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Caitlin Black, Colin Southwell, Louise Emmerson, Daniel Lunn, Tom Hart
Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period...
2018: PloS One
Tanja Stadler, Alexandra Gavryushkina, Rachel C M Warnock, Alexei J Drummond, Tracy A Heath
A birth-death-sampling model gives rise to phylogenetic trees with samples from the past and the present. Interpreting "birth" as branching speciation, "death" as extinction, and "sampling" as fossil preservation and recovery, this model - also referred to as the fossilized birth-death (FBD) model - gives rise to phylogenetic trees on extant and fossil samples. The model has been mathematically analyzed and successfully applied to a range of datasets on different taxonomic levels, such as penguins, plants, and insects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: Veterinary Record
William Becker, Philippe Hujoel, Burton E Becker
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate implants placed immediately after extraction or with minimally invasive procedures have excellent long-term success and survival rates. There is general agreement that implants must be stable after implant placement. This study evaluated implant stability changes from the time of implant placement to second stage (prior to restoration). Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was determined for two commercially available units (Osstell, Osstell USA, Columbia, MD and Penguin, Penguin Integration Diagnostics, Sweden)...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Yves Cherel, Charline Parenteau, Paco Bustamante, Charles-André Bost
The poorly known winter foraging ecology of the king penguin, a major Southern Ocean consumer, was investigated at the subantarctic Crozet Islands where the largest global population breeds. Blood δ13 C and δ15 N values were used as proxies of the birds' foraging habitat and diet, respectively, and circulating prolactin levels helped in determining the birds' reproductive status. Plasma prolactin concentrations showed that king penguin adults of unknown breeding status ( n  = 52) that were present at the colony in winter were in fact breeders and failed breeders, but were not non -breeders...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Setsu Nakae, Masafumi Shionyu, Tomohisa Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Shirai
The nacreous layer of pearl oysters is one of the major biominerals of commercial and industrial interest. Jacalin-related lectins, including PPL3 isoforms, are known to regulate biomineralization of the Pteria penguin pearl shell, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The PPL3 crystal structures were determined partly by utilizing microgravity environments for three isoforms, namely, PPL3A, PPL3B, and PPL3C. The structures revealed a tail-to-tail dimer structure established by forming a unique inter-subunit disulfide bond at C-termini...
March 9, 2018: Proteins
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature
Marina Renedo, David Amouroux, Bastien Duval, Alice Carravieri, Emmanuel Tessier, Julien Pierre Gilbert Barre, Sylvain Berail, Zoyne Pedrero, Yves Cherel, Paco Bustamante
Blood and feathers are the two most targeted avian tissues for environmental biomonitoring studies, with mercury (Hg) concentration in blood and body feathers reflecting short and long-term Hg exposure, respectively. In this work, we investigated how Hg isotopic composition (e.g. δ202 Hg and Δ199 Hg) of blood and feathers from either seabird chicks (skuas, n=40) or adults (penguins, n=62) can accurately provide information on exposure to Hg in marine ecosystems. Our results indicate a strong correlation between blood and feather Hg isotopic values for skua chicks, with similar δ202 Hg and Δ199 Hg values in the two tissues (mean difference: -0...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Diarmid A Finnegan
In November 1843 John Cassidy, curator in the Belfast Museum received, perhaps rather dolefully, a collection of bird skins. The Museum was barely managing to cope with the constant flow of donations from the 'four quarters of the globe'. But the gift of bird skins could not be ignored. Sent by Captain Francis Crozier, recently returned from the British Antarctic Expedition, the bequest contained 150 species of Southern Ocean birds, including the remains of two immature 'great penguins'. Taking the one surviving specimen as a focal point, this paper compares and contrasts the ways in which Aptenodytes forsteri, or the emperor penguin, was differently scripted on board ship and in the museum...
