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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527807/dna-carryover-in-milk-samples-from-routine-milk-recording-used-for-pcr-based-diagnosis-of-bovine-staphylococcus-aureus-mastitis
#1
Yasser S Mahmmod, Ilka C Klaas, Carsten Enevoldsen
Real-time PCR techniques are increasingly used to detect udder pathogens from milk samples collected non-aseptically at routine milk recording. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the statistical associations between cycle threshold (Ct) values for Staphylococcus aureus in non-aseptically collected composite samples taken at routine milk recording from cows milked consecutively with the same milking unit and milk meter; and (2) to formulate practical and plausible guidelines for understanding the diagnostic implications of PCR testing for Staph...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450213/isolation-characterization-virulence-and-immunogenicity-testing-of-field-isolates-of-pasteurella-multocida-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-laboratory-settings
#2
Qudratullah, G Muhammad, M Saqib, M Qamar Bilal
The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No...
April 24, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434738/relationships-among-superantigen-toxin-gene-profiles-genotypes-and-pathogenic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bovine-mastitis
#3
Dong Wang, Limei Zhang, Changfu Yong, Mingliang Shen, Tariq Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Kun Han, Xuezhang Zhou, Bo Han
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiological agents of bovine mastitis, harboring a wide variety of staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) toxin genes. The SAg toxin genes are reported to be closely associated with the pathogenicity of the Staph. aureus causing the bovine mastitis. This study was conducted to investigate SAg toxin gene profiles and to assess the relationships among SAg toxin genes, genotypes of Staph. aureus, and their pathogenic properties. A total of 327 quarter milk samples were collected from bovine mastitis cases for isolation and identification of pathogens...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381601/a-novel-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-chlorhexidine-quaternary-ammonium-mupirocin-and-methicillin-resistance-genes-with-simultaneous-discrimination-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#4
Jo-Ann McClure, Johanna Zaal DeLongchamp, John M Conly, Kunyan Zhang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a clinically significant pathogen resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics and responsible for a large number of nosocomial infections worldwide. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended to adopt universal mupirocin/chlorhexidine decolonization of all admitted intensive care unit patients, rather than MRSA screening with targeted treatments, which raises the serious concern about the selection of resistance to mupirocin and chlorhexidine in strains of staphylococci...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373644/modeling-nosocomial-infections-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-with-environment-contamination
#5
Lei Wang, Shigui Ruan
In this work, we investigate the role of environmental contamination on the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It is tougher to treat than most strains of Staphylococcus aureus or staph, because it is resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. Both deterministic and stochastic models are constructed to describe the transmission characteristics of MRSA in hospital setting...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341052/factors-associated-with-intramammary-infection-in-dairy-cows-caused-by-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-staphylococcus-aureus-streptococcus-uberis-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-corynebacterium-bovis-or-escherichia-coli
#6
S Taponen, E Liski, A-M Heikkilä, S Pyörälä
The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for bovine intramammary infection (IMI) associated with the most common bacterial species in Finland. Large databases of the Finnish milk-recording system and results of microbiological analyses of mastitic milk samples from Valio Ltd. (Helsinki, Finland) were analyzed. The study group comprised 29,969 cows with IMI from 4,173 dairy herds. A cow with a quarter milk sample in which DNA of target species was detected in the PathoProof Mastitis PCR Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was determined to have IMI...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314156/an-explant-of-heifer-mammary-gland-to-study-the-immune-response-of-the-organ
#7
Giada Magro, Tiziana A L Brevini, Marcella De Maglie, Giulietta Minozzi, Eugenio Scanziani, Renata Piccinini
Continuous or primary epithelial cell lines have been extensively used to study the mammary gland immune response, but they are constituted by a single cell population. Our aim was to test whether an explant of heifer gland, where the tissue structure is maintained, might be a valid model to investigate the innate immune response to infection. The study was carried out on 2mm(3)-sections of heifer udders, in 2 consecutive trials, using LPS or LTA in the first trial and two different concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (Staph...
