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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#1
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628443/novel-avulaviruses-in-penguins-antarctica
#2
Víctor Neira, Rodrigo Tapia, Claudio Verdugo, Gonzalo Barriga, Sunil Mor, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Victoria García, José Del Río, Pedro Rodrigues, Cristóbal Briceño, Rafael A Medina, Daniel González-Acuña
We identified 3 novel and distinct avulaviruses from Gentoo penguins sampled in Antarctica. We isolated these viruses and sequenced their complete genomes; serologic assays demonstrated that the viruses do not have cross-reactivity between them. Our findings suggest that these 3 new viruses represent members of 3 novel avulavirus species.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626619/african-penguins-follow-the-gaze-direction-of-conspecifics
#3
Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro
Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623225/high-peripheral-temperatures-in-king-penguins-while-resting-at-sea-thermoregulation-versus-fat-deposition
#4
Agnes Lewden, Manfred R Enstipp, Baptiste Picard, Tessa van Walsum, Yves Handrich
Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616186/at-sea-distribution-and-habitat-use-in-king-penguins-at-sub-antarctic-marion-island
#5
Pierre Pistorius, Mark Hindell, Robert Crawford, Azwianewi Makhado, Bruce Dyer, Ryan Reisinger
King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610533/not-your-average-nurse-the-entertaining-true-story-of-a-student-nurse-in-1970s-london-groff-maggie-not-your-average-nurse-the-entertaining-true-story-of-a-student-nurse-in-1970s-london-352pp-%C3%A2-7-99-penguin-9780552174145-0552174149-formula-see-text
#6
(no author information available yet)
This lighthearted and reflective account was written for the author's daughter to give her an insight into her mother's early years of training as a nursing student.
June 14, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604052/lifespan-changes-in-attention-revisited-everyday-visual-search
#7
Allison A Brennan, Alison J Bruderer, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Todd C Handy, James T Enns
This study compared visual search under everyday conditions among participants across the life span (healthy participants in 4 groups, with average age of 6 years, 8 years, 22 years, and 75 years, and 1 group averaging 73 years with a history of falling). The task involved opening a door and stepping into a room find 1 of 4 everyday objects (apple, golf ball, coffee can, toy penguin) visible on shelves. The background for this study included 2 well-cited laboratory studies that pointed to different cognitive mechanisms underlying each end of the U-shaped pattern of visual search over the life span (Hommel et al...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587840/control-of-biting-lice-mallophaga-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, Alice Caselli, Graziano Di Di Giuseppe, Angelo Canale
The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca...
June 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586686/vision-and-lack-of-vision-in-the-ocean
#9
Justin Marshall
As land-locked animals, when we visualise the ocean our mind's eye may see crashing waves or a vast blue expanse stretching to the horizon, a raft of torpedoing penguins, a glimpse of colourful coral reef fish from the shark-free safety of a sandy beach. Underwater, the crystal-clear, and in fact not at all silent, world of Jacques Cousteau, or more recently David Attenborough, is a wonderland that some cannot wait to witness first hand as divers, while others are content to see it on a screen. Spend a bit of time underwater, in the English Channel for example, and a few facts emerge...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576431/corrigendum-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-juvenile-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus-in-south-america-chemosphere-149-2016-391-399
#10
P Baldassin, S Taniguchi, H Gallo, A Maranho, C Kolesnikovas, D B Amorim, M Mansilla, R M Navarro, L C Tabeira, M C Bicego, R C Montone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575104/genetically-diverse-herpesviruses-in-south-american-atlantic-coast-seabirds
#11
Claudia Niemeyer, Cíntia Maria Favero, H L Shivaprasad, Marcela Uhart, Cesar Meyer Musso, María Virginia Rago, Rodolfo Pinho Silva-Filho, Paula Lima Canabarro, María Isabel Craig, Valeria Olivera, Ariel Pereda, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Different herpesviruses have been associated with respiratory and enteric disease and mortality among seabirds and waterfowl. In 2011, a respiratory disease outbreak affected 58.3% (98/168) of the Magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation due to an oil spill off the southern Brazilian coast. Etiology was attributed to a novel herpesvirus identified by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular studies with partial DNA sequencing. Since migration, rehabilitation and translocation may facilitate the spread of pathogens between populations and trigger the onset of clinical disease in animals with latent infections, investigation of herpesvirus occurrence in asymptomatic seabirds was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572451/mastering-rubella-the-vaccine-race-science-politics-and-the-human-costs-of-defeating-disease-by-meredith-wadman-penguin-random-house-new-york-2017
#12
REVIEW
David Oshinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572332/complete-genome-sequences-of-four-avian-paramyxoviruses-of-serotype-10-isolated-from-rockhopper-penguins-on-the-falkland-islands
#13
Iryna V Goraichuk, Kiril M Dimitrov, Poonam Sharma, Patti J Miller, David E Swayne, David L Suarez, Claudio L Afonso
The first complete genome sequences of four avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 (APMV-10) isolates are described here. The viruses were isolated from rockhopper penguins on the Falkland Islands, sampled in 2007. All four genomes are 15,456 nucleotides in length, and phylogenetic analyses show them to be closely related.
