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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209543/hpa-axis-and-inflammatory-reactivity-to-acute-stress-is-related-with-basal-hpa-axis-activity
#1
Xuejie Chen, Danielle Gianferante, Luke Hanlin, Alexander Fiksdal, Juliana G Breines, Myriam V Thoma, Nicolas Rohleder
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation is drawing attention as pathway between psychosocial stress and health, and basal HPA axis activity has been suggested to exert a consistent regulatory influence on peripheral inflammation. Here we studied the relationship between basal HPA axis activity and inflammatory and HPA axis acute stress reactivity. METHODS: We recruited 48 healthy individuals and collected saliva for diurnal cortisol sampling at 6 points. Participants were previously exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on two consecutive days...
February 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209155/intranasal-oxytocin-reduces-provoked-symptoms-in-female-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-despite-exerting-sympathomimetic-and-positive-chronotropic-effects-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
M Sack, D Spieler, L Wizelman, G Epple, J Stich, M Zaba, U Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181173/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-reactivity-to-acute-stress-an-investigation-into-the-roles-of-perceived-stress-and-family-resources
#3
Ezemenari M Obasi, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Lucia Cavanagh, Kristen L Ratliff, Delishia M Pittman, Jessica J Brooks
Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST...
February 8, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131433/the-effect-of-mindfulness-meditation-training-on-biological-acute-stress-responses-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#4
Elizabeth A Hoge, Eric Bui, Sophie A Palitz, Noah R Schwarz, Maryann E Owens, Jennifer M Johnston, Mark H Pollack, Naomi M Simon
Mindfulness-Based interventions have increased in popularity in psychiatry, but the impact of these treatments on disorder-relevant biomarkers would greatly enhance efficacy and mechanistic evidence. If Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is successfully treated, relevant biomarkers should change, supporting the impact of treatment and suggesting improved resilience to stress. Seventy adults with GAD were randomized to receive either Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class; before and after, they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)...
January 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122298/stress-vulnerability-in-male-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#5
Michael Kaess, Peter Parzer, Laura Mehl, Luisa Weil, Esther Strittmatter, Franz Resch, Julian Koenig
Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD] was introduced as new behavioral addiction in DSM-5 Section 3. Vulnerability to stress is a potential predisposing factor for IGD. Given a lack of preexisting empirical data, the study investigated differences in the psychological and neurobiological response to acute stress in patients with IGD. 24 young men (mean age 18.38 years; range 13-25 years) fulfilling DSM-5 criteria for IGD and 25 matched controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]. Participants provided hair samples for the analysis of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis activity and clinical interviews were conducted to assess psychopathology...
January 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116552/characterisation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bloodstream-infections-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#6
S Vandendriessche, H De Boeck, A Deplano, M-F Phoba, O Lunguya, D Falay, N Dauly, J Verhaegen, O Denis, J Jacobs
Staphylococcus aureus is known worldwide as an invasive pathogen, but information on S. aureus from bloodstream infections in Central Africa remains scarce. A collection of S. aureus blood culture isolates recovered from hospitals in four provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2009-2013) was assessed. A total of 27/108 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), of which >70% were co-resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides and lincosamides. For MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S...
January 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107412/nasal-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus-among-children-in-the-ashanti-region-of-ghana
#7
Daniel Eibach, Michael Nagel, Benedikt Hogan, Clinton Azuure, Ralf Krumkamp, Denise Dekker, Mike Gajdiss, Melanie Brunke, Nimako Sarpong, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. METHODS: Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103197/the-tuebingen-scotopic-threshold-test-tstt
#8
Torsten Strasser, Hana Langrova, Sabrina Sundermeier, Dominic Hillerkuss, Katarina Stingl, Wilhelm Durst, Anne Kurtenbach, Eberhart Zrenner, Ditta Zobor
Measurement of the dark-adaptation threshold plays a key role in the diagnosis and estimation of disease progression of many retinal disorders. Determining the threshold is, however, difficult to perform in young children. We present here a prototype for a dark adaptometer, the Tuebingen Scotopic Threshold Test (TSST) aimed to ease measurement of photoreceptor thresholds in young subjects. The device consists of two 7cm x 10cm fields with either blue or yellow LEDs, for testing rod or cone sensitivity, respectively...
