keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

A-toxin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213221/a-novel-fluorescent-aptasensor-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-microcystin-lr-based-on-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-and-dapoxyl
#1
Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Noor Mohammad Danesh, Mohammad Ramezani, Narjes Ghows, Seyed Ali Mousavi Shaegh, Khalil Abnous
To assure water safety and protect human health, precise and simple analytical approaches are highly desired to determine low concentrations of microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR), a toxin, in both water and serum samples. Herein, a simple, rapid and accurate aptamer-based fluorescent sensor was used for selective recognition of MC-LR, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as immobilizers, dapoxyl as a fluorescent dye, DAP-10 as a specific aptamer for dapoxyl and unmodified MC-LR aptamer (Apt) as a sensing ligand...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181032/comprehensive-evaluation-of-chemiluminescent-immunoassays-for-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
A Makristathis, I Zeller, D Mitteregger, M Kundi, A M Hirschl
For the microbiological diagnosis of a Clostridium (C.) difficile infection (CDI), a two-test algorithm consisting of a C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-immunoassay followed by a toxin-immunoassay in positive cases is widely used. In this study, two chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs), one for GDH and the other for the toxins A and B, have been evaluated systematically using appropriate reference methods. Three-hundred diarrhoeal stool specimens submitted for CDI diagnosis were analysed by the LIAISON CLIAs (DiaSorin)...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159706/venomics-of-naja-sputatrix-the-javan-spitting-cobra-a-short-neurotoxin-driven-venom-needing-improved-antivenom-neutralization
#3
Nget Hong Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Choo Hock Tan
: The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152464/arsenic-association-of-regional-concentrations-in-drinking-water-with-suicide-and-natural-causes-of-death-in-italy
#4
Maurizio Pompili, Monica Vichi, Enrico Dinelli, Denise Erbuto, Roger Pycha, Gianluca Serafini, Gloria Giordano, Paolo Valera, Stefano Albanese, Annamaria Lima, Benedetto De Vivo, Domenico Cicchella, Zoltan Rihmer, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi, Ross J Baldessarini
Arsenic, as a toxin, may be associated with higher mortality rates, although its relationship to suicide is not clear. Given this uncertainty, we evaluated associations between local arsenic concentrations in tapwater and mortality in regions of Italy, to test the hypothesis that both natural-cause and suicide death rates would be higher with greater trace concentrations of arsenic. Arsenic concentrations in drinking-water samples from 145 sites were assayed by mass spectrometry, and correlated with local rates of mortality due to suicide and natural causes between 1980 and 2011, using weighted, least-squares univariate and multivariate regression modeling...
January 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151994/toxin-mediates-sepsis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#5
Li Qin, Fei Da, Emilie L Fisher, Daniel C S Tan, Thuan H Nguyen, Chih-Lung Fu, Vee Y Tan, Joshua W McCausland, Daniel E Sturdevant, Hwang-Soo Joo, Shu Y Queck, Gordon Y C Cheung, Michael Otto
Bacterial sepsis is a major killer in hospitalized patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) with the leading species Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent causes of nosocomial sepsis, with most infectious isolates being methicillin-resistant. However, which bacterial factors underlie the pathogenesis of CNS sepsis is unknown. While it has been commonly believed that invariant structures on the surface of CNS trigger sepsis by causing an over-reaction of the immune system, we show here that sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant S...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151975/colonization-with-enterotoxigenic-bacteroides-fragilis-is-associated-with-early-stage-colorectal-neoplasia
#6
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Alan Aitchison, Liane Dixon, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a toxin-producing bacteria thought to possibly promote colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating the mucosal immune response and inducing epithelial cell changes. Here, we aim to examine the association of colonic mucosal colonization with ETBF and the presence of a range of lesions on the colonic neoplastic spectrum. METHODS: Mucosal tissue from up to four different colonic sites was obtained from a consecutive series of 150 patients referred for colonoscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137589/participation-of-perforin-in-mediating-dopaminergic-neuron-loss-in-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-in-mice
#7
Su-Ping Peng, Ye Zhang, Sjef Copray, Melitta Schachner, Yan-Qin Shen
Both resident innate and peripheral immune aberrations have been demonstrated to influence Parkinson's disease (PD) progression. However, it is still enigmatic how and which immune components are lethal to the dopaminergic neuron in PD. We now show that levels of perforin, a pore-forming protein expressed in cytotoxic immune cells, was significantly increased in the serum of wild-type mice 4 weeks after injection of MPTP, a toxin used to induce PD-like symptoms. We demonstrate that perforin-deficiency attenuated the acute striatal dopamine reduction by 33%, ablated microglia activation 3 days post MPTP-injection; and retarded dopaminergic neuron death 4 weeks post MPTP-injection...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128281/targeted-delivery-of-an-adp-ribosylating-bacterial-toxin-into-cancer-cells