March 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274250/prosthetic-joint-infection-development-of-an-evidence-based-diagnostic-algorithm
#8
Heinrich M L Mühlhofer, Florian Pohlig, Karl-Georg Kanz, Ulrich Lenze, Florian Lenze, Andreas Toepfer, Sarah Kelch, Norbert Harrasser, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Johannes Schauwecker
BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have presented challenges for general practitioners, orthopedic surgeons and the health care system in the recent years. The diagnosis of PJI is complex; multiple diagnostic tools are used in the attempt to correctly diagnose PJI. Evidence-based algorithms can help to identify PJI using standardized diagnostic steps. METHODS: We reviewed relevant publications between 1990 and 2015 using a systematic literature search in MEDLINE and PUBMED...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244481/epidemiology-and-resistance-pattern-of-bacterial-isolates-among-cancer-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-oncology-centre-in-north-india
#9
U Batra, P Goyal, P Jain, A Upadhyay, N Sachdeva, M Agarwal, D Bhurani, V Talwar, S K Gupta, D C Doval
OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology of microbiologically documented bacterial infection and the resistance pattern, among cancer patients undergoing treatment at RGCIRC, Delhi. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study in which culture reports obtained over 1 year in 2013, were analyzed. RESULTS: 13329 cultures were obtained over 1 year in 2013 and were analyzed. 23.6 % samples showed positive culture with majority being gram negative isolates (67...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237588/evaluating-a-commercial-pcr-assay-against-bacterial-culture-for-diagnosing-streptococcus-uberis-and-staphylococcus-aureus-throughout-lactation
#10
N M Steele, J H Williamson, R Thresher, R A Laven, J E Hillerton
The performance of a commercial, real-time PCR assay was compared with traditional bacterial culture for the identification of Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk collected at different stages of lactation. Initial validation tests using fresh and frozen quarter milk samples identified factors that affected the success of the PCR. Therefore, the standard protocol was adjusted for samples collected at the first milking postpartum (colostrum) and from clinical mastitis cases. The adjustment involved PCR testing both undiluted and diluted (1 in 10 with sterile water) DNA extracts...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231617/characterization-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-strains-isolated-from-industrial-cleanrooms-under-regular-routine-disinfection
#11
U Ribič, A Klančnik, B Jeršek
AIMS: The purpose of this study was the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 57 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from cleanroom environments, based on their biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biofilm formation was investigated using real-time PCR (icaA, aap, bhp genes), the Congo red agar method and the crystal violet assay. The majority of the strains (59·7%; 34/57) did not form biofilms according to the crystal violet assay, although the biofilm-associated genes were present in 94·7% (54/57) of the strains...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#12
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161160/non-culture-based-identification-of-mastitis-causing-bacteria-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#13
Juliana Regina Barreiro, Juliano Leonel Gonçalves, Patrícia Aparecida Campos Braga, Aline Gerato Dibbern, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for direct identification, without previous microbiological culture, of bovine mastitis-causing bacteria from milk samples. Milk samples (n = 15) were experimentally contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli to have bacterial counts ranging from 10(3) to 10(9) cfu/mL...
April 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122871/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-portrait-staph-id-r-blood-culture-panel-for-rapid-identification-of-staphylococci-and-detection-of-the-meca-gene
#14
Gerald A Denys, Vanessa Collazo-Velez, Stephen Young, Judy A Daly, Marc Roger Couturier, Matthew L Faron, Blake W Buchan, Nathan Ledeboer
Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and are associated with increased health care costs. We evaluated the Portrait Staph ID/R blood culture panel (BCP) multiplex PCR assay (Great Basin Scientific, Salt Lake City, UT) for the rapid and simultaneous identification (ID) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus species to the genus level and the detection of the mecA gene directly from a positive blood culture bottle. A total of 765 Bactec bottles demonstrating Gram-positive cocci in singles or clusters were tested during the prospective trial at 3 clinical sites...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103794/genomic-and-transcriptomic-comparison-between-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-associated-with-high-and-low-within-herd-prevalence-of-intra-mammary-infection
#15
E Capra, P Cremonesi, A Pietrelli, S Puccio, M Luini, A Stella, B Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing mastitis in dairy ruminants worldwide. The chronic nature of Staph. aureus infection enhances the contagiousness risk and diffusion in herds. In order to identify the factors involved in intra-mammary infection (IMI) and diffusion in dairy cows, we investigated the molecular characteristics of two groups of Staph. aureus strains belonging to ST8 and ST398, differing in clinical properties, through comparison of whole genome and whole transcriptome sequencing...
