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Maria Giovanna Marche, Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Luca Ruiu
The pathogenic action of the bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus against invertebrates involves a toxin-mediated mechanism. Several studies, conducted with specific strains against diverse targets, suggested the implication of different toxins. Recent genome sequencing and annotation of some insecticidal strains revealed several putative virulence factors highly conserved in this species. After determining the pathogenicity of strain UNISS 18 against different Lepidopteran and Dipteran larvae, in this study we have investigated the actual expression of genes encoding for enzymes (i...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuko Shimamura, Mio Utsumi, Chikako Hirai, Shogo Nakano, Sohei Ito, Ai Tsuji, Takeshi Ishii, Takahiro Hosoya, Toshiyuki Kan, Norio Ohashi, Shuichi Masuda
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a toxin protein, and is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. Polyphenols, such as catechins, are known to interact with proteins. In this study, we investigated the binding of catechins to SEA using SPR (Biacore), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and protein-ligand docking. We found that (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) could strongly bind to SEA. According to thermodynamic parameters, a negative Δ G indicated that the interaction between EGCG and SEA was spontaneous, and the electrostatic force accompanied by hydrophobic binding forces may play a major role in the binding...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lulu Wang, Zhen Jin, Hao Wang
To study the effects of an environmental toxin, such as fine particles in hazy weather, on the spread of infectious diseases, we derive a toxin-dependent dynamic model that incorporates the birth rate with the toxin-dependent switching mode, the mortality rate, and infection rate with the toxin-dependent saturation effect. We analyze the model by showing the positive invariance, existence and stability of equilibria, and bifurcations. Numerical simulation is adopted to verify the mathematical results and exhibit transcritical and Hopf bifurcations...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Akanksha Nigam, Sathish Kumar, Hanna Engelberg-Kulka
mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin module located on chromosomes of most bacteria. MazF toxins are endoribonucleases antagonized by MazE antitoxins. Previously, we characterized several quorum sensing peptides called "<u>e</u>xtracellular <u>d</u>eath <u>f</u>actors" (EDFs). When secreted from bacterial cultures, EDFs induce interspecies cell death. EDFs also enhance the endoribonucleolytic activity of Escherichia coli MazF. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carries several mazEF modules...
May 1, 2018: MBio
Liqi Tong, G Aleph Prieto, Carl W Cotman
BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation including increases in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β is widely believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Although IL-1β-induced impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices and memory functions in vivo have been well documented, the neuron-specific molecular mechanisms of IL-1β-mediated impairments of LTP and memory remain unclear. METHODS: This study uses an in vitro approach in primary hippocampal neurons to evaluate the effect of IL-1β on chemical LTP (cLTP)-induced structural plasticity and signaling...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ray O Bahado-Singh, Argyro Syngelaki, Rupsari Mandal, BeomSoo Han, Liang Li, Trent C Bjorndahl, Nan Wang, Dev Maulik, Edison Dong, Onur Turkoglu, Chiao-Li Tseng, Amna Zeb, Mark Redman, David S Wishart, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth remains a major problem in both developing and developed countries. Omics evaluation of stillbirth has been highlighted as a top research priority. OBJECTIVE: To identify new putative first-trimester biomarkers in maternal serum for stillbirth prediction using metabolomics-based approach. METHODS: Targeted, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), and untargeted liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) metabolomic analyses were performed on first-trimester maternal serum obtained from 60 cases that subsequently had a stillbirth and 120 matched controls...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jennifer Mae Lorang, Christina H Hagerty, Rian Lee, Phillip McClean, Thomas Wolpert
Cochliobolus victoria, the causal agent of Victoria blight, is pathogenic due to its production of a toxin called victorin. Victorin sensitivity in oats, barley, Brachypodium, and Arabidopsis has been associated with nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes, a class of genes known for conferring disease resistance. In this work we investigated the sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris to victorin. We found that victorin sensivity in Phaseolus vulgaris is a developmentally regulated, quantitative trait...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
N Chernoff, D J Hill, I Chorus, D L Diggs, H Huang, D King, J R Lang, T-T Le, J E Schmid, G S Travlos, E M Whitley, R E Wilson, C R Wood
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin associated with numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria throughout the world. It is postulated to have caused an episode of serious illnesses in Australia through treated drinking water, as well as lethal effects in livestock exposed to water from farm ponds. Toxicity included effects indicative of both hepatic and renal dysfunction. In humans, symptoms progressed from initial hepatomegaly, vomiting, and malaise to acidosis and hypokalemia, bloody diarrhea, and hyperemia in mucous membranes...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Eric E Brown, Philip Gerretsen, Bruce Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder and may also prevent cognitive decline and suicide. Lithium is also found naturally, in levels well below clinical doses, in drinking water worldwide, and levels have been inversely associated with rates of psychiatric disorders. Lead (Pb) is another element in the environment but is a toxin of public health concern. Negative effects of chronic lead exposure and possible benefits of environmental lithium exposure appear complementary...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Jingxian Li, Moran Shalev-Benami, Richard Sando, Xian Jiang, Amanuel Kibrom, Jie Wang, Katherine Leon, Christopher Katanski, Olha Nazarko, Yue C Lu, Thomas C Südhof, Georgios Skiniotis, Demet Araç
Teneurins (TENs) are cell-surface adhesion proteins with critical roles in tissue development and axon guidance. Here, we report the 3.1-Å cryoelectron microscopy structure of the human TEN2 extracellular region (ECR), revealing a striking similarity to bacterial Tc-toxins. The ECR includes a large β barrel that partially encapsulates a C-terminal domain, which emerges to the solvent through an opening in the mid-barrel region. An immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain seals the bottom of the barrel while a β propeller is attached in a perpendicular orientation...
