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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718163/incidence-and-management-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-after-urethral-stricture-repair
#1
REVIEW
Amanda S J Chung, Kurt A McCammon
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after urethral stricture repair are not uncommon. Urgency has been reported in 40% of men and urge incontinence in 12% of men after anterior urethroplasty. De novo urgency and urge incontinence is seen in 9 and 5% of men, respectively, after urethroplasty. Once a complication of urethroplasty (such as recurrent urethral stricture or diverticulum) has been excluded as a cause, evaluation of LUTS in such patients should focus on differentiating bladder dysfunction (overactive bladder, underactive bladder), from other outlet obstruction (such as benign prostatic obstruction), dysfunctional voiding, or medical causes (such as nocturnal polyuria)...
September 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688806/evaluation-of-the-genotoxicity-of-alpha-amanitin-in-mice-bone-marrow-cells
#2
B Marciniak, D Łopaczyńska, T Ferenc
Alpha-amanitin is a known cytotoxic substance found in some mushroom species including Amanita phalloides. Its main mechanism of action is to block the transcription, which can lead to cell death. Lack of reports on the genotoxicity of this toxin was an inspiration for undertaking this experiment. Genotoxic effect of α-amanitin on balb/c mice bone marrow cells was tested using: comet assay and chromosomal aberration test. The tested substance was given once by intraperitoneal administration to animals at doses: 0...
July 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685236/engineered-cry1ac-cry9aa-hybrid-bacillus-thuringiensis-delta-endotoxin-with-improved-insecticidal-activity-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#3
Jigar V Shah, Rakeshkumar Yadav, Sanjay S Ingle
Recombinant Bt construct was prepared by exchange of pore forming domain I with cry1Ac to cry9Aa gene by overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) technique. Construction of cry1Ac-cry9Aa was accomplished by six base pair homology at 3' ends of PCR products of domain I of cry1Ac and domain II and III of cry9Aa. The recombinant toxin was also modified by deletion of N-terminal alpha helix-1 of recombinant toxin. Both Cry toxins were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) plysS and purified by His-tag purification. Upon insect bioassay analysis against devastating crop pest Helicoverpa armigera, toxicity of recombinant toxin was found around fivefold higher than native Cry1Ac while alpha helix-1 deleted N-terminal modified toxin did not resulted in significant increase in toxicity...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683345/interaction-of-acylated-and-unacylated-forms-of-e-coli-alpha-hemolysin-with-lipid-monolayers-a-pm-irras-study
#4
Romina F Vázquez, María A Daza Millone, Felippe J Pavinatto, Vanesa S Herlax, Laura S Bakás, Osvaldo N Oliveira, María E Vela, Sabina M Maté
Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli produce virulence factors, such as the protein toxin alpha-hemolysin (HlyA), that enable the bacteria to colonize the host and establish an infection. HlyA is synthetized as a protoxin (ProHlyA) that is transformed into the active form in the bacterial cytosol by the covalent linkage of two fatty-acyl moieties to the polypeptide chain before the secretion of HlyA into the extracellular medium. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the fatty acylation of HlyA on protein conformation and protein-membrane interactions...
June 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672859/astrocytic-expression-of-gsta4-is-associated-to-dopaminergic-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Michael Jewett, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Maria Swanberg
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disease caused by multiple, mainly unknown, genetic and environmental factors. The Ventral root avulsion 1 (Vra1) locus on rat chromosome 8 includes the Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4) gene and has been identified in crosses between Dark Agouti (DA) and Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) rat strains as being associated to neurodegeneration after nerve and brain injury. The Gsta4 protein clears lipid peroxidation by-products, a process suggested to being implicated in PD...
June 26, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665720/characterization-of-clostridium-perfringens-strains-isolated-from-healthy-and-necrotic-enteritis-afflicted-broiler-chickens
#6
Charles Li, Hyun S Lillehoj, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde, Don Ritter, SungTaek Oh
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important enteric disease in poultry, and Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A strains are the primary etiology. NE is responsible for annual losses of US $6 billion to the poultry industry in the United States. An increase in the incidence of NE has been also associated with withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry feed. In this study, CP strains isolated from healthy and NE-afflicted birds were characterized microbiologically and molecularly, and their virulence was experimentally tested in chickens...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660750/urinary-manifestations-in-isaacs-s-syndrome-our-experience-in-8-cases
#7
Silvia N Gonzalez Primomo, Leandro Blas, Alicia C Bertotti, Carlos Ameri
INTRODUCTION: Isaacs's syndrome (IS), is a rare neurological disorder, characterized by sustained muscular activity, fasciculations, cramps, myokymia, excessive sweating, and occasional elevation of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme. AIM: To report our experience in patients with IS and urinary manifestations, describing clinical findings, test's results, and response to treatment. Methods An observational, retrospective analysis of patients with IS and urinary manifestations treated at German Hospital of Buenos Aires between 2001 and 2011 was done...
