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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324865/biomaterials-for-intervertebral-disc-regeneration-and-repair
#1
REVIEW
Robert D Bowles, Lori A Setton
The intervertebral disc contributes to motion, weight bearing, and flexibility of the spine, but is susceptible to damage and morphological changes that contribute to pathology with age and injury. Engineering strategies that rely upon synthetic materials or composite implants that do not interface with the biological components of the disc have not met with widespread use or desirable outcomes in the treatment of intervertebral disc pathology. Here we review bioengineering advances to treat disc disorders, using cell-supplemented materials, or acellular, biologically based materials, that provide opportunity for cell-material interactions and remodeling in the treatment of intervertebral disc disorders...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324803/leishmania-donovani-resistant-to-ambisome-or-miltefosine-exacerbates-cd58-expression-on-nk-cells-and-promotes-trans-membrane-migration-in-association-with-cd2
#2
Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Fauzia Jamal, Vikash Kumar, Manish Kumar, Sanjiva Bimal, Shyam Narayan, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Krishna Pandey, Anil Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar Kumar Singh
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that is associated with compromised immunity and drug un-responsiveness as well as with the emergence of drug resistance in Leishmania donovani (Ld). Ld down-modulates cellular immunity by manipulating signaling agents, including a higher expression of the adhesion molecule CD58. The expression of CD58 and CD2 on natural killer (NK) cells facilitates intercellular adhesion and signaling. The influence of drug-resistant Ld on the expression of CD58 and CD2 was addressed in this study...
March 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324713/monolithic-cobalt-doped-carbon-aerogel-for-efficient-catalytic-activation-of-peroxymonosulfate-in-water
#3
Peidong Hu, Mingce Long, Xue Bai, Cheng Wang, Caiyun Cai, Jiajun Fu, Baoxue Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou
As an emerging carbonaceous material, carbon aerogels (CAs) display a great potential in environmental cleanup. In this study, a macroscopic three-dimensional monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel was developed by co-condensation of graphene oxide sheets and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in the presence of cobalt ions, followed by lyophilization, carbonization and thermal treatment in air. Cobalt ions were introduced as a polymerization catalyst to bridge the organogel framework, and finally cobalt species were retained as both metallic cobalt and Co3O4, wrapped by graphitized carbon layers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324657/a-review-of-the-current-state-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-methods-for-brachyspira
#4
Dharmasiri G R S Kulathunga, Joseph E Rubin
The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000's has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage, the lack of standardized methods is therefore an important limitation to the evidence based use of antimicrobials...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324594/polymers-in-the-delivery-of-sirna-for-the-treatment-of-virus-infections
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas Reynolds, Megan Dearnley, Tracey M Hinton
Viral diseases remain a major cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in vaccine and antiviral drug technology, each year over three million people die from a range of viral infections. Predominant viruses include human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, and gastrointestinal and respiratory viruses. Now more than ever, robust, easily mobilised and cost-effective antiviral strategies are needed to combat both known and emerging disease threats. RNA interference and small interfering (si)RNAs were initially hailed as a "magic bullet", due to their ability to inhibit the synthesis of any protein via the degradation of its complementary messenger RNA sequence...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324452/a-review-of-ranibizumab-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
REVIEW
Michael W Stewart
INTRODUCTION: Laser photocoagulation has been the standard treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) for several decades. The discovery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the subsequent determination of its critical role in the development DME and PDR has led to the development of VEGF inhibitory drugs. Ranibizumab was the first anti-VEGF drug approved for the treatment of both DME and diabetic retinopathy in eyes with DME. METHODS: Medline searches with the keywords "ranibizumab," "diabetic macular edema," and "proliferative diabetic retinopathy" were performed to identify pertinent pre-clinical studies and clinical trials...