April 19, 2018: Cell
Maria Gerasimova, Mark Kelman, Michael P Ward
In Australia, tick paralysis in dogs (caused by a toxin in the saliva of Ixodes species during feeding) is a serious, distressing condition, and untreated it is often fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between parkland (recreational or natural) in an urban area and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis. Brisbane, as a large urban centre located within the zone of paralysis tick habitat along the east coast of Australia, was selected as the study area. Postcodes selected for inclusion were those defined as being of an urban character (Australian Bureau of Statistics)...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
María Paula Alarcón-Lavín, Carolina Oyarzo, Carlos Escudero, Fabiola Cerda-Leal, Francisco J Valenzuela
Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Evanthia Mantzouki, Miquel Lürling, Jutta Fastner, Lisette de Senerpont Domis, Elzbieta Wilk-Wo Zniak
Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
Aditi Sriram, Wendi Roe, Matu Booth, Brett Gartrell
Anthropogenic lead use has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination known to affect wildlife populations worldwide. Ecotoxicological investigations in wild birds have thus far prioritised waterfowl and raptor species and primarily addressed contamination in natural ecosystems. Urban areas are increasingly associated with high levels of heavy metal contamination, however the risk of lead exposure in urban wildlife is less well known. This study investigates lead exposure in an urban population of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), an endemic New Zealand parrot...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yasuyuki Arai, Uimook Choi, Cristina I Corsino, Sherry M Koontz, Masaki Tajima, Colin L Sweeney, Mary A Black, Steven A Feldman, Mary C Dinauer, Harry L Malech
We report a novel approach to bone marrow (BM) conditioning using c-kit-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (c-kit CAR-T) cells in mice. Previous reports using anti-c-kit or anti-CD45 antibody linked to a toxin such as saporin have been promising. We developed a distinctly different approach using c-kit CAR-T cells. Initial studies demonstrated in vitro killing of hematopoietic stem cells by c-kit CAR-T cells but poor expansion in vivo and poor migration of CAR-T cells into BM. Pre-treatment of recipient mice with low-dose cyclophosphamide (125 mg/kg) together with CXCR4 transduction in the CAR-T cells enhanced trafficking to and expansion in BM (<1%-13...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Nitika Singh, Bechan Sharma
Berberine and Sanguinarine alkaloids belong to a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral or weakly acidic properties. Alkaloids are produced by a large number of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. Berberine and Sanguinarine both are isoquinoline derivatives and belong to protoberberine and benzophenanthridines, respectively. Tyrosine or phenylalanine is common precursor for the biosynthesis of both...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Yuliya I Seldina, Courtney D Petro, Stephanie L Servetas, James M Vergis, Christy L Ventura, D Scott Merrell, Alison D O'Brien
Bacillus cereus G9241 caused a life-threatening anthrax-like lung infection in a previously healthy man. This strain harbors two large virulence plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC210, that are absent from typical B cereus isolates. The pBCXO1 plasmid is nearly identical to pXO1 from B. anthracis and carries genes ( pagA1 , lef, and cya ) for the anthrax toxin components protective antigen (called PA1 in G9241), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), respectively. The plasmid also has an intact hyaluronic acid capsule locus...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Penradee Chanpiwat, Supanad Hensawang, Parin Suwatvitayakorn, Montree Ponsin
Consumption of contaminated rice is a toxin exposure route in Asian populations. Since total concentrations generally overestimate health risks, the objectives of this study were to determine the levels of bioaccessible As and Cd in rice cultivated in the Mae Tao, Tak Province and evaluate their potential health impacts in local adults. In total, 59 locally grown rice samples were analyzed for their total and bioaccessible concentrations. Bioaccessible concentrations were obtained from an in vitro digestion process...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Daniel C Lima, Lena K Nyberg, Fredrik Westerlund, Silvia R Batistuzzo de Medeiros
Chromobacterium violaceum is a ß-proteobacterium found widely worldwide with important biotechnological properties and is associated to lethal sepsis in immune-depressed individuals. In this work, we report the discover, complete sequence and annotation of a plasmid detected in C. violaceum that has been unnoticed until now. We used DNA single-molecule analysis to confirm that the episome found was a circular molecule and then proceeded with NGS sequencing. After DNA annotation, we found that this extra-chromosomal DNA is probably a defective bacteriophage of approximately 44 kilobases, with 39 ORFs comprising, mostly hypothetical proteins...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tobias Wiesenfahrt, Jingjie Duanmu, Frances Snider, Don Moerman, Vinci Au, Erica Li-Leger, Stephane Flibotte, Dylan M Parker, Craig J Marshall, Erin Osborne Nishimura, Paul E Mains, James D McGhee
The ELT-2 GATA factor normally functions in differentiation of the C. elegans endoderm, downstream of endoderm specification. We have previously shown that, if ELT-2 is expressed sufficiently early, it is also able to specify the endoderm and to replace all other members of the core GATA-factor transcriptional cascade (END-1, END-3, ELT-7). However, such rescue requires multiple copies (and presumably overexpression) of the end-1p::elt-2 cDNA transgene; a single copy of the transgene does not rescue. We have made this observation the basis of a genetic screen to search for genetic modifiers that allow a single copy of the end-1p::elt-2 cDNA transgene to rescue the lethality of the end-1 end-3 double mutant...
March 28, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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