June 29, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660200/a-fast-and-inexpensive-protocol-for-empirical-verification-of-neutralizing-epitopes-in-microbial-toxins-and-enzymes
#8
Christine N Vuong, Wen-Ko Chou, Vivek A Kuttappan, Billy M Hargis, Lisa R Bielke, Luc R Berghman
In vivo targeting of peptides to antigen-presenting cells by use of agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies has been used successfully as an immune response enhancing strategy. When tested in chickens, the antibody-guided platform was capable of inducing specific IgG production within 1 week postimmunization. However, use of this method beyond its initial conception as a vaccine delivery tool has not been fully exploited. In this study, Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin was used as a model microbial toxin for epitope mapping by using the antibody-guided immunization method to generate a panel of antibodies against specific, regions of the toxin in an attempt to identify crucial determinants on the toxin which, once bound, would hinder downstream toxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659169/the-novel-compound-pbt434-prevents-iron-mediated-neurodegeneration-and-alpha-synuclein-toxicity-in-multiple-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
David I Finkelstein, Jessica L Billings, Paul A Adlard, Scott Ayton, Amelia Sedjahtera, Colin L Masters, Simon Wilkins, David M Shackleford, Susan A Charman, Wojciech Bal, Izabela A Zawisza, Ewa Kurowska, Andrew L Gundlach, Sheri Ma, Ashley I Bush, Dominic J Hare, Philip A Doble, Simon Crawford, Elisabeth Cl Gautier, Jack Parsons, Penny Huggins, Kevin J Barnham, Robert A Cherny
Elevated iron in the SNpc may play a key role in Parkinson's disease (PD) neurodegeneration since drug candidates with high iron affinity rescue PD animal models, and one candidate, deferirpone, has shown efficacy recently in a phase two clinical trial. However, strong iron chelators may perturb essential iron metabolism, and it is not yet known whether the damage associated with iron is mediated by a tightly bound (eg ferritin) or lower-affinity, labile, iron pool. Here we report the preclinical characterization of PBT434, a novel quinazolinone compound bearing a moderate affinity metal-binding motif, which is in development for Parkinsonian conditions...
June 28, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652930/a-simple-electroelution-method-for-rapid-protein-purification-isolation-and-antibody-production-of-alpha-toxin-from-clostridium-septicum
#10
Lorena Vázquez-Iglesias, Borja Estefanell-Ucha, Leticia Barcia-Castro, María Páez de la Cadena, Paula Álvarez-Chaver, Daniel Ayude-Vázquez, Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Berrocal
Clostridium septicum produces a number of diseases in human and farm animals which, in most of the cases, are fatal without clinical intervention. Alpha toxin is an important agent and the unique lethal virulent factor produced by Clostridium septicum. This toxin is haemolytic, highly lethal and necrotizing activities but is being used as an antigen to develop animal vaccines. The aim of this study was to isolate the alpha toxin of Clostridium septicum and produce highly specific antibodies against it. In this work, we have developed a simple and efficient method for alpha toxin purification, based on electroelution that can be used as a time-saving method for purifying proteins...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565773/pien-tze-huang-gan-bao-ameliorates-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatic-injury-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-rats
#11
Jinyan Zhao, Haixia Hu, Yun Wan, Yuchen Zhang, Liangpu Zheng, Zhenfeng Hong
Liver damage results from a variety of insults, including hepatitis and chemical toxicity from alcohol, drugs and other toxins. The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects and potential mechanisms of action of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Pien Tze Huang Gan Bao (GB) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six different groups: i) Control, ii) CCl4 injury model and groups treated with iii) silymarin as a positive drug control, iv) 150 mg/kg GB, v) 300 mg/kg GB and vi) 600 mg/kg GB...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484480/single-event-resolution-of-plant-plasma-membrane-protein-endocytosis-by-tirf-microscopy
#12
Alexander Johnson, Grégory Vert
Endocytosis is a key process in the internalization of extracellular materials and plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors and transporters, thereby controlling many aspects of cell signaling and cellular homeostasis. Endocytosis in plants has an essential role not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth and development, nutrient delivery, toxin avoidance, and pathogen defense. The precise mechanisms of endocytosis in plants remain quite elusive. The lack of direct visualization and examination of single events of endocytosis has greatly hampered our ability to precisely monitor the cell surface lifetime and the recruitment profile of proteins driving endocytosis or endocytosed cargos in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474628/protection-against-osteoarthritis-in-experimental-animals-by-nanogold-conjugated-snake-venom-protein-toxin-gold-nanoparticle-naja-kaouthia-cytotoxin-1
#13
Antony Gomes, Partha Pratim Saha, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta, Subir Chandra Dasgupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Increased severity of osteoarthritis (OA) and adverse side effects of its treatment led to the search for alternative therapies. It was previously reported that snake venom protein toxin Naja kaouthia cytotoxin 1 (NKCT1) and gold nanoparticle (GNP) individually have potential against excremental arthritis. In this study, we analyzed the protective activity of GNP conjugated protein toxin NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) against experimental OA. METHODS: Gold nanoparticle conjugation with NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) was done and its physiochemical properties were studied...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473665/anti-tumor-activity-of-an-immunotoxin-tgf%C3%AE-pe38-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium
#14
Daejin Lim, Kwang Soo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Kyong-Cheol Ko, Jae Jun Song, Jong Hyun Choi, Minsang Shin, Jung-Joon Min, Jae-Ho Jeong, Hyon E Choy
The anticancer strategy underlying the use of immunotoxins is as follows: the cancer-binding domain delivers the toxin to a cancer cell, after which the toxin enters and kills the cell. TGFα-PE38 is an immunotoxin comprising transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), a natural ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a modified Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) lacking N terminal cell-binding domain, a highly potent cytotoxic protein moiety. Tumor cells with high level of EGFR undergo apoptosis upon treatment with TGFα-PE38...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462021/differential-transcript-profile-of-inhibitors-with-potential-anti-venom-role-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-and-adult-bothrops-jararaca-snake
#15
Cícera Maria Gomes, Karen de Morais-Zani, Stephen Lu, Diego de Souza Buarque, Glória Regina Cardoso Braz, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities-proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant-mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake's venoms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455832/structure-and-function-of-the-two-component-cytotoxins-of-staphylococcus-aureus-learnings-for-designing-novel-therapeutics
#16
Adriana Badarau, Nikolina Trstenjak, Eszter Nagy
Staphylococcus aureus can produce up to five different bi-component cytotoxins: two gamma-hemolysins HlgAB and HlgCB, and leukocidins SF-PV (Panton Valentine leukocidin), ED (LukED) and GH (LukGH, also called LukAB). Their major function in S. aureus pathogenesis is to evade innate immunity by attacking phagocytic cells and to support bacterial growth by lysing red blood cells. The five cytotoxins display different levels of amino acid sequence conservation (30-82%), but all form a remarkably similar beta-barrel type pore structure (greatly resembling the mono-component toxin alpha-hemolysin) that inserts into the target cell membrane leading to necrotic cell death...
April 29, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431598/apraclonidine-in-the-treatment-of-ptosis
#17
Subhashie Wijemanne, Dhanya Vijayakumar, Joseph Jankovic
Transient ptosis is a known complication of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection due to inadvertent migration of toxin into the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Currently there is no treatment available for BoNT induced ptosis. Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a topical ophthalmic solution with selective alpha-2 and weak alpha-1 receptor agonist activity that has the ability to elevate the eye lid. Apraclonidine has been used as a diagnostic test in Horner's syndrome. We evaluated the effects apraclonidine in a cohort of BoNT induced ptosis and a patient with Horner syndrome...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430165/treatments-for-latrodectism-a-systematic-review-on-their-clinical-effectiveness
#18
REVIEW
Nicole M Ryan, Nicholas A Buckley, Andis Graudins
Latrodectism or envenomation by widow-spiders is common and clinically significant worldwide. Alpha-latrotoxin is the mammalian-specific toxin in the venom that results in toxic effects observed in humans. Symptoms may be incapacitating and include severe pain that can persist for days. The management of mild to moderate latrodectism is primarily supportive while severe cases have variously been treated with intravenous calcium, muscle relaxants, widow-spider antivenom and analgesic opioids. The object of this systematic review is to examine the literature on the clinical effectiveness of past and current treatments for latrodectism...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401477/a-recombinant-probiotic-lactobacillus-casei-expressing-the-clostridium-perfringens-%C3%AE-toxoid-as-an-orally-vaccine-candidate-against-gas-gangrene-and-necrotic-enteritis
#19
Mojtaba Alimolaei, Mehdi Golchin, Jalil Abshenas, Majid Ezatkhah, Mehrdad Shamsaddini Bafti
The alpha-toxin is one of the virulence factors of Clostridium perfringens for gas gangrene in humans and animals or necrotic enteritis in poultry. The C-terminal domain of this toxin ( cpa 247-370 ) was synthesized and cloned into pT1NX vector to construct the pT1NX-alpha plasmid. This surface-expressing plasmid was electroporated into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, generating the recombinant L. casei strain expressing alpha-toxoid (LC-α strain). Expression of this modified alpha-toxoid was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and direct immunofluorescence microscopy...
April 11, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396748/innate-immune-responses-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-in-primary-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#20
Omar Bulgari, Xianwen Dong, Alfred L Roca, Anna M Caroli, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses induced by in vitro stimulation of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC) using Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components are well- characterized in bovine species. The objective of the current study was to characterize the downstream regulation of the inflammatory response induced by Toll-like receptors in primary goat MEC (pgMEC). We performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) to measure mRNA levels of 9 genes involved in transcriptional regulation or antibacterial activity: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interferon induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1), Toll interacting protein (TOLLIP), and lactoferrin (LTF)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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