January 5, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081200/fitter-women-did-not-have-attenuated-hemodynamic-responses-to-psychological-stress-compared-with-age-matched-women-with-lower-levels-of-fitness
#9
Sisitha U Jayasinghe, Susan J Torres, Mais Hussein, Steve F Fraser, Gavin W Lambert, Anne I Turner
According to the 'cross stressor adaptation hypothesis', regular exercise acts as a buffer against the detrimental effects of stress. Nevertheless, evidence that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness moderate hemodynamic responses to acute psychological stress is inconclusive, especially in women. Women aged 30-50 years (in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) with higher (n = 17) and lower (n = 17) levels of fitness were subjected to a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Continuous, non-invasive measurements were made of beat-to-beat, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), maximum slope, pulse interval (PI) and total peripheral resistance (TPR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073304/the-impact-of-stress-on-odor-perception
#10
Matthias Hoenen, Oliver T Wolf, Bettina M Pause
The olfactory system and emotional systems are highly intervened and share common neuronal structures. The current study investigates whether emotional (e.g., anger and fear) and physiological (saliva cortisol) stress responses are associated with odor identification ability and hedonic odor judgments (intensity, pleasantness, and unpleasantness). Nineteen men participated in the modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control session (cycling on a stationary bike). The physiological arousal was similar in both sessions...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049103/depressive-symptom-composites-associated-with-cortisol-stress-reactivity-in-adolescents
#11
Matthew C Morris, Chrystyna D Kouros, Alyssa S Mielock, Uma Rao
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function is common in youth with major depressive disorder (MDD) but variability in the strength and direction of HPA alterations has prompted a search for symptom-based subtypes with unique neuroendocrine signatures. This study investigated the extent to which depressive symptom composites were differentially associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress. METHODS: This study examined salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 145 adolescents who varied in their risk for MDD: 38 had current MDD; 35 were healthy but at high risk for MDD based on having one or both parents with unipolar MDD; and 72 were healthy youth with no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034364/in-silico-analysis-of-toxins-of-staphylococcus-aureus-for-validating-putative-drug-targets
#12
Ramadevi Mohana, Subhashree Venugopal
Toxins are one among the numerous virulence factors produced by the bacteria. These are powerful poisonous substances enabling the bacteria to encounter the defense mechanism of human body. The pathogenic system of Staphylococcus aureus is evolved with various exotoxins that causes detrimental effects of human immune system. Four toxins namely enterotoxin A, exfoliative toxin A, TSST-1 and γ-hemolysin were downloaded from Uniprot database and were analyzed to understand the nature of the toxins and for drug target validation...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993805/5th-ovarian-cancer-consensus-conference-of-the-gynecologic-cancer-intergroup-recurrent-disease
#13
M K Wilson, E Pujade-Lauraine, D Aoki, M R Mirza, D Lorusso, A M Oza, A du Bois, I Vergote, A Reuss, M Bacon, M Friedlander, D Rincon, F Joly, S-J Chang, A M Ferrero, R J Edmondson, P Wimberger, J Maenpaa, D Gaffney, R Zhang, A Okamoto, G Stuart, K Ochiai
This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), reached at the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), which was held in Tokyo, Japan, in November 2015. Three important questions were identified: (1) What are the subgroups for clinical trials in ROC? The historical definition of using platinum-free interval (PFI) to categorize patients as having platinum-sensitive/resistant disease was replaced by therapy-free interval (TFI). TFI can be broken down into TFIp (platinum-free interval), TFInp (non-platinum-free interval) and TFIb (biological agent-free interval)...
