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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150403/the-cortisol-reactivity-threshold-model-direction-of-trait-rumination-and-cortisol-reactivity-association-varies-with-stressor-severity
#1
Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Bradley M Avery, Maria Ditcheva, Vaibhav R Sapuram
Various internalizing risk factors predict, in separate studies, both augmented and reduced cortisol responding to lab-induced stress. Stressor severity appears key: We tested whether heightened trait-like internalizing risk (here, trait rumination) predicts heightened cortisol reactivity under modest objective stress, but conversely predicts reduced reactivity under more robust objective stress. Thus, we hypothesized that trait rumination would interact with a curvilinear (quadratic) function of stress severity to predict cortisol reactivity...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073513/the-socially-evaluated-handgrip-test-introduction-of-a-novel-time-efficient-stress-protocol
#2
Johannes B Finke, Grit I Kalinowski, Mauro F Larra, Hartmut Schächinger
Most widely-used stress-induction procedures (such as the TSST and the Cold Pressor Test) require considerable effort and overhead in terms of preparation, logistics, and staff recruitment. Moreover, while known to reliably induce HPA axis activation, especially when combined with social self-threat, most conventional laboratory stressors cannot be flexibly adapted to elicit either a mainly autonomic or an additional endocrine stress response. Being a promising alternative approach, a new version of the isometric handgrip test enriched by a social-evaluative component was evaluated in the present study...
October 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051700/adolescent-sex-differences-in-response-to-a-mindfulness-intervention-a-call-for-research
#3
Karen Bluth, Patricia N E Roberson, Susan S Girdler
Research on mindfulness interventions with adolescents has burgeoned over the last ten years, and findings have demonstrated increases in overall emotional wellbeing post-intervention. However, little is known about the differences between males and females in response to mindfulness interventions in this age group. In the present study we examine sex differences in outcomes of physiological stress markers during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and emotional wellbeing measures before and after a mindfulness intervention (N = 15) with 10 female and 5 male adolescents...
July 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037088/physical-fitness-and-prior-physical-activity-are-both-associated-with-less-cortisol-secretion-during-psychosocial-stress
#4
Carly J Wood, Angela Clow, Frank Hucklebridge, Robin Law, Nina Smyth
BACKGROUND: Evidence linking fitness and decreased psychosocial stress comes from studies of athletes and typically relies upon self-report measures. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the impact of physical activity (PA) prior to a stressor. The aims of this study were to determine whether fitness and prior PA influence cortisol concentrations during psychosocial stress. METHODS: Seventy-five non-athletic participants took part in a submaximal walk prior to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G)...
October 16, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019103/tip-of-the-tongue-states-increase-under-evaluative-observation
#5
Lori E James, Christopher J Schmank, Nichol Castro, Tony W Buchanan
We tested the frequent assumption that the difficulty of word retrieval increases when a speaker is being observed and evaluated. We modified the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) so that participants believed that its evaluative observation components continued throughout the duration of a subsequent word retrieval task, and measured participants' reported tip of the tongue (TOT) states. Participants in this TSST condition experienced more TOTs than participants in a comparable, placebo TSST condition in which there was no suggestion of evaluative observation...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946704/emergence-of-nasal-carriage-of-st80-and-st152-pvl-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-livestock-in-algeria
#6
Amir Agabou, Zouleikha Ouchenane, Christelle Ngba Essebe, Salim Khemissi, Mohamed Tedj Eddine Chehboub, Ilyes Bey Chehboub, Albert Sotto, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
The spread of toxinogenic Staphylococcus aureus is a public health problem in Africa. The objectives of the study were to investigate the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics of these strains in livestock and humans in three Algerian provinces. Nasal samples were collected from camels, horses, cattle, sheep and monkeys, as well as humans in contact with them. S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. The rate of S. aureus nasal carriage varied between species: camels (53%), humans and monkeys (50%), sheep (44...
September 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919553/social-evaluative-threat-with-verbal-performance-feedback-alters-neuroendocrine-response-to-stress
#7
Jenny M Phan, Ekaterina Schneider, Jeremy Peres, Olga Miocevic, Vanessa Meyer, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff
Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women...
September 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869541/spread-of-tst-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-belonging-to-st30-clone-among-patients-and-healthcare-workers-in-two-intensive-care-units
#8
Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Eleanna Drougka, Fotini Fligou, Vasiliki Dodou, Fevronia Kolonitsiou, Kriton S Filos, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Efthimia Petinaki, Markos Marangos, Iris Spiliopoulou
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infections. Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are associated with severe clinical syndromes. S. aureus colonizing isolates recovered from healthcare workers and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital comprising Group A were compared with those from adult non-ICU carriers (Group B). mecA, lukS/lukF-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL), and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) gene carriage was detected by PCR...
September 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860242/complete-genome-sequence-of-systemically-disseminated-sequence-type-8-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-type-ivl-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Junzo Hisatsune, Hideharu Hagiya, Sumiko Shiota, Motoyuki Sugai
Staphylococcus aureus JH4899, a community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolate collected from a patient with systematically disseminated infection, is classified as sequence type 8 and carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVl (SCCmecIVl). It produces TSST-1, SEC, a newly discovered enterotoxin (SE1), and epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor A (EDIN-A). Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the chromosome and a plasmid harboring the se1 and ednA genes...
