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Hpv oropharynx cancer

Jacqueline R Kelly, Zain A Husain, Barbara Burtness
Increasingly, squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OPSCC) is attributable to transformation resulting from high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Such cancers are significantly more responsive to treatment than traditional tobacco- and alcohol-associated squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Conventional management with definitive chemoradiation, surgery and adjuvant radiation, or radiation given with altered fractionation schemes, while effective, incurs long-term morbidity that escalates with treatment intensity and significantly impairs quality of life...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
P Morbini, M Benazzo
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a well-defined entity mostly affecting young to middle-aged male non-smokers. It is generally associated with a favourable outcome, and for this reason a less intensive therapeutic approach has been proposed for this subset of patients. The incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers is rapidly increasing in most Western countries, but detailed epidemiological data are not available for the Italian population. Furthermore, among other head and neck regions, a smaller proportion of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancers seems to depend on HPV infection, whereas its role in laryngeal cancer is recognised as less relevant...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
R L Ferris, J L Geiger, S Trivedi, N C Schmitt, D E Heron, J T Johnson, S Kim, U Duvvuri, D A Clump, J E Bauman, J P Ohr, W E Gooding, A Argiris
BACKGROUND: Treatment intensification for resected, high-risk, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an area of active investigation with novel adjuvant regimens under study. In this trial, the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) pathway was targeted using the IgG2 monoclonal antibody panitumumab in combination with cisplatin chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in high-risk, resected HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients included resected pathologic stage III or IVA squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, or human-papillomavirus (HPV)-negative oropharynx, without gross residual tumor, featuring high-risk factors (margins <1 mm, extracapsular extension, perineural or angiolymphatic invasion, or ≥2 positive lymph nodes)...
October 11, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Barbara Wollenberg
HNSCC is a heterogeneous group of tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Originally, tobacco and alcohol exposures were the main risk factors for HNSCC. In the last two decades, HPV infections have been identified as a risk factor for HNSCC, especially for oropharyngeal tumors. Whereas the HPV-induced oropharyngeal carcinomas predominantly express the HPV16 related E6 and E7 oncoproteins, the HPV-negative HNSCC are associated with an overexpression of p53. However, if the therapy successes for HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCCs are compared, there are significantly higher total survival rates for HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors compared to HPV-negative tumors...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Jan B Vermorken
When deciding how to treat patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), several factors have to be taken into account: disease factors, patient factors, treatment factors, and the wish of the patient. This symposium article is summarizing the information on HPV (p16) in the context of decision making in SCCHN patients with locoregionally advanced disease and those with recurrent/metastatic disease. The literature data suggest that HPV(p16) has prognostic significance, both in locoregionally advanced disease (in particular, in oropharynx cancer) and in recurrent/metastatic disease, while there are only limited data on its predictive significance...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Ruud H Brakenhoff, Steffen Wagner, Jens P Klussmann
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The large majority are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that develop in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract. These tumors develop either by exogenous carcinogen exposure (smoking, alcohol drinking) or by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly those in the oropharynx (OPSCC). HPV-positive (HPV+ve) and HPV-negative (HPV-ve) OPSCC are considered different disease entities. HPV+ve tumors are different at the molecular level and likely as a consequence have a much more favorable prognosis than HPV-ve tumors, despite their generally advanced stage at presentation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Kiyoshi Misawa, Daiki Mochizuki, Shiori Endo, Masato Mima, Yuki Misawa, Atsushi Imai, Kazuya Shinmura, Takeharu Kanazawa, Thomas E Carey, Hiroyuki Mineta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the promoter methylation status of galanin (GAL) and galanin receptor 1/2 (GALR1/2) by assessing their association with disease-free survival and known prognostic factors in head and neck cancer. METHODS: We generated methylation profiles of GAL and GALR1/2 in tumor samples obtained from 202 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); these included 43 hypopharynx, 42 larynx, 59 oral cavity, and 58 oropharynx tumor samples...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ying Yuan, Erich M Sturgis, Lijun Zhu, Meixia Lu, Yuncheng Li, Qingyi Wei, Guojun Li
Human papillomavirus (HPV) activates E2F1-driven transcription via the E7-RB1-E2F pathway. Genetic polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) targeted by miRNAs can affect the regulation of target genes and individual cancer risk. Thus, we hypothesized that a polymorphism at the 3'UTR miRNA binding site of E2F1 gene (rs3213180) was associated with risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and tumor HPV status of oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We determined the E2F1rs3213180 polymorphism and HPV16 L1 serology of 325 OSCC patients and 335 controls, and tumor HPV16 status of 552 OPSCC...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Dania Bucchi, Fabrizio Stracci, Nicola Buonora, Giuseppe Masanotti
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Erik Liederbach, Alexandra Kyrillos, Chi-Hsiung Wang, Jeffrey C Liu, Erich M Sturgis, Mihir K Bhayani
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) landscape is evolving with human papillomavirus (HPV) being a rising cause of oropharynx carcinoma (OPC). This study seeks to investigate a national database for HPV-associated oropharynx carcinoma (HPV-OPC). Using the National Cancer Data Base, we analyzed 22,693 patients with HPV-OPC and known HPV status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were utilized to examine differences between HPV positive and HPV negative OPC. 14,805 (65.2%) patients were HPV positive...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yuncheng Li, Erich M Sturgis, Ying Yuan, Meixia Lu, Xiaoli Cao, Qingyi Wei, Guojun Li
Given roles of HPV and genetic factors in cancer risk, we evaluated associations of HPV16 seropositivity and five E2F2 promoter variants with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx (SCCOP) and squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity (SCCOC) risk in a case-control study of 325 patients and 335 cancer-free matched controls. We found that HPV16 seropositivity was significantly associated with SCCOP risk (aOR, 5.4, 95%CI, 3.7-8.9) but not SCCOC (aOR, 0.8, 95%CI, 0.4-1.5), while each E2F2 polymorphism had no significant main effect on SCCOP and SCCOC risk...
