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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887025/design-and-expression-of-a-chimeric-vaccine-candidate-for-avian-necrotic-enteritis
#1
Amin Rostami, Fatemeh Goshadrou, Reza Pilehchian Langroudi, S Zahra Bathaie, Ali Riazi, Jafar Amani, Gholamreza Ahmadian
Necrotic enteritis is an economically important disease of poultry mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens The bacteria release multiple toxins of which NetB, alpha toxin and TpeL have been reported to play important roles in pathogenicity and/or severity of the disease. In this study, the sequence of clostridial toxins NetB, alpha toxin and TpeL were analyzed using bioinformatics tools to determine protein domains with high immunogenicity factor. Several chimeric trivalent proteins consisting of the immunogenic regions of the three toxins were designed and evaluated...
November 24, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879630/recombinant-alpha-beta-and-epsilon-toxins-of-clostridium-perfringens-production-strategies-and-applications-as-veterinary-vaccines
#2
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto A Ferreira, Gustavo Marçal S G Moreira, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Marcelo Mendonça, Felipe M Salvarani, Ângela N Moreira, Fabricio R Conceição
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863510/establishing-a-reference-array-for-the-cs-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-superfamily-of-defensive-peptides
#3
D Ellen K Tarr
BACKGROUND: "Invertebrate defensins" belong to the cysteine-stabilized alpha-beta (CS-αβ), also known as the scorpion toxin-like, superfamily. Some other peptides belonging to this superfamily of defensive peptides are indistinguishable from "defensins," but have been assigned other names, making it unclear what, if any, criteria must be met to qualify as an "invertebrate defensin." In addition, there are other groups of defensins in invertebrates and vertebrates that are considered to be evolutionarily unrelated to those in the CS-αβ superfamily...
November 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847174/protective-efficacy-of-a-novel-alpha-hemolysin-subunit-vaccine-at62-against-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#4
Rajan P Adhikari, Christopher D Thompson, M Javad Aman, Jean C Lee
Alpha hemolysin (Hla) is a pore-forming toxin produced by most Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Hla is reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections, such as skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, and lethal peritonitis. This study makes use of a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate (AT62) that was rationally designed based on the Hla heptameric crystal structure. AT62 comprises a critical structural domain at the N terminus of Hla, and it has no inherent toxic properties...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824883/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteropathy-are-positively-associated-with-immune-responses-to-an-oral-cholera-vaccine-in-bangladeshi-children
#5
Muhammad Ikhtear Uddin, Shahidul Islam, Naoshin S Nishat, Motaher Hossain, Tanzeem Ahmed Rafique, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Mohammad Rubel Hoq, Yue Zhang, Amit Saha, Jason B Harris, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Edward T Ryan, Daniel T Leung, Firdausi Qadri
Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV). We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801366/evaluation-of-paiusp-subtyping-to-characterize-uropathogenic-e-coli-isolates
#6
Yun Mei Lai, Myo Thura Zaw, Shamsul Bahari Shamsudin, Zaw Lin
INTRODUCTION: Uropathogenic virulence factors have been identified by comparing the prevalence of these among urinary tract isolates and environmental strains. The uropathogenic-specific protein (USP) gene is present on the pathogenicity island (PAI) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and, depending on its two diverse gene types and the sequential patterns of three open reading frame units (orfUs) following it, there is a method to characterize UPEC epidemiologically called PAIusp subtyping...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795368/safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-medi4893-an-investigational-extendedhalf-life-anti-staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-human-monoclonal-antibody-in-healthy-adults
#7
Xiang-Qing Yu, Gabriel J Robbie, Yuling Wu, Mark T Esser, Kathryn Jensen, Howard I Schwartz, Terramika Bellamy, Martha Hernandez-Illas, Hasan S Jafri
MEDI4893 is an investigational immunoglobulin G1K monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to and neutralizes alpha-toxin, a key Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor. A triple-amino acid substitution, M252Y/S254T/T256E, was engineered into the MEDI4893 Fc region to extend its serum half-life. A phase 1, double-blind, dose escalation study was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, anti-alpha-toxin neutralizing activity, and anti-drug antibody (ADA) response of MEDI4893 following a single intravenous infusion in healthy adults 18-65 years of age...
