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paediatric neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036580/time-to-epinephrine-and-survival-after-paediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#1
Tatsuma Fukuda, Yutaka Kondo, Kei Hayashida, Hiroshi Sekiguchi, Ichiro Kukita
Aims: Delay in administration of epinephrine is associated with decreased survival among children with in-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial non-shockable rhythm. Whether this association is applicable to paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) population remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether time to epinephrine administration is associated with outcomes in paediatric OHCA. Methods and results: This was a nation-wide population-based study of paediatric OHCA in Japan from 2005 to 2012 based on data from the All-Japan Utstein Registry...
July 11, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026617/cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-multiple-aneurysms-in-a-child-with-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#2
Elisa Kortela, Jukka Hytönen, Jussi Numminen, Margit Overmyer, Harri Saxen, Jarmo Oksi
Introduction. Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Neurological manifestations are reported in up to 15 % of adult patients with Lyme disease, while the frequency among children is higher. The most common manifestations are painful radiculopathy, facial nerve paresis and lymphocytic meningitis. Epileptic seizures and cerebral vasculitis with stroke or aneurysms are very rare complications. Case presentation. We describe a paediatric patient with sensorineural auditory dysfunction, headache, fatigue and epileptic seizures as sequelae of meningoencephalitis/Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) caused by B...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025781/subclinical-meningoventriculitis-as-a-cause-of-obstructive-hydrocephalus
#3
Ravindran Visagan, Laurent James Livermore, Dominic Kelly, Shailendra Magdum
Communicating hydrocephalus may complicate infantile bacterial meningitis, typically presenting with systemic features of infection. We report a rare case of 'subclinical meningoventriculitis' causing obstructive hydrocephalus and its challenging management. A healthy 10-week-old immunocompetent male patient presented with failure to thrive and vomiting, secondary to presumed gastro-oesophageal reflux. The child was neurologically alert, afebrile with normal inflammatory markers. Progressive macrocephaly prompted an MRI confirming triventricular hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017268/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#4
Philip N Britton, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Russell C Dale, Jean Li-Kim-Moy, Gulam Khandaker, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Robert Booy, Allen C Cheng, Cheryl A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza-associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern Hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from 2 studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994623/exploring-functional-outcomes-and-allied-health-staffing-levels-in-an-inpatient-paediatric-rehabilitation-unit
#5
Penelope J Ireland, Amanda Francis, Shani Jackman, Kim McLennan
PURPOSE: This study provides data from a paediatric tertiary hospital on the length of stay, functional improvement and allied health workload for children and adolescents on active inpatient rehabilitation programs. METHODS: An audit was conducted of records of patients managed through an inpatient rehabilitation program at a 359 bed tertiary children's hospital in Brisbane, Australia between December 2014 and December 2015. Data relating to diagnosis, length of stay, functional change, occasions of allied health service and hours of patient attributable allied health professional time were collected...
October 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982953/neuroimaging-and-endocrine-disorders-in-paediatric-optic-nerve-hypoplasia
#6
Xiaoxiao Qian, Samksha Fouzdar Jain, Linda A Morgan, Travis Kruse, Monina Cabrera, Donny W Suh
PURPOSE: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is one of the leading causes of blindness among children. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the risk factors and association between brain MRI findings, pituitary abnormalities and endocrine disorders with the presence of ONH. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients seen at paediatric ophthalmology clinics from January 2006 to December 2016 at Children's Hospital and Medical Center and the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed...
October 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972396/intranasal-nerve-growth-factor-administration-improves-cerebral-functions-in-a-child-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#7
Antonio Chiaretti, Giorgio Conti, Benedetto Falsini, Danilo Buonsenso, Matteo Crasti, Luigi Manni, Marzia Soligo, Claudia Fantacci, Orazio Genovese, Maria Lucia Calcagni, Daniela Di Giuda, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Ruggiero, Susanna Staccioli, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Riccardo Riccardi
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes neural recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) supporting neuronal growth, differentiation and survival of brain cells and up-regulating the neurogenesis-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX). Only a few studies reported NGF administration in paediatric patients with severe TBI. METHODS: A four-year-old boy in a persistent unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) was treated with intranasal murine NGF administration 6 months after severe TBI...