March 1, 2018: Endeavour
Alex Borowicz, Philip McDowall, Casey Youngflesh, Thomas Sayre-McCord, Gemma Clucas, Rachael Herman, Steven Forrest, Melissa Rider, Mathew Schwaller, Tom Hart, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Michael J Polito, Hanumant Singh, Heather J Lynch
Despite concerted international effort to track and interpret shifts in the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins, large populations continue to be identified. Here we report on a major hotspot of Adélie penguin abundance identified in the Danger Islands off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). We present the first complete census of Pygoscelis spp. penguins in the Danger Islands, estimated from a multi-modal survey consisting of direct ground counts and computer-automated counts of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Feifei Yu, Zhenni Pan, Bingliang Qu, Xiangyong Yu, Kaihang Xu, Yuewen Deng, Feilong Liang
Tyrosinase is a key rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. In this study, a new tyrosinase gene (Tyr) was identified from Pteria penguin and its effect on melanin synthesis was deliberated by RNA interference (RNAi). The cDNA of PpTyr was 1728 bp long, containing a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 11 bp, a 3'UTR of 295 bp, and an open reading fragment of 1422 bp encoding 473 amino acids. Amino acid alignment showed PpTyr had the highest (50%) identity to tyrosinase-like protein 1 from Pinctada fucata...
February 26, 2018: Gene
Jun Young Choi, Jin Ho Kim, Pyung Cheon Lee
Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39T , isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c)...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
S Squadrone, M C Abete, P Brizio, D Pessani, L Favaro
Bird feathers have been proven to be reliable indicators of metal exposure originating from contaminated food and polluted environments. The concentrations of 15 essential and non-essential metals were investigated in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) feathers from a Northwestern Italian zoological facility. These birds are exclusively fed with herring from the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Certain elements, such as Hg and Cd, reflected the bioaccumulation phenomena that occur through the marine food chain...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ralph Vanstreels, Chris H Gardiner, Michael J Yabsley, Liandrie Swanepoel, Cristiane K M Kolesnikovas, Rodolfo P Silva-Filho, Ana C Ewbank, José L Catão-Dias
The Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland/Malvinas islands and is a regular winter migrant in Uruguayan and Brazilian coastal waters. The species is known to be susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans, as well as renal trematodes and pulmonary nematodes. Schistosomes (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Schistosomatidae) and microfilariae (Nematoda, Secernentea, Onchocercidae) were histologically identified in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) that died while under care at rehabilitation centers in southern Brazil...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Melanie L Church, Daniel R Priehs, Heidi Denis, Lara Croft, Stacy DiRocco, Michelle Davis
OBJECTIVE: To describe surgical technique, postoperative complications, and visual outcome in penguins after phacoemulsification lens extraction surgery. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-one penguins (27 eyes) that had phacoemulsification from 2011 to 2015 at Animal Eye Associates. Species included are as follows: 14 southern Rockhopper (18 eyes, 66.6%), 4 Gentoo (4 eyes, 19%), 2 King (3 eyes, 9.5%), and 1 Chinstrap penguin (2 eyes, 4.8%). Eleven of the penguins were females, and 10 were males with average age at the time of surgery being 27...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Emily S Klein, Simeon L Hill, Jefferson T Hinke, Tony Phillips, George M Watters
Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century...
2018: PloS One
Quentin Schull, Jean-Patrice Robin, F Stephen Dobson, Hédi Saadaoui, Vincent A Viblanc, Pierre Bize
Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Javier E Ciancio, Pablo Yorio, Rory Wilson, Esteban Frere
RATIONALE: Food provisioning is considered one of the main traits affecting offspring fitness. Differences in food provisioning between sexes, particularly in dimorphic species, could affect the amount and type of food provided, due to differences in the amount of food carried to the nest as a result of differential resources exploitation. Quantitative evidence for sexual differences in food provisioning by parents in penguins is scarce. The Magellanic penguin is moderately sexually dimorphic and breeds along a broad latitudinal range, with birds north and south of this range being essentially dietary specialists while those at intermediate latitudes consuming a more diverse diet...
January 23, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Richard B Sherley, Barbara J Barham, Peter J Barham, Kate J Campbell, Robert J M Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Cat Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C Votier
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time-area closures around two pairs of colonies...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Barbara Ramos, Daniel González-Acuña, David E Loyola, Warren E Johnson, Patricia G Parker, Melanie Massaro, Gisele P M Dantas, Marcelo D Miranda, Juliana A Vianna
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin species distributed from the equator to Antarctica...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
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