September 8, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Hongwei Liu, Jintao Li, Yubai Zhou, Qin Hu, Yi Zeng, Mohammadzad Mehryar Mohammadreza
Many epidemical and biological studies have proposed that human papillomavirus (HPV), primarily high-risk HPV16/18, is an etiological factor for a subset of head and neck (HN) cancers. On that premise, we systematically reviewed relevant articles and improved the understanding of HPV-related cancers. This article comprehensively described the characteristics of HPV-associated HN tumors according to demography, histopathology, molecular biology, and prognosis. Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the studies that reported the association between HPV status and these variables using Rev Man 5...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Anil K Chaturvedi, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Maura L Gillison, Hormuzd A Katki
BACKGROUND: HPV-positive oropharynx cancer is frequently characterized as a disease of never-smokers due to higher HPV prevalence in oropharynx tumors among never-smokers than ever-smokers. We sought to estimate the burden (incidence rates and case counts) of HPV-positive oropharynx cancers among never, former, and current smokers in the US population by combining data from several sources. METHODS: We decomposed the SEER population-level incidence of oropharynx cancers into rates among never-, former-, and current-smokers using a formula based upon rate ratios (RR) for the smoking-oropharynx cancer association (NIH-AARP cohort study) and smoking prevalence in the U...
September 2016: Oral Oncology
Marian Švajdler, Jan Laco, Ondrej Ondič, Jana Kašpírková, Roman Mezencev, Michal Michal, Alena Skálová
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-OSCC) represents a specific clinical and pathological entity among head and neck cancers with more favorable prognosis than corresponding HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). HPV-OSCC most commonly displays non-keratinzing SCC histology, although number of cases presented variable morphology. Detection of transcriptionally active HPV in oropharyngeal SCCs is of critical prognostic importance, which even supersedes the importance of their formal pathological grading...
2016: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Gaurav Gupta, Viviana Giannino, Narayan Rishi, Reinhard Glueck
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Stein Lybak, Borghild Ljøkjel, Hilde Haave, Àsa Karlsdottir, Olav K Vintermyr, Hans Jørgen Aarstad
We changed the primary oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treatment recommendation from primary radiation therapy (RT) to tumor surgery and neck dissection, followed by RT around the year 2000 with apparently improved survival. However, high-risk human papilloma virus (hr-HPV)-16-caused OPSCCs have increased during this period. Furthermore, hr-HPV+ OPSCC carry a better prognosis than hr-HPV-negative patients. We have, therefore, evaluated the 5-year survival in the period from 1992 to 1999 versus 2000 to 2008 stratified by hr-HPV tumor infection status...
August 4, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Matthew C Ward, Richard Blake Ross, Shlomo A Koyfman, Robert Lorenz, Eric D Lamarre, Joseph Scharpf, Brian B Burkey, Nikhil P Joshi, Neil M Woody, Brandon Prendes, Narcissa Houston, Chandana A Reddy, John F Greskovich, David J Adelstein
Importance: Late toxic effects are common after definitive radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for oropharynx cancer and are considered a significant contributor to decreased quality of life for survivors. The incidence of severe late toxic effects may be reduced by modern narrow-margin image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT), current supportive care improvements, and the changing epidemiology of oropharynx cancer. Objective: Assess the incidence of severe late toxic effects after modern definitive non-operative treatment for oropharynx cancer...
July 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Lisa A Peterson, Emily L Bellile, Gregory T Wolf, Shama Virani, Andrew G Shuman, Jeremy M G Taylor, Laura S Rozek
BACKGROUND: To better understand the associations between a history of tobacco use and survival outcomes, cigarette use was prospectively surveyed in 687 previously untreated patients with cancer of the oral cavity (n = 271), oropharynx (n = 257), larynx (n = 135), or hypopharynx (n = 24). METHODS: Kaplan-Meier and Cox models explored the associations of tobacco use intensity (packs/day), duration (years of use), and timing before diagnosis with overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS)...
July 19, 2016: Head & Neck
Heather M Walline, Christine M Komarck, Jonathan B McHugh, Emily L Bellile, J Chad Brenner, Mark E Prince, Erin L McKean, Douglas B Chepeha, Gregory T Wolf, Francis P Worden, Carol R Bradford, Thomas E Carey
: High-risk HPV (hrHPV) is the leading etiologic factor in oropharyngeal cancer. HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors generally respond well to therapy, with complete recovery in approximately 80% of patients. However, it remains unclear why some patients are non-responsive to treatment, with 20% of patients recurring within 5 years. In this study, viral factors were examined for possible clues to differences in tumor behavior. Oropharynx tumors that responded well to therapy were compared to those that persisted and recurred...
July 15, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Tyler D Brobst, Joaquín J García, Katharine A Price, Ge Gao, David I Smith, Daniel L Price
Background. Although alcohol and tobacco use are known risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been increasingly associated with this group of cancers. We describe the case of a married couple who presented with HPV-positive oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma within two months of each other. Methods. Tumor biopsies were positive for p16 and high-risk HPV in both patients. Sanger sequencing showed a nearly identical HPV16 strain in both patients...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
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