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Isoflurane CA1

De-An Zhao, Ling-Yun Bi, Qian Huang, Fang-Min Zhang, Zi-Ming Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Jiro Ezaki, Ryo Shimada, Misato Shibuya, Kazuhiko Kibayashi
OBJECTIVES: In experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic hippocampal neuronal degeneration in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), and/or the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) regions are regarded as the most notable phenotypic appearances relating to the pathophysiology of human post-concussion syndrome. However, these morphological changes are often also seen in subjects without TBI, namely 'sham' groups. The frequencies and reasons of appearance of hippocampal neuronal degeneration in mice with TBI and/or sham are not clear...
September 10, 2016: Neurological Research
Pavel I Zimin, Christian B Woods, Albert Quintana, Jan-Marino Ramirez, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
An enigma of modern medicine has persisted for over 150 years. The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. Many attractive putative molecular targets have failed to produce a significant effect when genetically tested in whole-animal models [1-3]. However, mitochondrial defects increase VA sensitivity in diverse organisms from nematodes to humans [4-6]. Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine [7]...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Kevin N Hascup, Mary K Lynn, Patrick J Fitzgerald, Shari Randall, John J Kopchick, Heather A Boger, Andrzej Bartke, Erin R Hascup
Growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) mice are long lived with improved health span, making this an excellent model system for understanding biochemical mechanisms important to cognitive reserve. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate differences in cognition and glutamatergic dynamics between aged (20- to 24-month-old) GHR-KO and littermate controls. Glutamate plays a critical role in hippocampal learning and memory and is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease...
May 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kevin N Hascup, Erin R Hascup
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and hippocampal atrophy. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and plaque accumulation is implicated as the neurotoxic species in this disorder; however, at physiological concentrations (pM-nM), Aβ42 contributes to neurogenesis, long-term potentiation, and neuromodulation. Because Aβ42 binds the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) located presynaptically on glutamatergic terminals, involved with hippocampal dependent learning and memory, we examined the effects of the human, monomeric isoform of Aβ42 on glutamate release in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1, of isoflurane anesthetized, 6-9 month old male C57BL/6J mice...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sheng Wang, Jiangwen Yin, Mingyue Ge, Zhigang Dai, Yan Li, Junqiang Si, Ketao Ma, Li Li, Shanglong Yao
AIM: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication in the perioperative period. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a key protein that can participate in the repair and control process responses after I/R injury. Isoflurane is widely used in neurosurgery. Previous studies have shown that isoflurane preconditioning plays an important role in neuroprotection. However, the effects of isoflurane postconditioning on cerebral I/R injury have not yet been elucidated...
March 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fei-Juan Kong, Lei-Lei Ma, Hong-Hai Zhang, Jia-Qiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is increasingly recognized as an important clinical syndrome. Inhalation anesthetics are commonly used during surgery, and it has been proposed that inhalation anesthetics impair cognitive function. However, there are few clinical interventions and treatments available to prevent this disorder. GTS-21, a selective agonist of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been indicated to exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental animal models of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 2015: Journal of Surgical Research
M B MacIver, Brian H Bland
It has long been known that electroencephalogram (EEG) signals generate chaotic strange attractors and the shape of these attractors correlate with depth of anesthesia. We applied chaos analysis to frontal cortical and hippocampal micro-EEG signals from implanted microelectrodes (layer 4 and CA1, respectively). Rats were taken to and from loss of righting reflex (LORR) with isoflurane and behavioral measures were compared to attractor shape. Resting EEG signals at LORR differed markedly from awake signals, more similar to slow wave sleep signals, and easily discerned in raw recordings (high amplitude slow waves), and in fast Fourier transform analysis (FFT; increased delta power), in good agreement with previous studies...
2014: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Bradley H Lee, John Thomas Chan, Obhi Hazarika, Laszlo Vutskits, Jeffrey W Sall
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic exposure early in life affects neural development and long-term cognitive function, but our understanding of the types of memory that are altered is incomplete. Specific cognitive tests in rodents that isolate different memory processes provide a useful approach for gaining insight into this issue. METHODS: Postnatal day 7 (P7) rats were exposed to either desflurane or isoflurane at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Acute neuronal death was assessed 12 h later in the thalamus, CA1-3 regions of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus...
2014: PloS One
M Bruce MacIver
BACKGROUND: Anesthetics enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. Different agents have been shown to act on tonic versus synaptic GABA receptors to different degrees, but it remains unknown whether different forms of synaptic inhibition are also differentially engaged. With this in mind, we tested the hypothesis that different types of GABA-mediated synapses exhibit different anesthetic sensitivities. The present study compared effects produced by isoflurane, halothane, pentobarbital, thiopental, and propofol on paired-pulse GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition...
September 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Carolina Quiroga, Rafael E Chaparro, Rachel Karlnoski, Diana Erasso, Marcia Gordon, David Morgan, Gerardo Bosco, Alessandro Rubini, Andrea Parmagnani, Antonio Paoli, Devanand Mangar, Enrico M Camporesi
The use of anesthetics and sedatives has been suggested to be a contributor to Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We wanted to address the in vivo relevance of those substances in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's mouse model. Tg7526 mice were anesthesia-sedated for 90 min once a week for 4 weeks. Y maze, Congo Red, and amyloid beta (Aβ) immunochemistry were performed. We did not find any significant change in the navigation behavior of the exposed mice compared to the controls. Significantly less deposition of Aβ in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice exposed to isoflurane, propofol, diazepam, ketamine, and pentobarbital was observed...