October 17, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789246/detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-botulinum-from-food-sold-in-lagos-nigeria
#8
Emelda E Chukwu, Francisca O Nwaokorie, AkitoyeO Coker, Mario J Avila-Campos, Rosa L Solis, Luis A Llanco, Folasade T Ogunsola
Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination...
October 24, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785764/bacteriological-and-molecular-studies-of-clostridium-perfringens-infections-in-newly-born-calves
#9
A M Selim, M M Elhaig, I Zakaria, A Ali
Clostridium perfringens is considered one of the important causes of calf diarrhea. Two hundred and twenty-seven clinical samples from newly born and dead diarrheic calves were examined bacteriologically and by PCR. Bacterial culture identified C. perfringens in 168 of 227 samples. A total of 144 of these isolates were lecithinase positive, indicating C. perfringens Type A. In addition, 154 isolates were positive by alpha toxin encoding gene-PCR assay. This study showed high agreement between the results of bacteriology and multiplex PCR...
October 26, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784629/efficient-priming-of-cd4%C3%A2-t-cells-by-langerin-expressing-dendritic-cells-targeted-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-spike-protein-domains-in-pigs
#10
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Dianjun Cao, Debin Tian, Qian M Cao, Christopher Overend, Danielle M Yugo, Shannon R Matzinger, Adam J Rogers, C Lynn Heffron, Nicholas Catanzaro, Scott P Kenney, Tanja Opriessnig, Yao-Wei Huang, Geoffrey Labarque, Stephen Q Wu, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first emerged in the United States in 2013 causing high mortality and morbidity in neonatal piglets with immense economic losses to the swine industry. PEDV is an alpha-coronavirus replicating primarily in porcine intestinal cells. PEDV vaccines are available in Asia and Europe, and conditionally-licensed vaccines recently became available in the United States but the efficacies of these vaccines in eliminating PEDV from swine populations are questionable. In this study, the immunogenicity of a subunit vaccine based on the spike protein of PEDV, which was directly targeted to porcine dendritic cells (DCs) expressing Langerin, was assessed...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776235/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-attenuates-microcystin-lr-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#11
Jun Shi, Huiping Deng, Huichao Pan, Yinjie Xu, Min Zhang
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent toxin and our past research suggested that it also mediated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on MC-LR-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in HUVECs. HUVECs were stimulated with MC-LR in the presence or absence of EGCG. MC-LR (40 μM) significantly increased cell death and decreased cell viability, migration, and tube formation, whereas EGCG (50 μM) inhibited these effects...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739519/s-aureus-blocks-efferocytosis-of-neutrophils-by-macrophages-through-the-activity-of-its-virulence-factor-alpha-toxin
#12
Taylor S Cohen, Omari Jones-Nelson, Meghan Hotz, Lily Cheng, Lloyd S Miller, JoAnn Suzich, C Kendall Stover, Bret R Sellman
Bacterial pneumonia, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus, is associated with an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the lung tissue and airways. Regulation and clearance of recruited neutrophils is essential for preventing tissue damage by "friendly fire", a responsibility of macrophages in a process called efferocytosis. We hypothesized that S. aureus impairs efferocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs) through the activity of the secreted virulence factor alpha toxin (AT), which has been implicated in altering the antimicrobial function of AMs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731413/identification-of-lipoxygenase-lox-genes-from-legumes-and-their-responses-in-wild-type-and-cultivated-peanut-upon-aspergillus-flavus-infection
#13
Hui Song, Pengfei Wang, Changsheng Li, Suoyi Han, Javier Lopez-Baltazar, Xinyou Zhang, Xingjun Wang
Lipoxygenase (LOX) genes are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Although they have been characterized in various plants, little is known about the evolution of legume LOX genes. In this study, we identified 122 full-length LOX genes in Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaënsis, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In total, 64 orthologous and 36 paralogous genes were identified. The full-length, polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) and lipoxygenase domain sequences from orthologous and paralogous genes exhibited a signature of purifying selection...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727093/-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-and-pelvic-floor-dysfunction-in-renal-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#14
R Thuret, S Hurel, F Kleinclauss, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To describe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and their management in renal transplant candidates and recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) database using the following keywords, alone or in association: "transplantation", "prostate hyperplasia", "transurethral resection of prostate", "urinary incontinence", "LUTS", "pelvic floor dysfunction"...
