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Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xingxing Dong, Xiaohong Wang, Xingchun Chen, Zhiyun Yan, Jing Cheng, Liangliang Gao, Yuan Liu, Jinquan Li
Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal and a pathogenic bacterium, causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals with a high impact on public health and the livestock industry. The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of S. aureus in foods. In this study, we obtained 25 S. aureus isolates from 39 crayfish samples in Hubei, China. PCR was applied for detection of presence of virulence and methicillin resistance genes in the pathogen genome. The result revealed that all of the 25 S...
October 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Akimune Kaga, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Takaya Metoki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Satoru Kumaki
Neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease (NTED) is a newly recognized neonatal infectious disease, caused by the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSST-1 is mainly produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the immune responses to TSST-1 are known to cause toxic shock syndrome, a life-threatening infectious disease. The clinical symptoms of NTED are skin rash, fever, and thrombocytopenia, but severe thrombocytopenia is rare in term infants with NTED. Although the cause of NTED is the same as that of toxic shock syndrome, the clinical symptoms of NTED are milder than toxic shock syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Yoshie Kametani, Shino Ohshima, Asuka Miyamoto, Atsuko Shigenari, Masaki Takasu, Noriaki Imaeda, Tatsuya Matsubara, Masafumi Tanaka, Takashi Shiina, Hiroshi Kamiguchi, Ryuji Suzuki, Hitoshi Kitagawa, Jerzy K Kulski, Noriaki Hirayama, Hidetoshi Inoko, Asako Ando
The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents self-developed peptides to specific T cells to induce cytotoxity against infection. The MHC proteins are encoded by multiple loci that express numerous alleles to preserve the variability of the antigen-presenting ability in each species. The mechanism regulating MHC mRNA and protein expression at each locus is difficult to analyze because of the structural and sequence similarities between alleles. In this study, we examined the correlation between the mRNA and surface protein expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0401 after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Wyss, Maria Boesch, Lilian Roos, Céline Tschopp, Klaus M Frei, Hubert Annen, Roberto La Marca
BACKGROUND: Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. METHODS: The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann Wichmann, Tobias Stalder, Kevin Hilbert, Markus Muehlhan, Ulrike Lueken, Katja Beesdo-Baum
Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Youssef Shiban, Julia Dieme, Simone Brandl, Rebecca Zack, Andreas Mühlberger, Stefan Wüst
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is considered a reliable paradigm for inducing psychosocial stress. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been applied to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and standardization in the TSST. Studies using the TSST in VR (VR-TSST) have reported significant stress reactions, with subjective and peripheral physiological reactions comparable to those in response to the in vivo TSST and with lower cortisol reactions. The current study examined whether an additional virtual competitive factor triggers larger stress responses than a standard VR-TSST...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Anca Meda Georgescu, Leonard Azamfirei, Krisztina Szalman, Edit Szekely
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. CASE: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review.The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
S H S P Pedroso, S H C Sandes, K C M Luiz, R S Dias, R A T Filho, J C Serufo, L M Farias, M A R Carvalho, M R Q Bomfim, S G Santos
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) represent one of the most prevalent microorganisms in nosocomial infections worldwide, nevertheless little is known about their pathogenicity features. Thus, our aim was to characterize virulence aspects of CNS isolated from patients with bloodstream infections assisted in hospitals of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Strains were identified using bioMérieuxVitek(®) and for biofilm production evaluation, Congo Red Agar (CRA) and polystyrene plates were used. PCR was applied to detect icaA, icaB, icaC, atlE, sea, sec, sed, tsst-1 and agr...
October 7, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Alexa Shull, Stefanie E Mayer, Ellen McGinnis, Elisa Geiss, Ivan Vargas, Nestor L Lopez-Duran
There is a growing realization that cognitive processes associated with stress coping, such as rumination and distraction, can impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis). Yet, little is known about what aspects of the HPA-axis stress response (rate of activation, duration of activation, rate of recovery) is impacted by such cognitive processes. This study examines the impact of both ruminative trait tendencies and experimentally induced rumination on salivary cortisol responses to a social evaluative stress task...
