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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-high-deletion-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#1
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289484/what-do-we-know-about-the-diagnostics-treatment-and-epidemiology-of-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-europe
#2
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy
Clostridium difficile, recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile is responsible for a significant part of diarrheal diseases in the hospitals and in the community. Besides the main pathogenic factors, toxin A, toxin B and the binary toxin, several other putative virulence factors have been investigated. This manuscript summarize recent findings in Europe concerning source of infection, epidemiology of CDI, the changing pattern of PCR ribotypes of C. difficile strains in different European countries, recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of CDI...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288682/sources-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-accumulation-variability-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#3
Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean
This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters were exposed for 2 days to non-toxic algae and then for 2 other days to the PST producer Alexandrium minutum. Individual clearance rate (CR) of oysters was continuously monitored over the 4 days using an ecophysiological measurement system. Comparison of CR values when exposed to toxic and non toxic algae allowed to estimate a clearance rate inhibition index (CRII)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281043/density-dependence-and-growth-rate-evolutionary-effects-on-resistance-development-to-bt-bacillus-thuringiensis
#4
Jeannette C Martinez, Michael A Caprio, Nicholas A Friedenberg
It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246105/the-function-and-evolutionary-significance-of-a-triplicated-na-k-atpase-gene-in-a-toxin-specialized-insect
#5
Jennifer N Lohr, Fee Meinzer, Safaa Dalla, Renja Romey-Glüsing, Susanne Dobler
BACKGROUND: The Na,K-ATPase is a vital animal cell-membrane protein that maintains the cell's resting potential, among other functions. Cardenolides, a group of potent plant toxins, bind to and inhibit this pump. The gene encoding the α-subunit of the pump has undergone duplication events in some insect species known to feed on plants containing cardenolides. Here we test the function of these duplicated gene copies in the cardenolide-adapted milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has three known copies of the gene: α1A, α1B and α1C...
December 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238707/drug-repurposing-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#6
REVIEW
Vibeke Andresen, Bjørn T Gjertsen
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, compromising of normal blood cell production and ultimately resulting in bone marrow failure. With a 20% overall survival rate at 5 years and 50% in the 18- to 65-year-old age group, new medicines are needed. It is proposed that development of repurposed drugs may be a part of the new therapy needed. AML is subdivided into recurrent molecular entities based on molecular genetics increasingly accessible for precision medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232492/use-of-split-free-nlc-ms-hrms-interface-to-improve-the-detection-of-%C3%AE-cobratoxin-in-equine-plasma-for-doping-control
#7
Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Patrice Garcia, Florence Cormant, Benoit Loup, Marie-Agnès Popot, Yves Bonnaire
Cobra (Naja naja kaouthia) venom contains a toxin called α-cobratoxin (α-Cbtx) containing 71 amino acids (MW 7821 Da) with a reported analgesic power greater than morphine. In 2013, the first analytical method for the detection of α-Cbtx in equine plasma was developed by Bailly-Chouriberry et al. allowing the confirmation of the presence of α-Cbtx at low concentrations (1-5 ng/mL or 130-640 fmol/mL) in plasma samples. In order to increase the method sensitivity and therefore to improve the detection of α-Cbtx in post-administration plasma samples, a nano-liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry/high resolution mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/HRMS) method was developed...
December 12, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229281/potential-of-real-time-pcr-threshold-cycle-ct-to-predict-presence-of-free-toxin-and-clinically-relevant-c-difficile-infection-cdi-in-patients-with-cancer
#8
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226136/a-new-platelet-aggregation-inhibiting-factor-isolated-from-bothrops-moojeni-snake-venom
#9
Bruna Barbosa de Sousa, Carla Cristine Neves Mamede, Mariana Santos Matias, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha Pereira, Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz, Edigar Henrique Vaz Dias, Anielle Christine Almeida Silva, Noelio Oliveira Dantas, Júnia de Oliveira Costa, Fábio de Oliveira
This work reports the purification and functional characterization of BmooPAi, a platelet-aggregation-inhibiting factor from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The toxin was purified by a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, and affinity chromatography on HiTrap™ Heparin HP). BmooPAi was found to be a single-chain protein with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa on 14% SDS-PAGE, under reducing conditions. Sequencing of BmooPAi by Edman degradation revealed the amino acid sequence LGPDIVPPNELLEVM...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218214/use-of-botulinum-a-toxin-for-proctalgia-fugax-a-case-report-of-successful-treatment
#10
Marios Grigoriou, Aristeidis Ioannidis, Konstantinia Kofina, Christoforos Efthimiadis
Proctalgia fugax is considered as intermittent anal pain of unknown etiology; a variety of treatments have been used, without, however, permanent results. Injection of botulinum A toxin is recently suggested as an alternative option. We present the case of a woman presenting proctalgia fugax that was untreatable through other current forms of treatment. After two administrations of botulinum A toxin, 80 units and 100 units each, the patient remained asymptomatic on 8-month follow-up control. Botulinum A toxin injection can reduce internal anal sphincter pressure, leading to relief of symptoms, and seems a promising option with minimal morbidity in cases on proctalgia fugax that does not respond to other current treatments...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218035/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-isolated-in-haiti-from-clinical-vibrio-cholerae-non-o1-non-o139
#11
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217626/eating-when-ill-is-risky-immune-defense-impairs-food-detoxification-in-the-caterpillar-manduca-sexta
#12
Laura E McMillan, Dylan W Miller, Shelley A Adamo