November 2014: Neurotoxicity Research
T Zhong, Q J Qing, Y Yang, W Y Zou, Z Ye, J Q Yan, Q L Guo
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane produces amnesia in mice during contextual fear conditioning (CFC) trials. Histone acetylation is a form of chromatin modification involved in the transcriptional regulation underlying memory formation. We investigated whether isoflurane-induced repression of contextual fear memory is related to altered histone acetylation in the hippocampus, and whether it can be rescued by the histone deacetylases inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB). METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were chronically given intraperitoneal injections of SB or vehicle for 28 days...
October 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Kazuhiro Uchimoto, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Yoshinori Kamiya, Takahiro Mihara, Yukihide Koyama, Masataka Taguri, Gaku Inagawa, Takuya Takahashi, Takahisa Goto
BACKGROUND: General anesthesia induces long-lasting cognitive and learning deficits. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The GluA1 subunit of AMPAR is a key molecule for learning and synaptic plasticity, which requires trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs into the synapse. METHODS: Adult male rats were exposed to 1.8% isoflurane for 2 h and subjected to an inhibitory avoidance task, which is a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear learning paradigm (n = 16 to 39)...
August 2014: Anesthesiology
Bradley H Lee, John Thomas Chan, Ekaterina Kraeva, Katherine Peterson, Jeffrey W Sall
Volatile anesthetics are used widely for achieving a state of unconsciousness, yet these agents are incompletely understood in their mechanisms of action and effects on neural development. There is mounting evidence that children exposed to anesthetic agents sustain lasting effects on learning and memory. The explanation for these behavioral changes remains elusive, although acute neuronal death after anesthesia is commonly believed to be a principal cause. Rodent models have shown that isoflurane exposure in newborns induces acute neuroapoptosis and long-term cognitive impairment...
August 2014: Neuropharmacology
Eduardo Chaparro, Carolina Quiroga, Diana Erasso, Gerardo Bosco, Alessandro Rubini, Devanand Mangar, Enrico Camporesi
CONTEXT: Hypotension causes histologic changes in the hippocampal CA1 area, while behavior remains unchanged. We believe that an even stronger insult may also cause behavioral changes. OBJECTIVE: We used a rat hemorrhagic shock model plus temporary hypoxia to assess functional outcome at different time points post-injury. Our hypothesis is that the damage can be attenuated by the use of isoflurane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were subjected to brief hypotension...
December 2014: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
M Deng, R D Hofacer, C Jiang, B Joseph, E A Hughes, B Jia, S C Danzer, A W Loepke
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia facilitates surgical operations and painful interventions in millions of patients every year. Recent observations of anaesthetic-induced neuronal cell death in newborn animals have raised substantial concerns for young children undergoing anaesthesia. However, it remains unclear why some brain regions are more affected than others, why certain neurones are eliminated while neighbouring cells are seemingly unaffected, and what renders the developing brain exquisitely vulnerable, while the adult brain apparently remains resistant to the phenomenon...
September 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
M-H Piao, Y Liu, Y-S Wang, J-P Qiu, C-S Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Volatile anesthetic isoflurane contributes to postoperative cognitive dysfunction and inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic model of learning and memory, but the mechanisms are uncertain. Central neuronal α4β2 subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in the induction of LTP in the hippocampus. Isoflurane inhibits α4β2 nAChRs at concentrations lower than those used for anesthesia. Therefore, we hypothesized that isoflurane-inhibited LTP induction of hippocampal CA1 neurons via α4β2 nAChRs subtype inhibition...
October 2013: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
Heather Brosnan, Philip E Bickler
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain of rodents and primates has raised concern. Xenon may be a nonneurotoxic alternative to halogenated anesthetics, but its toxicity has only been studied at low concentrations, where neuroprotective effects predominate in animal models. An equipotent comparison of xenon and halogenated anesthetics with respect to neurotoxicity in developing neurons has not been made. METHODS: Organotypic hippocampal cultures from 7-day-old rats were exposed to 0...
August 2013: Anesthesiology
Giovanni Carriero, Salvatore Arcieri, Alessandro Cattalini, Laura Corsi, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Marco de Curtis
PURPOSE:   Models of temporal lobe epilepsy are commonly utilized to study focal epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. The criteria that define animal models representative of human mesial temporal lobe may vary in different laboratories. We describe herein a focal epilepsy model of mesial temporal (hippocampal) origin that relies on the analysis of interictal and ictal electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and on their correlation with seizure symptoms and neuropathologic findings. The study is based on guinea pigs, a species seldom utilized to develop chronic epilepsy models...
November 2012: Epilepsia
Fei-Juan Kong, Lei-Lei Ma, Wen-Wen Hu, Wen-Na Wang, Hui-Shun Lu, Shu-Ping Chen
We developed a maternal fetal rat model to study the effects of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity on the fetuses of pregnant rats exposed in utero. Pregnant rats at gestational day 14 were exposed to 1.3 or 3% isoflurane for 1h. At postnatal day 28, spatial learning and memory of the offspring were examined using the Morris Water Maze. The apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal CA1 region. Simultaneously, the ultrastructure changes of synapse in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus region were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 15, 2012: Biochemical Pharmacology
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