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David Rosenbaum, Mara Thomas, Paula Hilsendegen, Florian G Metzger, Florian B Haeussinger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Repetitive thinking styles such as rumination are considered to be a key factor in the development and maintenance of mental disorders. Different situational triggers (e.g., social stressors) have been shown to elicit rumination in subjects exhibiting such habitual thinking styles. At the same time, the process of rumination influences the adaption to stressful situations. The study at hand aims to investigate the effect of trait rumination on neuronal activation patterns during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as the physiological and affective adaptation to this high-stress situation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Khaled R Alkharsah, Suriya Rehman, Fatimah Alkhamis, Amani Alnimr, Asim Diab, Amein K Al-Ali
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes a major global health concern causing hospital and community acquired infections. A wide diversity of MRSA genotypes are circulating in geographically related regions. Therefore understanding the molecular epidemiology of MRSA is fundamental to design control and clearance measures. METHODS: A total of 106 MRSA isolates from infection (51) and carrier colonization sites (55) are characterized genetically based on SCCmec and MLST genotyping methods in addition to detection of PVL, TSST-1 and enterotoxins...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Andrea M Quinn, Allison R Williams, Teresa I Sivilli, Charles L Raison, Thaddeus W W Pace
Circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory biomarker widely assessed in humans to study the inflammatory response to acute psychological stress, have for decades been quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, biobehavioral researchers are increasingly using cytokine multiplex assays instead of ELISA to measure IL-6 and other cytokines. Despite this trend, multiplex assays have not been directly compared to ELISA for their ability to detect subtle stress-induced changes of IL-6...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Qingyun Lu, Fada Pan, Lingling Ren, Jing Xiao, Fangbiao Tao
Although numerous studies have described the relationship between HPA axis dysregulation and internalizing symptoms among adolescents, research using hair cortisol concentrations in pre- and young adolescent samples has not been reported. We investigated the association of self-reported internalizing symptoms with cortisol concertration in hair among pre- and young adolescents aged 10-12 years. Forty-six boys and 39 girls supplied a hair sample of at least 3 cm in length for an analysis of this period (3 months) cortisol excretion...
2018: PloS One
Suixia Li, Panpan Wang, Jialin Zhao, Luhong Zhou, Pengfei Zhang, Chengyu Fu, Jianghong Meng, Xin Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxin gene profile and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw chicken in the People's Republic of China. In total, 289 S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and genes encoding enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin were revealed by PCR. Overall, 46.0% of the isolates were positive for one or more toxin genes. A high proportion of toxin genes were pvl (26...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Vishal Mevada, Rajesh Patel, Bhoomi Patel, Rajesh Chaudhari
Since last several years, infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is challenging to cure using conventional antibiotics. The organism is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that can cause serious diseases not only in humans but also in animals, such as various skin infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and toxin shock syndrome. This bacterium causes such diseases by producing macromolecules such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). This organism had developed the multidrug resistance by acquiring MEC-A gene...
February 26, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
J M C van Leeuwen, M Vink, G Fernández, E J Hermans, M Joëls, R S Kahn, C H Vinkers
Stress is a major risk factor for almost all psychiatric disorders, however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain largely elusive. In healthy individuals, a successful stress response involves an adequate neuronal adaptation to a changing environment. This adaptive response may be dysfunctional in vulnerable individuals, potentially contributing to the development of psychopathology. In the current study, we investigated brain responses to emotional stimuli following stress in healthy controls and at-risk individuals...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
K K Fursova, M P Shchannikova, I V Loskutova, A O Shepelyakovskaya, A G Laman, A M Boutanaev, S L Sokolov, O A Artem'eva, D A Nikanova, N A Zinovieva, F A Brovko
Mastitis, a major veterinary problem widespread in many regions, is caused mainly by Staphylococcus spp. However, there is no current reliable information about the role of Staphylococcus aureus and their toxins in the development of mastitis in cows in the territory of the Russian Federation. The aim of this investigation was to determine the profile of exotoxins of S. aureus from cow milk from farms of Central Russia. A total of 60 isolates of S. aureus were obtained from milk samples of cows with the subclinical form of mastitis...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hannah E Lapp, Sarah Ahmed, Celia L Moore, Richard G Hunter
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test...