August 31, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858691/pharmacological-challenge-studies-with-acute-psychosocial-stress
#10
REVIEW
Kathryne Van Hedger, Anya K Bershad, Harriet de Wit
Chronic stress is known to affect many psychiatric disorders, and studies of responses to acute stress may reveal processes that ultimately lead to maladaptive responses to chronic stress. Many studies have used simulated public speaking tasks to induce stress in the laboratory and, of interest to this review, the tasks have been used to assess the effects of both therapeutic and nonmedical drugs on stress reactivity. Here we review 38 studies that examined effects of single doses of drugs on subjective, cardiovascular and hormonal responses to an acute social stressor in healthy volunteers...
November 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851617/working-memory-performance-impaired-after-exposure-to-acute-social-stress-the-evidence-comes-from-erps
#11
Caihong Jiang, Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the time course of 39 healthy novice drivers during a blocked working memory task (numerical N-back) under acute social stress or control conditions, which were induced by the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) or control procedure. Subjective measures were used to assess stress manipulation throughout the experiment. An elevated negative effect in response to a stress condition indicated a successful stress induction. The behavioral results showed that the stress group had a longer response time and larger differences in accuracy than the control group...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845716/mediators-of-compassionate-goal-intervention-effects-on-human-neuroendocrine-responses-to-the-trier-social-stress-test
#12
Thane M Erickson, Stefanie E Mayer, Nestor L Lopez-Duran, Gina M Scarsella, Adam P McGuire, Jennifer Crocker, James L Abelson
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions...
August 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777321/prevalence-and-genetic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcus-argenteus-isolates-harboring-panton-valentine-leukocidin-enterotoxins-and-tsst-1-genes-from-food-handlers-in-myanmar
#13
Meiji Soe Aung, Thida San, Mya Mya Aye, San Mya, Win Win Maw, Khin Nyein Zan, Wut Hmone Win Htut, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar...
August 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776897/relationship-between-cortisol-reactivity-to-psychosocial-stress-and-declarative-memory-decline-during-aging-impact-of-age-and-sex
#14
Aline Talita Dos Santos, Dayse Maria D Leyendecker, Ana Lucia Siqueira Costa, Juliana Nery de Souza-Talarico
AIM: To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. METHODS: We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor ( the Trier social stress test [TSST])...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774440/heart-rate-variability-metrics-for-fine-grained-stress-level-assessment
#15
Tânia Pereira, Pedro R Almeida, João P S Cunha, Ana Aguiar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In spite of the existence of a multitude of techniques that allow the estimation of stress from physiological indexes, its fine-grained assessment is still a challenge for biomedical engineering. The short-term assessment of stress condition overcomes the limits to stress characterization with long blocks of time and allows to evaluate the behaviour change in real-world settings and also the stress level dynamics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate time and frequency domain and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics for stress level assessment using a short-time window...
September 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771160/staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-tunisia-occurrence-of-human-and-animal-associated-lineages
#16
Meriam Ben Said, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Paula Gómez, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Senda Sghaier, Chourouk Ibrahim, Carmen Torres, Abdennaceur Hassen
The objective was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Tunis City (Tunisia), during the period 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence factors were determined for the recovered isolates. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 12 of the 62 wastewater samples tested (19.35%), and one isolate/sample was characterized, all of them being methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Six spa types (t587, t674, t224, t127, t701 and t1534) were found among the 12 isolates, and the spa-t587, associated with the new sequence type ST3245, was the most predominant one (7 isolates)...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743456/distraction-coping-predicts-better-cortisol-recovery-after-acute-psychosocial-stress
#17
Johanna Janson, Nicolas Rohleder
The aim of this study was to explore whether different manifestations of state coping predict cortisol response and recovery in an acute stress situation. Fifty-nine healthy adults (59.3% female) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and salivary cortisol was measured repeatedly before and after stress. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test for relationships between factor-analytically derived measures of state coping and cortisol response and recovery. Independent of sex, age, BMI, chronic stress and depression, denial coping was related with higher peak levels of cortisol (β=0...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742218/if-the-coping-fits-use-it-preadolescent-recent-stress-exposure-differentially-predicts-post-tsst-salivary-cortisol-recovery
#18
Jason J Bendezú, Martha E Wadsworth
This study examined recent stress exposure and effortful coping effects on salivary cortisol (sC) response patterns in preadolescent boys and girls (N = 121, Mage  = 10.60 years). Children were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and one of two randomly assigned, post-TSST coping conditions: distraction and avoidance. Piecewise growth multilevel modeling did not link children's recent stressful life events or hair cortisol (hC) levels to sC reactivity, though each interacted with coping condition to predict sC recovery patterns...
July 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715387/a-modified-trier-social-stress-test-for-vulnerable-mexican-american-adolescents
#19
Megan M Johnson, Julianna Deardorff, Kimberly Parra, Abbey Alkon, Brenda Eskenazi, Elizabeth Shirtcliff
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well validated and widely used social stressor that has been shown to induce a 2-4 fold increase in cortisol, the biological output produced by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in humans. While studies have explored how modifications to the TSST influence stress responsivity, few studies have created a modified TSST appropriate for vulnerable youth that elicits a significant cortisol stress response. Thus, the current study sought to modify or adjust the TSST in a culturally sensitive way for a vulnerable sample of 14 year-old adolescents...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704172/hydroconductive-and-silver-impregnated-foam-dressings-a-comparison
#20
A Alkhalil, A Day, K W Monger, J Zhang, B C Carney, H N Hoffman, L T Moffatt, J W Shupp
OBJECTIVE: As the number of commercially available wound dressings is increasing rapidly, it is important for clinicians to understand the strengths and limitations of each and to recognise relationships between wound type and dressing properties to obtain optimal healing results. Our aim is to test the antimicrobial activity of two dressings. METHOD: A hydroconductive (HC) dressing and a silver-impregnated foam (SIF) dressing were compared for their potential to reduce the levels meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
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