March 21, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324318/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-for-the-treatment-of-pain-not-just-in-migraine-and-trigeminal-neuralgia
#7
Giorgio Sandrini, Roberto De Icco, Cristina Tassorelli, Nicola Smania, Stefano Tamburin
BACKGROUND: Despite their huge epidemiological impact, primary headaches, trigeminal neuralgia and other chronic pain conditions still receive suboptimal medical approach, even in developed countries. The limited efficacy of current pain-killers and prophylactic treatments stands among the main reasons for this phenomenon. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) represents a well-established and licensed treatment for chronic migraine, but also an emerging treatment for other types of primary headache, trigeminal neuralgia, neuropathic pain, and an increasing number of pain conditions...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324302/huntington-s-disease-update-on-treatments
#8
REVIEW
Kara J Wyant, Andrew J Ridder, Praveen Dayalu
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, behavioral, and cognitive decline, ending in death. Despite the discovery of the underlying genetic mutation more than 20 years ago, treatment remains focused on symptomatic management. Chorea, the most recognizable symptom, responds to medication that reduces dopaminergic neurotransmission. Psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety may also respond well to symptomatic therapies...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324270/obinutuzumab-a-review-in-rituximab-refractory-or-relapsed-follicular-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Sohita Dhillon
Obinutuzumab (Gazyva(®), Gazyvaro(®)) is a recombinant, monoclonal, humanized and glycoengineered, type II, anti-CD20, IgG1 antibody. It has recently been granted an additional indication for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma who relapsed after, or are refractory to, a rituximab-containing regimen. In the primary analysis of the large, phase III GADOLIN study, induction therapy with obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) to a statistically significant extent relative to induction with bendamustine monotherapy in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (iNHL)...
March 21, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324238/kinetics-of-expression-of-genes-involved-in-glucose-metabolism-after-the-last-meal-in-overfed-mule-ducks
#10
Tavernier Annabelle, Ricaud Karine, Bernadet Marie-Dominique, Davail Stéphane, Gontier Karine
In waterfowls, overfeeding leads to a hepatic steatosis, also called "foie gras." We decided to investigate the role of glucose metabolism in steatosis emergence. For this, we measured the expression of genes during the 12 h following the last meal of the overfeeding period. As expected, it showed that the expression of glucose transporter is more precocious in jejunal mucosa, especially for SGLT1, known to be the major transporter at the apical surface. In the liver, GLUT2 and HK1 are upregulated at the same time and seem to work together to import glucose...
March 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324183/multimodality-management-and-outcomes-of-brain-arterio-venous-malformations-avms-in-children-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature-with-specific-emphasis-on-age-at-first-avm-bleed
#11
REVIEW
Anan Shtaya, John Millar, Owen Sparrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to study the presentation and analyse the results of multimodality treatment of brain arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in children at our centre and review age at first AVM rupture in the literature. METHODS: Of 52 patients aged <18 years, 47 with brain AVMs (27 males and 20 females) aged 4-17 years (mean 12.2) were retrospectively reviewed. PubMed search revealed five additional studies including 267 patients where the prevalence of age-related AVMs rupture was analysed...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324167/efficacy-and-safety-of-golimumab-52-week-maintenance-therapy-in-japanese-patients-with-moderate-to-severely-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-phase-3-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-pursuit-j-study
#12
Toshifumi Hibi, Yuya Imai, Asako Senoo, Kentaro Ohta, Yoshifumi Ukyo
BACKGROUND: The global phase 3 studies of golimumab [PURSUIT-SC and PURSUIT-maintenance (M)], an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) antibody, have demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety as induction and maintenance therapies in patients with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of golimumab as maintenance therapy in the Japanese population. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled, parallel group, randomized withdrawal study, 144 Japanese patients with moderately to severely active UC received golimumab doses of 200 mg (at week 0) and 100 mg (at week 2) subcutaneously during the 6-week open-label induction phase...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324108/hypoparathyroidism-less-severe-hypocalcemia-with-treatment-with-vitamin-d2-compared-to-calcitriol
#13
Elizabeth A Streeten, Yasaman Mohtasebi, Manige Konig, Lisa Davidoff, Kathleen Ryan
Context: Options for chronic treatment of hypoparathyroidism include calcitriol, recombinant human parathyroid hormone and high dose vitamin D (D2). D2 is used in a minority because of fear of prolonged hypercalcemia and renal toxicity. There is a paucity of recent data about D2 use in hypoparathyroidism. Objective: Compare renal function, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in patients with hypoparathyroidism treated chronically with either D2 or calcitriol. Design, setting, patients: A retrospective study of patients with hypoparathyroidism treated at University of Maryland Hospital...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323572/bilateral-changes-in-deep-tissue-environment-after-manual-lymphatic-drainage-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-treatment-related-lymphedema
#14
Paula M C Donahue, Rachelle Crescenzi, Allison O Scott, Vaughn Braxton, Aditi Desai, Seth A Smith, John Jordi, Ingrid M Meszoely, Ana M Grau, Rondi M Kauffmann, Raeshell S Sweeting, Kandace Spotanski, Sheila H Ridner, Manus J Donahue
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL) arises from a mechanical insufficiency following cancer therapies. Early BCRL detection and personalized intervention require an improved understanding of the physiological processes that initiate lymphatic impairment. Here, internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of the tissue microenvironment were paired with clinical measures of tissue structure to test fundamental hypotheses regarding structural tissue and muscle changes after the commonly used therapeutic intervention of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD)...