February 21, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
James M Clay, Cameron Adams, Peter Archer, Mark English, Abbey Hyde, Lorenzo D Stafford, Matthew O Parker
BACKGROUND: Exposure to stress and trait impulsivity are independent predictors of relapse in recovering alcoholics, but potential mechanisms that link these two risk-factors in terms of their putative additive or interactive contributions to relapse are not known. The aim of this study was to use a model of stress-induced relapse to test the hypothesis that acute psychosocial stress increases craving for alcohol in social drinkers. We also tested the hypothesis that change in craving could be explained by variability in impulsivity and risk-taking...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lora Capobianco, Julie A Morris, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have been linked to repetitive negative self-regulation styles in the form of worry and rumination respectively. Following predictions of the metacognitive model [Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Erlbaum], the current study compared the effect on recovery from stress of three strategies: worry, rumination, and distraction using a stress exposure paradigm. It was predicted that worry and/or rumination would be associated with delayed recovery on physiological and/or self-report indices when compared to distraction...
February 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Matthis Wankerl, Benjamin J Stauch, Tobias Stalder, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Markus Muehlhan, Robert Miller
Exposure to childhood trauma (CT) has been linked to sustained dysregulations of major stress response systems, including findings of both exaggerated and attenuated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Likewise, CT constitutes a common risk factor for a broad range of psychiatric conditions that involve distinct neuroendocrine profiles. In this study, we investigated the role of epigenetic variability in a stress-related gene as a potential mediator or moderator of such differential trajectories in CT survivors...
January 31, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Thomas Chao, Vanya Radoncic, Denise Hien, Gillinder Bedi, Margaret Haney
BACKGROUND: Stress responding is linked to drug use, but little is known about stress responses in cannabis smokers. We investigated acute stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure and sex, and relationships between stress responses and cannabis relapse. METHODS: 125 healthy, non-treatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers (23F, 102 M) completed the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), a standardized laboratory stressor; subsets also completed a trauma questionnaire (n = 106) and a laboratory cannabis relapse measure (n = 54)...
January 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mina M Rizk, Hanga Galfalvy, Tanya Singh, John G Keilp, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Barbara Stanley
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a heterogeneous phenomenon, and thus defining more homogeneous subgroups may help in understanding its underlying biology and ultimately in its prevention. Suicidal ideation is far more common than suicidal behavior and predicts future suicide attempts. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis reactivity has been implicated in individuals with suicidal ideation but findings are mixed with some studies showing increased and others demonstrating decreased reactivity...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jenalee R Doom, Stephanie H Cook, Julie Sturza, Niko Kaciroti, Ashley N Gearhardt, Delia M Vazquez, Julie C Lumeng, Alison L Miller
Childhood poverty is hypothesized to increase risk for mental and physical health problems at least in part through dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, less is known about the specific psychosocial stressors associated with cortisol reactivity and regulation for children living in poverty. The current study investigates negative life events, household chaos, and family conflict in preschool and middle childhood as potential predictors of cortisol regulation in low-income 7-10 year olds (N = 242; M age = 7...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Dina Tell, Herbert L Mathews, Robert L Burr, Linda Witek Janusek
Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST)...
February 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Robert Miller, Jan-Georg Wojtyniak, Lisa J Weckesser, Nina C Alexander, Veronika Engert, Thorsten Lehr
This article seeks to address the prevailing issue of how to measure specific process components of psychobiological stress responses. Particularly the change of cortisol secretion due to stress exposure has been discussed as an endophenotype of many psychosomatic health outcomes. To assess its process components, a large variety of non-compartmental parameters (i.e., composite measures of substance concentrations at different points in time) like the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) are commonly utilized...
December 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hema Sharma, Debra Smith, Claire E Turner, Laurence Game, Bruno Pichon, Russell Hope, Robert Hill, Angela Kearns, Shiranee Sriskandan
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was originally described in menstruating women and linked to TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Using UK national surveillance data, we ascertained clinical, molecular and superantigenic characteristics of TSS cases. Average annual TSS incidence was 0.07/100,000 population. Patients with nonmenstrual TSS were younger than those with menstrual TSS but had the same mortality rate. Children <16 years of age accounted for 39% of TSS cases, most caused by burns and skin and soft tissue infections...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tania Moretta, Giulia Buodo
The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features...
2018: PloS One
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