January 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102479/peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-kocuria-marina-in-an-elderly-man
#16
Nobuaki Mori, Yuichi Nishihara, Hideki Tayama, Akiko Higuchi, Yasuko Aoki
BACKGROUND: Kocuria species are Gram-positive, aerobic cocci, and members of the Micrcoccaceae family that are known to be opportunistic pathogens. Although there have been sporadic reports of infections caused by Kocuria species, little is known regarding their human pathogenicity and clinical characteristics. CASE REPORT: We herein report a case of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related bloodstream infection caused by Kocuria marina in a 90-year-old Japanese with multiple cancer...
January 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050502/antibacterial-effect-of-aloe-vera-gel-against-oral-pathogens-an-in-vitro-study
#17
Supreet Jain, Nirav Rathod, Ravleen Nagi, Jaideep Sur, Afshan Laheji, Naveen Gupta, Priyanka Agrawal, Swati Prasad
INTRODUCTION: Natural herbal remedies have shown promising anti-microbial property and fewer side effects compared to synthetic anti-microbial therapy. Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant used for management of various infections since ancient times as it has anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and immune-boosting properties. AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-microbial and inhibitory activities of various concentration of Aloe Vera Gel (AVG) against oral pathogenic bacteria...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901071/staphylococcus-aureus-dependent-septic-arthritis-in-murine-knee-joints-local-immune-response-and-beneficial-effects-of-vaccination
#18
Alessia Corrado, Paolo Donato, Silvia Maccari, Raffaella Cecchi, Tiziana Spadafina, Letizia Arcidiacono, Simona Tavarini, Chiara Sammicheli, Donatello Laera, Andrea Guido Oreste Manetti, Paolo Ruggiero, Bruno Galletti, Sandra Nuti, Ennio De Gregorio, Sylvie Bertholet, Anja Seubert, Fabio Bagnoli, Giuliano Bensi, Emiliano Chiarot
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of human septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, which deserve special attention due to their rapid evolution and resistance to treatment. The progression of the disease depends on both bacterial presence in situ and uncontrolled disruptive immune response, which is responsible for chronic disease. Articular and bone infections are often the result of blood bacteremia, with the knees and hips being the most frequently infected joints showing the worst clinical outcome. We report the development of a hematogenous model of septic arthritis in murine knees, which progresses from an acute to a chronic phase, similarly to what occurs in humans...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845023/antimicrobial-activity-of-buttermilk-and-lactoferrin-peptide-extracts-on-poultry-pathogens
#19
Catherine Jean, Martine Boulianne, Michel Britten, Gilles Robitaille
Antibiotics are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promoters. This practice is questioned given the arising importance of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial peptides can be used as food additives for a potent alternative to synthetic or semi-synthetic antibiotics. The objective of this study was to develop a peptide production method based on membrane adsorption chromatography in order to produce extracts with antimicrobial activity against avian pathogens (Salmonella enterica var. Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica var...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834064/evaluation-of-bd-max-staph-sr-assay-for-differentiating-between-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-determining-methicillin-resistance-directly-from-positive-blood-cultures
#20
Jaewoong Lee, Yeon Joon Park, Dong Jin Park, Kang Gyun Park, Hae Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of the BD MAX StaphSR Assay (SR assay; BD, USA) for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistance not only in S. aureus but also in coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) from positive blood cultures. METHODS: From 228 blood culture bottles, 103 S. aureus [45 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 55 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 3 mixed infections (1 MRSA+Enterococcus faecalis, 1 MSSA+MRCNS, 1 MSSA+MSCNS)], and 125 CNS (102 MRCNS, 23 MSCNS) were identified by Vitek 2...
January 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
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