March 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323477/-the-service-i-rendered-was-just-as-true-african-american-soldiers-and-veterans-as-activist-patients
#15
Jessica L Adler
In this article, I examine how African American soldiers and veterans experienced and shaped federally sponsored health care during and after World War I. Building on studies of the struggles of Black leaders and health care providers to win professional and public health advancement in the 1920s and 1930s, and of advocates to mobilize for health care rights in the mid-20th century, I focus primarily on the experiences and activism of patients in the interwar years. Private and government correspondence, congressional testimony, and reports from Black newspapers reveal that African American soldiers and veterans communicated directly with policymakers and bureaucrats regarding unequal treatment, assuming roles as "policy actors" who viewed health and medical care as "politics by other means...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323441/breaking-binaries-biomedicine-and-serostatus-borderlands-among-couples-with-mixed-hiv-status
#16
Asha Persson, Christy E Newman, Jeanne Ellard
With recent breakthroughs in HIV treatment and prevention, the meanings of HIV-positivity and HIV-negativity are changing at biomedical and community levels. We explore how binary constructions of HIV serostatus identities are giving way to something more complex that brings both welcome possibilities and potential concerns. We draw on research with couples with mixed HIV status to argue that, in the context of lived experiences, serostatus identities have always been more ambiguous than allowed for in HIV discourse...
February 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320175/mechanical-embolectomy-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-beyond-six-hours-from-symptom-onset-using-mri-based-perfusion-imaging
#17
Ryan A McTaggart, Shadi Yaghi, Daniel C Sacchetti, Richard A Haas, Morgan Hemendinger, Daniel Arcuri, Jeffrey M Rogg, Karen L Furie, Mahesh V Jayaraman
INTRODUCTION: There is very limited data on the use of MRI based perfusion imaging to select patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO) for intraarterial therapy beyond 6h from onset. Our aim is to report the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke and large artery occlusion who presented beyond 6h from onset, had favorable MRI imaging profile, and underwent mechanical embolectomy. METHODS: This is a single institution (Rhode Island Hospital) retrospective study between December 1st, 2015, and July 30th, 2016 that included patients with acute ischemic stroke and proximal LVO with CT ASPECTS of 6 or more and 6-24h from symptom onset who were assessed for mechanical embolectomy using MRI based perfusion imaging...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320159/prevalence-of-peripheral-neuropathy-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
Maria Luiza Areal Corrêa de Sá E Benevides, Sérgio Beduschi Filho, Rodrigo Debona, Eduardo Novaes Costa Bergamaschi, Jean Costa Nunes
The progress on HIV infection treatment has allowed a longer survival for HIV-infected patients. However, chronic comorbidities are emerging. Peripheral Neuropathy (PN) represents one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders among these patients, and comprehensive studies may contribute to a reduction in the morbidity of this condition. This is a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in southern Brazil. This study investigates the prevalence of PN among HIV-infected patients and associated demographic, clinical and laboratory variables...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320139/10-year-outcomes-after-rituximab-for-myasthenia-gravis-efficacy-safety-costs-of-inhospital-care-and-impact-on-childbearing-potential
#19
Karl Stieglbauer, Robert Pichler, Raffi Topakian
Rituximab (RTX) has emerged as an attractive off-label treatment option for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) refractory to other immune therapies. However, data on long-term outcome after RTX for MG are still scarce. Here we present the 10-year outcomes [median (range) 10.1 (6.7-11.2) years] with respect to efficacy, safety, costs of inhospital care, and impact on childbearing potential in all four MG patients treated by one of the authors with RTX. In all patients, RTX led to sustained clinical improvement and eventual tapering of other immune therapies...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319807/targeting-nf-kappa-b-signaling-by-artesunate-restores-sensitivity-of-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-antiandrogens
#20
Jessica J Nunes, Swaroop K Pandey, Anjali Yadav, Sakshi Goel, Bushra Ateeq
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most preferred treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the disease eventually progresses and develops resistance to ADT in majority of the patients, leading to the emergence of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we assessed artesunate (AS), an artemisinin derivative, for its anticancer properties and ability to alleviate resistance to androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. We have shown AS in combination with bicalutamide (Bic) attenuates the oncogenic properties of the castrate-resistant (PC3, 22RV1) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) PCa cells...
March 16, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
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