June 1, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558939/the-humboldt-penguin-spheniscus-humboldti-rete-tibiotarsale-a-supreme-biological-heat-exchanger
#14
Shaked Kazas, Moran Benelly, Saar Golan
Humans are unable to survive low temperature environments without custom designed clothing and support systems. In contrast, certain penguin species inhabit extremely cold climates without losing substantial energy to self-heating (emperor penguins ambient temperature plummets to as low as -45°C). Penguins accomplish this task by relying on distinct anatomical, physiological and behavioral adaptations. One such adaptation is a blood vessel heat exchanger called the 'Rete Tibiotarsale' - an intermingled network of arteries and veins found in penguins' legs...
July 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542904/can-resonance-frequency-analysis-rfa-detect-narrow-marginal-bone-defects-around-dental-implants-an-ex-vivo-animal-pilot-study
#15
Coral Jie Yao, Li Ma, Nikos Mattheos
BACKGROUND: Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) is widely applied to assess implant stability, as expressed by Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ). However, the relation between ISQ value and the presence and extent of narrow marginal bone defects around implants has not been documented. PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of RFA devices to identify the presence and extent of marginal bone defects around implants, as expressed by the ISQ values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 28 Straumann bone level implants (BL) and 28 bone level tapered implants (BLT), were placed ex-vivo in porcine ribs...
May 25, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539052/book-review-extreme-measures-finding-a-better-path-to-the-end-of-life-zitter-jn-extreme-measures-finding-a-better-path-to-the-end-of-life-new-york-ny-penguin-random-house-2017-isbn-9781101982570
#16
Asa S Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534252/oxygen-isotope-fractionation-between-bird-bone-phosphate-and-drinking-water
#17
Romain Amiot, Delphine Angst, Serge Legendre, Eric Buffetaut, François Fourel, Jan Adolfssen, Aurore André, Ana Voica Bojar, Aurore Canoville, Abel Barral, Jean Goedert, Stanislaw Halas, Nao Kusuhashi, Ekaterina Pestchevitskaya, Kevin Rey, Aurélien Royer, Antônio Álamo Feitosa Saraiva, Bérengère Savary-Sismondini, Jean-Luc Siméon, Alexandra Touzeau, Zhonghe Zhou, Christophe Lécuyer
Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ(18)Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ(18)Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ(18)Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533952/quantifying-climate-change-impacts-emphasises-the-importance-of-managing-regional-threats-in-the-endangered-yellow-eyed-penguin
#18
Thomas Mattern, Stefan Meyer, Ursula Ellenberg, David M Houston, John T Darby, Melanie Young, Yolanda van Heezik, Philip J Seddon
Climate change is a global issue with effects that are difficult to manage at a regional scale. Yet more often than not climate factors are just some of multiple stressors affecting species on a population level. Non-climatic factors-especially those of anthropogenic origins-may play equally important roles with regard to impacts on species and are often more feasible to address. Here we assess the influence of climate change on population trends of the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) over the last 30 years, using a Bayesian model...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493935/reproductive-effort-affects-oxidative-status-and-stress-in-an-antarctic-penguin-species-an-experimental-study
#19
Roger Colominas-Ciuró, Mercedes Santos, Néstor Coria, Andrés Barbosa
The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE), and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488293/the-challenges-of-detecting-subtle-population-structure-and-its-importance-for-the-conservation-of-emperor-penguins
#20
Jane L Younger, Gemma V Clucas, Damian Kao, Alex D Rogers, Karim Gharbi, Tom Hart, Karen J Miller
Understanding the boundaries of breeding populations is of great importance for conservation efforts and estimates of extinction risk for threatened species. However, determining these boundaries can be difficult when population structure is subtle. Emperor penguins are highly reliant on sea ice, and some populations may be in jeopardy as climate change alters sea-ice extent and quality. An understanding of emperor penguin population structure is therefore urgently needed. Two previous studies have differed in their conclusions, particularly whether the Ross Sea, a major stronghold for the species, is isolated or not...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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