December 19, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987430/effects-of-the-cortisol-stress-response-on-the-psychotherapy-outcome-of-panic-disorder-patients
#14
Susann Wichmann, Clemens Kirschbaum, Thomas Lorenz, Katja Petrowski
BACKGROUND: A proportion of patients with panic disorder (PD) fail to show a remission after psychotherapy. Biological correlates of psychotherapy non-response have rarely been described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to research the relationship between the cortisol stress response and the psychotherapy outcome in PD patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight PD patients (20 females, mean age±SD: 35.71±13.18) seeking psychological treatment for PD and n=32 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants (21 females, aged 34...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981233/temporal-and-racial-differences-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-staphylococcusaureus-and-encoded-virulence-factors
#15
Joseph A Merriman, Elizabeth A Mueller, Michael P Cahill, Lisa A Beck, Amy S Paller, Jon M Hanifin, Peck Y Ong, Lynda Schneider, Denise C Babineau, Gloria David, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Donald Y M Leung, Patrick M Schlievert
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition strongly associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. S. aureus strains shift in populations in ~10-year intervals depending on virulence factors. Shifts in S. aureus virulence factors may in part explain the racial differences observed in the levels of prevalence and severity of AD. AD S. aureus isolates collected from 2011 to 2014 (103 isolates) and in 2008 (100 isolates) were examined for the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens (SAgs)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981177/relations-between-plasma-oxytocin-and-cortisol-the-stress-buffering-role-of-social-support
#16
Robyn J McQuaid, Opal A McInnis, Angela Paric, Faisal Al-Yawer, Kimberly Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67) were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942357/the-effect-of-ferula-assa-foetida-l-and-carum-copticum-hydroalcoholic-extract-on-the-expression-levels-of-staphylococcus-aureus-genes-involved-in-quorum-sensing
#17
Najmeh Jomehpour, Gilda Eslami, Mohammad Bagher Khalili
BACKGROUND: Quorum sensing is a microbial cell-to-cell communication process. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release extracellular messenger molecules called autoinducers. Gram-positive and Gram-negative, homoserine lactones, and oligopeptides are autoinducers used to communicate and regulate gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the impact of subinhibitory concentrations of Ferula assa-foetida l oleo-gum resin and Carum copticum fruit on the expression of tst and hld genes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S...
October 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923164/thinking-anxious-feeling-anxious-or-both-cognitive-bias-moderates-the-relationship-between-anxiety-disorder-status-and-sympathetic-arousal-in-youth
#18
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, John Piacentini
Cognitive bias and physiological arousal are two putative markers that may underlie youth anxiety. However, data on relationships between cognitive bias and arousal are limited, and typically do not include behavioral measurement of these constructs in order to tap real-time processes. We aimed to examine the relationship between performance-based cognitive bias and sympathetic arousal during stress in clinically anxious and typically-developing youth. The sample included children and adolescents ages 9 to 17 (Mean age=13...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916362/effectiveness-of-a-mental-skills-curriculum-to-reduce-novices-stress
#19
Nicholas E Anton, Lisa D Howley, Manuel Pimentel, Cameron K Davis, Charles Brown, Dimitrios Stefanidis
BACKGROUND: Stress has been shown to negatively impact surgical performance, and surgical novices are particularly susceptible to its effects. Mental skills are psychological strategies designed to enhance performance and reduce the impact of stress to consistently facilitate the ideal mental conditions that enable performers to perform their best. Mental skills have been used routinely in other high-stress domains (e.g., with Navy SEALs, military pilots, elite athletes, and so forth) to facilitate optimal performance in challenging situations...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902380/antimicrobial-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-typing-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-a-malaysian-teaching-hospital
#20
Ainihayati Noordin, Hassriana Fazzila Sapri, Nurul Azirah Mohamad Sani, Shih Kei Leong, Xin-Ee Tan, Toh Leong Tan, Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Hui-Min Neoh, Salasawati Hussin
The annual prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malaysia has been estimated to be 30 % to 40 % of all S. aureus infections. Nevertheless, data on the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Malaysian MRSAs remain few. In 2009, we collected 318 MRSA strains from various wards of our teaching hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on these strains. The strains were then molecularly characterized via staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec and virulence gene (cna, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, eta, etb, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) typing; a subset of 49 strains isolated from the intensive care unit was also typed using PFGE...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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