September 20, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jorge L Aguilar, Avanish K Varshney, Ximo Pechuan, Kaushik Dutta, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Bettina C Fries
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading infectious cause of life-threatening disease in humans, yet there is currently no vaccine to combat this bacterium. The pathogenesis of S. aureus is mediated by a diverse array of protein toxins including a large family of secreted pyrogenic superantigens. Neutralization of superantigens, including SEB and TSST-1, has proven to be protective in several animal models of toxic shock and sepsis. We demonstrate, for the first time, that a far more prevalent staphylococcal superantigen, SEK, can also induce lethal shock in mice...
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Noushin Arfatahery, Abolfazl Davoodabadi, Taranehpeimaneh Abedimohtasab
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne diseases worldwide, which are attributable to the contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 206 (34.3%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were obtained from 600 fish and shrimp samples and were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We assessed the prevalence of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) genes. The results indicated that 34% of aqua food samples were contaminated with S...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karin Artursson, Robert Söderlund, Lihong Liu, Stefan Monecke, Jenny Schelin
Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Mar Olga Pérez-Moreno, María José Centelles-Serrano, Julio Nogales-López, Marie France Domenech-Spanedda, Carmen Lozano, Carmen Torres
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate responsible for an aggressive infection (peridural and psoas abscess secondary to haematogenous septic arthritis) in a poultry farmer. METHODS: Molecular characterization was performed, including spa- and multilocus sequence typing of the isolate, assessment of its resistance phenotype and detection of tetracycline resistance and of virulence and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes were performed...
August 31, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Yuliya I Kuras, Christine M McInnis, Myriam V Thoma, Xuejie Chen, Luke Hanlin, Danielle Gianferante, Nicolas Rohleder
Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examining salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n = 24 male; n = 17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)...
August 30, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Gundula R R Kiessl, Reinhold G Laessle
Stress has been supposed to increase appetite. The biological basis of this phenomenon may be a stress-induced alteration of the secretion of GUT peptides such as ghrelin. Stress-induced changes in ghrelin secretion could be a biological basis of overeating and a factor contributing to the development of obesity. Aim of the study was to analyze the effect of acute psychosocial stress on ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women. We compared pre- and postprandial plasma ghrelin secretion of 42 obese and 43 normal weight women in a randomized crossover design...
August 29, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Chrystal Vergara-Lopez, Stephenie Chaudoir, Margaret Bublitz, Maggie O'Reilly Treter, Laura Stroud
We examined the associations between 2 dimensions of maternal parenting style (care and overprotection) and cortisol response to an acute laboratory-induced stressor in healthy youth. Forty-three participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Child (TSST-C). Nine cortisol samples were collected to investigate heterogeneity in different phases of youth's stress response. Multiphase growth-curve modeling was utilized to create latent factors corresponding to individual differences in cortisol during baseline, reactivity, and recovery to the TSST-C...
August 24, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Sally E Tarbell, Amanda Millar, Mark Laudenslager, Claire Palmer, John E Fortunato
This study compared anxiety and physiological responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) in adolescents. 38 subjects (26 females) were enrolled: 11 cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), 11 anxiety, and 16 controls. Salivary cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed during the TSST-C. Anxiety was measured by the Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C)...
August 16, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Yoshihiro Tanaka, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Ayako Inoue, Harumi Oshita, Kana Okamoto, Chiwa Kawashima, Mari Nakanishi, Saeko Aizawa, Koji Masuda, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Jotaro Akiyoshi
INTRODUCTIONS: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
M A Ferreira, L G Bernardo, L S Neves, M R H Campos, J Lamaro-Cardoso, M C P André
The objectives of this study were to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from artisanal and industrialized Minas frescal cheeses, to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile as well as the genetic similarity among the isolates. The isolates were also tested for staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and other virulence factors. Fifty-six artisanal raw milk cheeses sold at street fairs and 10 industrialized cheeses commercialized in supermarkets of Goiânia, Goiás, were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed in 19 samples (33...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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