were entangled and drowned in gillnets. Marked distension of the lungs with foamy red fluid and marked oedema of the dorsal visceral pleura were prominent lesions consistent with those described in cases of 'wet drowning' in humans...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783668/population-size-and-decadal-trends-of-three-penguin-species-nesting-at-signy-island-south-orkney-islands
#10
Michael J Dunn, Jennifer A Jackson, Stacey Adlard, Amanda S Lynnes, Dirk R Briggs, Derren Fox, Claire M Waluda
We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770507/integrated-population-modeling-reveals-the-impact-of-climate-on-the-survival-of-juvenile-emperor-penguins
#11
Fitsum Abadi, Christophe Barbraud, Olivier Gimenez
Early-life demographic traits are poorly known, impeding our understanding of population processes and sensitivity to climate change. Survival of immature individuals is a critical component of population dynamics and recruitment in particular. However, obtaining reliable estimates of juvenile survival (i.e., from independence to first year) remains challenging, as immatures are often difficult to observe and to monitor individually in the field. This is particularly acute for seabirds, in which juveniles stay at sea and remain undetectable for several years...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765681/novel-morphological-and-molecular-data-for-corynosoma-hannae-zdzitowiecki-1984-acanthocephala-polymorphidae-from-teleosts-fish-eating-birds-and-pinnipeds-from-new-zealand
#12
Jesús S Hernández-Orts, Lesley R Smales, Carlos D Pinacho-Pinacho, Martín García-Varela, Bronwen Presswell
The polymorphid acanthocephalan, Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 is characterised on the basis of newly collected material from a New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri (Gray), and long-nosed fur seal, Arctophoca forsteri (Lesson) (definitive hosts), and from Stewart Island shags, Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray), spotted shags, Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman) and yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron & Jacquinot) (non-definitive hosts) from New Zealand. Specimens are described in detail and scanning electron micrographs for C...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760133/diversity-in-the-toll-like-receptor-genes-of-the-african-penguin-spheniscus-demersus
#13
Desiré Lee Dalton, Elaine Vermaak, Marli Roelofse, Antoinette Kotze
The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to the drastic reduction in population numbers over the last 20 years. To date, the only studies on immunogenetic variation in penguins have been conducted on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It was shown in humans that up to half of the genetic variability in immune responses to pathogens are located in non-MHC genes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are now increasingly being studied in a variety of taxa as a broader approach to determine functional genetic diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752524/transcriptomic-data-analysis-and-differential-gene-expression-of-antioxidant-pathways-in-king-penguin-juveniles-aptenodytes-patagonicus-before-and-after-acclimatization-to-marine-life
#14
Benjamin Rey, Cyril Dégletagne, Claude Duchamp
In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, "Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays" (Dégletagne et al...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736225/use-of-propofol-for-induction-and-maintenance-of-anesthesia-in-a-king-penguin-aptenodytes-patagonicus-undergoing-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Sarah E Bigby, Jennifer E Carter, Sébastien Bauquier, Thierry Beths
Anesthesia protocols for patients with intracranial lesions need to provide hemodynamic stability, preserve cerebrovascular autoregulation, avoid increases in intracranial pressure, and facilitate a rapid recovery. Propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) maintains cerebral blood flow autoregulation and is considered superior to inhalant agents as an anesthetic protocol for patients with intracranial lesions. A propofol-based TIVA subsequent to premedication with medetomidine and diazepam was used in a king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after a new onset of seizures...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736223/right-heart-failure-in-an-african-penguin-spheniscus-demersus
#16
Lara Cusack, Cara Field, Alexa McDermott, Brandon Pogue, Tonya Clauss, Gregory Bossart, Alvin Camus
A 19-year-old male African penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was presented with coelomic distention after a 6-week history of lethargy and decreased appetite. Results of radiographs showed loss of coelomic detail, and ultrasound and computed tomography results revealed coelomic fluid and dilated hepatic veins. Echocardiography revealed moderate right atrial enlargement. Findings were consistent with right-sided cardiac disease. Treatment with furosemide initially reduced ascites, but the clinical condition worsened weeks later and enalapril, pimobendan, and sildenafil were added to the medical therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733109/dispersal-in-the-sub-antarctic-king-penguins-show-remarkably-little-population-genetic-differentiation-across-their-range
#17
Gemma V Clucas, Jane L Younger, Damian Kao, Alex D Rogers, Jonathan Handley, Gary D Miller, Pierre Jouventin, Paul Nolan, Karim Gharbi, Karen J Miller, Tom Hart
BACKGROUND: Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population recovery, and expansion...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726937/corticosterone-stress-hormone-responses-in-oil-rehabilitated-and-non-rehabilitated-little-penguins
#18
B L Chilvers, G Finlayson, E J Candy, A Sriram, K J Morgan, J F Cockrem
Whether oiled wildlife should be rehabilitated during an oil spill is internationally debated. Research on little penguins (LP, Eudyptula minor) rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment after the New Zealand C/V Rena grounding oil spill in 2011 found the rehabilitation process was effective at treating and reversing the negative effects of oil-contamination on penguin post-release survival, productivity and diving behaviour. Here we investigated the acute corticosterone stress response of LPs to determine if responses of rehabilitated birds differed from those of "control" birds...
October 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708146/migratory-life-histories-explain-the-extreme-egg-size-dimorphism-of-eudyptes-penguins
#19
Glenn T Crossin, Tony D Williams
When successive stages in the life history of an animal directly overlap, physiological conflicts can arise resulting in carryover effects from one stage to another. The extreme egg-size dimorphism (ESD) of Eudyptes penguins, where the first-laid A-egg is approximately 18-57% smaller than the second-laid B-egg, has interested researchers for decades. Recent studies have linked variation in this trait to a carryover effect of migration that limits the physiology of yolk production and egg sizes. We assembled data on ESD and estimates of migration-reproduction overlap in penguin species and use phylogenetic methods to test the idea that migration-reproduction overlap explains variation in ESD...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691963/evaluation-of-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-cataract-in-captive-macaroni-eudyptes-chrysolophus-and-rockhopper-penguins-eudyptes-chrysocome
#20
Sarah J Woodhouse, Edward L Peterson, Todd Schmitt
Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 Macaroni penguins ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) and 90 Rockhopper penguins ( Eudyptes chrysocome ) at eight North American zoological institutions. Cataract prevalence in the Macaroni population was 46.5% (n = 74) of penguins and 42.3% (135/319) of eyes. Cataract prevalence in the Rockhopper population was 45.5% (n = 40) of penguins and 40.6% (73/180) of eyes. The mean age of Macaroni penguins without ocular disease was 7.4 ± 5.8 yr, while that of Rockhoppers was 9...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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