October 7, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640125/intestinal-microbiota-in-pediatric-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-midwest-pediatric-nephrology-consortium-study
#15
Janice Crespo-Salgado, V Matti Vehaskari, Tyrus Stewart, Michael Ferris, Qiang Zhang, Guangdi Wang, Eugene E Blanchard, Christopher M Taylor, Mahmoud Kallash, Larry A Greenbaum, Diego H Aviles
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with uremia and increased systemic inflammation. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota may facilitate translocation of endotoxins into the systemic circulation leading to inflammation. We hypothesized that children with ESRD have an altered intestinal microbiota and increased serum levels of bacterially derived uremic toxins. METHODS: Four groups of subjects were recruited: peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), post-kidney transplant and healthy controls...
September 17, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629411/combining-in-vitro-protein-detection-and-in-vivo-antibody-detection-identifies-potential-vaccine-targets-against-staphylococcus-aureus-during-osteomyelitis
#16
P Martijn den Reijer, Marjan Sandker, Susan V Snijders, Mehri Tavakol, Antoni P A Hendrickx, Willem J B van Wamel
Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data...
September 14, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611790/comparative-genomics-of-acetobacterpasteurianus-ab3-an-acetic-acid-producing-strain-isolated-from-chinese-traditional-rice-vinegar-meiguichu
#17
Kai Xia, Yudong Li, Jing Sun, Xinle Liang
Acetobacter pasteurianus, an acetic acid resistant bacterium belonging to alpha-proteobacteria, has been widely used to produce vinegar in the food industry. To understand the mechanism of its high tolerance to acetic acid and robust ability of oxidizing ethanol to acetic acid (> 12%, w/v), we described the 3.1 Mb complete genome sequence (including 0.28 M plasmid sequence) with a G+C content of 52.4% of A. pasteurianus Ab3, which was isolated from the traditional Chinese rice vinegar (Meiguichu) fermentation process...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608188/alpha-helical-fragaceatoxin%C3%A2-c-nanopore-engineered-for-double-stranded-and-single-stranded-nucleic-acid-analysis
#18
Carsten Wloka, Natalie Lisa Mutter, Misha Soskine, Giovanni Maglia
Nanopores are used in single-molecule DNA analysis and sequencing. Herein, we show that Fragaceatoxin C (FraC), an α-helical pore-forming toxin from an actinoporin protein family, can be reconstituted in sphingomyelin-free standard planar lipid bilayers. We engineered FraC for DNA analysis and show that the funnel-shaped geometry allows tight wrapping around single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), resolving between homopolymeric C, T, and A polynucleotide stretches. Remarkably, despite the 1.2 nm internal constriction of FraC, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) can translocate through the nanopore at high applied potentials, presumably through the deformation of the α-helical transmembrane region of the pore...
September 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597849/psm-mec-a-virulence-determinant-that-connects-transcriptional-regulation-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococci
#19
REVIEW
Li Qin, Joshua W McCausland, Gordon Y C Cheung, Michael Otto
PSM-mec is a secreted virulence factor that belongs to the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family of amphipathic, alpha-helical peptide toxins produced by Staphylococcus species. All known PSMs are core genome-encoded with the exception of PSM-mec, whose gene is found in specific sub-types of SCCmec methicillin resistance mobile genetic elements present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition to the cytolytic translational product, PSM-mec, the psm-mec locus encodes a regulatory RNA...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597255/ochratoxin-a-activates-neutrophils-and-kills-these-cells-through-necrosis-an-effect-eliminated-through-its-conversion-into-ochratoxin-%C3%AE
#20
Larine Kupski, Marisa Freitas, Daniela Ribeiro, Eliana Badiale Furlong, Eduarda Fernandes
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of fungi from the Aspergillus and Penicillium genera that frequently grow in improperly stored food products. OTA has carcinogenic, teratogenic and nephrotoxic potential and sustains a high half-life in human blood. Despite the recently efforts to decontaminate OTA through its conversion into its metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OTα), there are just a few reports in literature comparing the toxic effects of these toxins. Thus, herein we studied and compared the proinflammatory and toxicological effects of OTA and its metabolite OTα in human neutrophils in vitro...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
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