Mounting an immune response consumes resources, which should lead to increased feeding. However, activating the immune system reduces feeding (i.e. illness-induced anorexia) in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it may be beneficial. We suggest that illness-induced anorexia may be an adaptive response to conflicts between immune defense and food detoxification. We found that activating an immune response in the caterpillar Manduca sexta increased its susceptibility to the toxin permethrin. Conversely, a sublethal dose of permethrin reduced resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens, demonstrating a negative interaction between detoxification and immune defense...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212001/mechanism-of-kin-discriminatory-demarcation-line-formation-between-colonies-of-swarming-bacteria
#13
Pintu Patra, Christopher N Vassallo, Daniel Wall, Oleg A Igoshin
Swarming bacteria use kin discrimination to preferentially associate with their clonemates for certain cooperative behaviors. Kin discrimination can manifest as an apparent demarcation line (a region lacking cells or with much lower cell density) between antagonist strains swarming toward each other. In contrast, two identical strains merge with no demarcation. Experimental studies suggest contact-dependent killing between different strains as a mechanism of kin discrimination, but it is not clear whether this killing is sufficient to explain the observed patterns...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209211/diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-protection-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-in-streptozotocin-injection-induced-models
#14
REVIEW
Jin-Jing Jia, Xian-Si Zeng, Xin-Qiang Song, Peng-Peng Zhang, Lei Chen
Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the front runner of neurodegenerative disorders. Streptozotocin (STZ) is a toxin for pancreatic β-cell, which can construct a model of insulin deficient diabetes through intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. A model generated by intracerebroventricular STZ (icv-STZ) also shows numerous aspects of sporadic AD. The protective roles of tea polyphenols epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on both two diseases were researched by some scientists...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208361/bifurcations-and-global-dynamics-in-a-toxin-dependent-aquatic-population-model
#15
Qihua Huang, Gunog Seo, Chunhua Shan
The study of effects of environmental toxins on ecosystems is of great interest from both environmental and conservation points of view. In this paper, we present a global stability and bifurcation analysis of a toxin-dependent aquatic population model. Our analytical and numerical results show that both the environmental toxin level and the depuration capability of the population significantly affect the population persistence. The model exhibits a multifarious array of dynamics. While low levels of external toxin allow population persistence and high levels of toxin lead to an extirpation, intermediate toxin concentrations can produce very rich dynamics, such as transient oscillations, hysteresis, heteroclinic orbits, and a codimension-two bifurcation...
December 2, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205737/combined-treatment-approach-to-chronic-anal-fissure-with-associated-anal-fistula
#16
Andrew J FitzDowse, Corina C Behrenbruch, Ian P Hayes
BACKGROUND: Anal fistula in association with chronic anal fissure (fissure-fistula) is infrequently described. Recognizing this association and managing both components may help prevent some treatment failures seen with chronic anal fissure. This study aims to report on the outcomes of 20 consecutive patients with fissure-fistula managed with fistulotomy and injection of botulinum A toxin. METHODS: The study is a retrospective, observational study, assessing the success of symptom resolution following fistulotomy with botulinum A toxin, in patients identified as having a chronic anal fissure with associated anal fistula...
December 3, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201017/characterization-of-metagenomes-in-urban-aquatic-compartments-reveals-high-prevalence-of-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-wastewaters
#17
Charmaine Ng, Martin Tay, Boonfei Tan, Thai-Hoang Le, Laurence Haller, Hongjie Chen, Tse H Koh, Timothy M S Barkham, Karina Y-H Gin
The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6) were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb) compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb) and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196862/voluntary-exposure-to-a-toxin-the-genetic-influence-on-ethanol-consumption
#18
Paula L Hoffman, Laura M Saba, Lauren A Vanderlinden, Boris Tabakoff
Ethyl alcohol is a toxin that, when consumed at high levels, produces organ damage and death. One way to prevent or ameliorate this damage in humans is to reduce the exposure of organs to alcohol by reducing alcohol ingestion. Both the propensity to consume large volumes of alcohol and the susceptibility of human organs to alcohol-induced damage exhibit a strong genetic influence. We have developed an integrative genetic/genomic approach to identify transcriptional networks that predispose complex traits, including propensity for alcohol consumption and propensity for alcohol-induced organ damage...
December 1, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193176/using-voltage-sensor-toxins-and-their-molecular-targets-to-investigate-nav-1-8-gating
#19
John Gilchrist, Frank Bosmans
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel gating is a complex phenomenon which involves a distinct contribution of four integral voltage-sensing domains (VSDI, VSDII, VSDIII, and VSDIV). Utilizing accrued pharmacological and structural insights, we build on an established chimera approach to introduce animal toxin sensitivity in each VSD of an acceptor channel by transferring in portable S3b-S4 motifs from the four VSDs of a toxin-susceptible donor channel (NaV 1.2). By doing so, we observe that in NaV 1.8, a relatively unexplored channel subtype with distinctly slow gating kinetics, VSDI-III participate in channel opening whereas VSDIV can regulate opening as well as fast inactivation...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149596/rational-design-of-evolutionarily-stable-microbial-kill-switches
#20
Finn Stirling, Lisa Bitzan, Samuel O'Keefe, Elizabeth Redfield, John W K Oliver, Jeffrey Way, Pamela A Silver
The evolutionary stability of synthetic genetic circuits is key to both the understanding and application of genetic control elements. One useful but challenging situation is a switch between life and death depending on environment. Here are presented "essentializer" and "cryodeath" circuits, which act as kill switches in Escherichia coli. The essentializer element induces cell death upon the loss of a bi-stable cI/Cro memory switch. Cryodeath makes use of a cold-inducible promoter to express a toxin. We employ rational design and a toxin/antitoxin titering approach to produce and screen a small library of potential constructs, in order to select for constructs that are evolutionarily stable...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
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