#8
N-I Zahaf, A E Lang, L Kaiser, C D Fichter, S Lassmann, A McCluskey, A Augspach, K Aktories, G Schmidt
The actin cytoskeleton is an attractive target for bacterial toxins. The ADP-ribosyltransferase TccC3 from the insect bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescence modifies actin to force its aggregation. We intended to transport the catalytic part of this toxin preferentially into cancer cells using a toxin transporter (Protective antigen, PA) which was redirected to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) or to human EGF receptors 2 (HER2), which are overexpressed in several cancer cells. Protective antigen of anthrax toxin forms a pore through which the two catalytic parts (lethal factor and edema factor) or other proteins can be transported into mammalian cells...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124770/the-effect-of-stereotactic-injections-on-demyelination-and-remyelination-a-study-in-the-cuprizone-model
#9
Laura Salinas Tejedor, Tanja Wostradowski, Stefan Gingele, Thomas Skripuletz, Viktoria Gudi, Martin Stangel
Remyelination is the natural repair mechanism in demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis. Several animal models have been used to study demyelination and remyelination. Among toxic animal models, oral administration of the toxin cuprizone leads to white and gray matter demyelination. In contrast, focal demyelination models include the stereotactic application of a toxin such as lysolecithin or ethidium bromide. The injection procedure generates a local disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and might thus trigger a local inflammatory reaction and consequently may influence demyelination and remyelination...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119472/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pore-forming-exolysin-and-type-iv-pili-cooperate-to-induce-host-cell-lysis
#10
Pauline Basso, Michel Ragno, Sylvie Elsen, Emeline Reboud, Guillaume Golovkine, Stephanie Bouillot, Philippe Huber, Stephen Lory, Eric Faudry, Ina Attrée
: Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111762/effect-of-dietary-macronutrients-on-aflatoxicosis-a-mini-review
#11
REVIEW
Z Nurul Adilah, S Mohd Redzwan
Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. The main route of aflatoxin exposure is through the diet. Indeed, the long term aflatoxin exposure is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxin causes aflatoxicosis, which can be affected by several factors and it is prevalent in many developing Asian and African countries. This mini review discussed the effects of carbohydrates, fat and protein on aflatoxicosis based on findings from animal and human studies. It was found that high carbohydrate intake enhanced aflatoxicosis occurrence, while low ingestion of carbohydrate with caloric restriction slowed the symptoms associated with aflatoxicosis...
January 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108741/metabolism-toxicity-and-anticancer-activities-of-arsenic-compounds
#12
Islam Khairul, Qian Qian Wang, Yu Han Jiang, Chao Wang, Hua Naranmandura
A variety of studies indicated that inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites have paradoxical effects, namely, carcinogenic and anticancer effects. Epidemiological studies have shown that long term exposure to arsenic can increase the risk of cancers of lung, skin or bladder in man, which is probably associated with the arsenic metabolism. In fact, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic by Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) to mono- and dimethylated arsenic species has long been considered as a major route for detoxification...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104802/the-ssl2245-sll1130-toxin-antitoxin-system-mediates-heat-induced-programmed-cell-death-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc6803
#13
Afshan Srikumar, Pilla Sankara Krishna, Dokku Sivaramakrishna, Stefan Kopfmann, Wolfgang R Hess, Musti J Swamy, Sue Lin-Chao, Jogadhenu S S Prakash
Two putative heat responsive genes, ssl2245 and sll1130 constitute an operon that also has characteristics of a toxin-antitoxin system, thus joining several enigmatic features. Closely related orthologs of Ssl2245 and Sll1130 exist in widely different bacteria, which thrive under environments with large fluctuations in temperature and salinity, among which some are thermo-epilithic biofilm forming cyanobacteria. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the CRISPR genes as well as several hypothetical genes were commonly up-regulated in Δssl2245 and Δsll1130 mutants...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094982/bacterial-genome-editing-via-a-designed-toxin-antitoxin-cassette
#14
Jie Wu, Aihua Deng, Qinyun Sun, Hua Bai, Zhaopeng Sun, Xiuling Shang, Yun Zhang, Qian Liu, Yong Liang, Shuwen Liu, Yongsheng Che, Tingyi Wen
Manipulating the bacterial genomes in an efficient manner is essential to biological and biotechnological research. Here, we reprogrammed the bacterial TA systems as the toxin counter-selectable cassette regulated by an antitoxin switch (TCCRAS) for genetic modifications in the extensively studied and utilized Gram-positive bacteria, B. subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum. In the five characterized type II TA systems, the RelBE complex can specifically and efficiently regulate cell growth and death by the conditionally controlled antitoxin RelB switch, thereby serving as a novel counter-selectable cassette to establish the TCCRAS system...