October 3, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969239/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-paediatric-spinal-dysraphism-with-comparative-usefulness-of-various-magnetic-resonance-sequences
#8
Deepakkumar Vinodary Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Spinal dysraphism occurs due to failure of fusion of parts along dorsal aspect of midline structures lying along spinal axis from skin to vertebrae and spinal cord. Congenital spinal anomalies may be minimal and asymptomatic like spinal bifida occulta, or severe with marked neurological deficits like Arnold-Chiari malformation or caudal regression syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to diagnose mild to severe spinal dysraphism. AIM: To diagnose type and extent of clinically suspected spinal anomalies by MRI scan and to compare various sequences for identifying neural tissue and fatty tissue in anomalies...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969235/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-therapeutic-challenge-in-paediatrics
#9
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969140/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-an-emerging-treatment-modality-in-patients-with-neurologic-and-non-neurologic-diseases
#10
Shreedevi S Bobati, Karkal Ravishankar Naik
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE) is a procedure in which the patient's blood is passed through an apheresis machine, where the filtered plasma is removed and discarded with reinfusion of red blood cells along with replacement fluid such as plasma or albumin in to the patient. We present our experience with TPE in treatment of various neurologic and non-neurologic diseases. AIM: To evaluate TPE as primary therapy or as a first-line adjunct to other initial therapies as mentioned by American Society for Apheresis (ASFA)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965695/-evaluating-a-child-after-a-febrile-seizure-insights-on-three-important-issues
#11
S Auvin, M Antonios, G Benoist, M-A Dommergues, F Corrard, V Gajdos, C Gras Leguen, E Launay, A Salaün, L Titomanlio, L Vallée, M Milh
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizures seen in the paediatric population in the out-of-hospital and emergency department settings, and they account for the majority of seizures seen in children younger than 5 years old. An FS is a seizure accompanied by fever, without central nervous system infection, occurring in children between 6 months and 5 years old. Five criteria have been used and taught to classify any FS as simple or complex FS. These factors do not bear the same significance for clinical practice, in particular, the decision to perform a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis to rule out an intracranial infection...
September 28, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960591/acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-south-african-children-causes-respiratory-complications-and-neurological-outcome
#12
Jolanda van der Pijl, Jo M Wilmshurst, Monique van Dijk, Andrew Argent, Jane Booth, Marco Zampoli
AIM: To describe the causes, clinical presentation and neurological outcome of acute flaccid paralysis in children. METHODS: A retrospective study in a tertiary paediatric hospital in South Africa. Data on clinical presentation, respiratory complications and long-term neurological outcomes of children presenting with acute flaccid paralysis were collected. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine predictors for the need of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The study included 119 patients, 99 of whom had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); 47 patients (39...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958698/predictors-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-after-scoliosis-surgery-in-children
#13
Florence Julien-Marsollier, Raphaelle David, Julie Hilly, Christopher Brasher, Daphné Michelet, Souhayl Dahmani
BACKGROUND: Numerous publications describe chronic pain following surgery in both adults and children. However, data in the paediatric population are still sparse and both prevalence of chronic pain after surgery and risk factors of this complication still undetermined. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain and its neuropathic pain component at 1 year following correction of idiopathic scoliosis in children less than 18 years of age...
September 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942742/atlanto-axial-rotatory-fixation-a-serious-potential-complication-of-paediatric-ent-surgery-that-requires-prompt-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
G James, D N P Thompson
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation is a persistent deformity of the C1-2 vertebral relationship caused by subluxation of the articular surfaces, and can occur after positioning for ENT procedures where the head is rotated - for example to access the ear or posterior triangle of the neck. If promptly recognised, it can usually be managed successfully with conservative methods, without long-lasting sequelae, but delayed or inappropriate management may lead to permanent neck deformity, neurological problems and pain...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939504/prognostic-value-of-serum-biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-in-classifying-neurological-outcome-after-paediatric-resuscitation
#15
Peter Kramer, Oliver Miera, Felix Berger, Katharina Schmitt
AIM: To investigate if the serum biomarkers of cerebral injury, neuron-specific enolase and S100b protein, may classify unfavourable neurological outcome after paediatric cardiac arrest. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of neuron-specific enolase and S100b measurements from 95 children treated in our paediatric cardiac intensive care unit after cardiac arrest. Neurological outcome at discharge was evaluated using the paediatric cerebral performance category scale, with unfavourable outcome defined as a change of >1 compared to pre-arrest status or death...
September 20, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937508/status-dystonicus-in-childhood
#16
Daniel E Lumsden, Mary D King, Nicholas M Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dystonia is a common paediatric neurological condition. At its most severe, dystonia may lead to life-threatening complications, a state termed status dystonicus. This review provides an update on the definition, causes, management and outcome of childhood status dystonicus. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies in childhood status dystonicus are lacking, though an increasing number of case series have been published. Status dystonicus appears to occur more frequently in children compared with adults, with a clear precipitant identified in around two-thirds of cases...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927671/quality-language-subdiscipline-and-promotion-were-associated-with-article-accesses-on-physiotherapy-evidence-database-pedro
#17
Tiê P Yamato, Mohit Arora, Matthew L Stevens, Mark R Elkins, Anne M Moseley
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between the number of times articles are accessed on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and the article characteristics. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between accesses and the number of citations of articles. METHOD: The study was conducted to derive prediction models for the number of accesses of articles indexed on PEDro from factors that may influence an article's accesses. All articles available on PEDro from August 2014 to January 2015 were included...
August 12, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927190/outcomes-differ-by-first-documented-rhythm-after-witnessed-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-children-an-observational-study-with-prospective-nationwide-population-based-cohort-database-in-japan
#18
Masahiko Hara, Kenichi Hayashi, Tetsuhisa Kitamura
Aims: To evaluate and compare outcomes and impacts of delay of time to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by type of first documented rhythm in paediatric patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods and results: We enrolled 3968 paediatric (aged <18 years) OHCA patients whose events were witnessed between 2005 and 2012 from a prospective nationwide population-based cohort database in Japan. We assessed and compared their neurologically favourable 1-month survival according to first documented rhythm: pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (pVT/VF), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), or asystole...
January 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#19
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#20
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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