January 26, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087047/rational-design-of-low-immunogenic-anti-cd25-recombinant-immunotoxin-for-t-cell-malignancies-by-elimination-of-t-cell-epitopes-in-pe38
#15
Ronit Mazor, Gilad Kaplan, Dong Park, Youjin Jang, Fred Lee, Robert Kreitman, Ira Pastan
LMB-2, is a potent recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) that is composed of scFv antibody that targets CD25 (Tac) and a toxin fragment (PE38). It is used to treat T cell leukemias and lymphomas. To make LMB-2 less immunogenic, we introduced a large deletion in domain II and six point mutations in domain III that were previously shown to reduce T cell activation in other RITs. We found that unlike other RITs, deletion of domain II from LMB-2 severely compromised its activity. Rather than deletion, we identified T cell epitopes in domain II and used alanine substitutions to identify point mutations that diminished those epitopes...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081446/host-to-host-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-driven-by-its-inflammatory-toxin-pneumolysin
#16
M Ammar Zafar, Yang Wang, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Jeffrey N Weiser
Host-to-host transmission is a critical step for infection. Here we studied transmission of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in an infant mouse model. Transmission from nasally colonized pups required high levels of bacterial shedding in nasal secretions and was temporally correlated with, and dependent upon, the acute inflammatory response. Pneumolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin and major virulence determinant, was both necessary and sufficient to promote inflammation, which increased shedding and allowed for intralitter transmission...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079531/the-effect-of-albumin-and-platelet-poor-plasma-supplemented-botulinum-a-toxin-on-bioavaliability-an-experimental-rabbit-model
#17
Serhat Sibar, Kemal Findikcioglu, Murat Zinnuroglu, Seyhan Cenetoglu
Today, botulinum toxin is commonly used for cosmetic purposes throughout the world. Despite various agents reducing the efficiency of toxin are well defined, the studies related to increasing the bioavailability are limited. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of the preparation of toxin by diluting with platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and/or albumin instead of standard dilution (saline) on bioavailability in cosmetic-purpose botulinum toxin applications.In the study, 24 New Zealand rabbits were used...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045959/the-impact-of-detoxification-costs-and-predation-risk-on-foraging-implications-for-mimicry-dynamics
#18
Christina G Halpin, John Skelhorn, Candy Rowe, Graeme D Ruxton, Andrew D Higginson
Prey often evolve defences to deter predators, such as noxious chemicals including toxins. Toxic species often advertise their defence to potential predators by distinctive sensory signals. Predators learn to associate toxicity with the signals of these so-called aposematic prey, and may avoid them in future. In turn, this selects for mildly toxic prey to mimic the appearance of more toxic prey. Empirical evidence shows that mimicry could be either beneficial ('Mullerian') or detrimental ('quasi-Batesian') to the highly toxic prey, but the factors determining which are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999281/probiotic-microorganisms-inhibit-epithelial-cell-internalization-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a
#19
Tina I Lam, Christina C Tam, Larry H Stanker, Luisa W Cheng
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are some of the most poisonous natural toxins known to man and are threats to public health and safety. Previous work from our laboratory showed that both BoNT serotype A complex and holotoxin can bind and transit through the intestinal epithelia to disseminate in the blood. The timing of BoNT/A toxin internalization was shown to be comparable in both the Caco-2 in vitro cell culture and in the oral mouse intoxication models. Probiotic microorganisms have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects in not only maintaining the normal gut mucosa but also protection from allergens, pathogens, and toxins...
December 16, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999204/mesothelin-targeted-immunotoxin-rg7787-has-synergistic-anti-tumor-activity-when-combined-with-taxanes
#20
Emily Kolyvas, Michael Rudloff, Marianne Poruchynsky, Rebekah Landsman, Kevin Hollevoet, David Venzon, Christine Alewine
Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are antibody-based therapeutics that carry a toxin payload. The RG7787 RIT targets the cancer antigen mesothelin to deliver a recombinantly-engineered, reduced immunogenicity variant of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) to the cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that maximal doses of RG7787 temporarily halt growth of pancreatic cancer tumor xenografts, similar to the approved drugs gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel, however, combination of the RIT with nab-paclitaxel produces durable complete regressions in most mice...
December 16, 2016: Oncotarget
keyword
keyword
36800
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"