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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#1
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524037/-clinical-analysis-of-53-patients-with-clostridium-botulinum-food-poisoning
#2
Peng Zhang, Jianguang Dong, Lili Bai, Zewu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiologic data of patients with Clostridium botulinum food poisoning, and to improve the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of food borne botulism. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. Fifty-three patients with Clostridium botulinum food poisoning admitted to Chinese PLA Center of Poisoning and Treatment from January 2009 to December 2016 were enrolled, and they were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups according to the severity of disease...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511693/antagonistic-action-on-nmda-glun2b-mediated-currents-of-two-peptides-that-were-conantokin-g-structure-based-designed
#3
Edwin A Reyes-Guzman, Nohora Vega-Castro, Edgar A Reyes-Montaño, Esperanza Recio-Pinto
BACKGROUND: The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) modulates many physiological processes including learning, memory, and pain. Excessive increase in NMDAr/GluN2B activity has been associated with various disorders such neuropathic pain and neuronal death following hypoxia. Thus there is an interest in identifying NMDAr antagonists that interact specifically with the GluN2B subunit. Recently based on structural analysis between the GluN2B subunit and conantokin-G, a toxin that interacts selectively with the GluN2B subunit, we designed various peptides that are predicted to act as NMDAr antagonists by interacting with the GluN2B subunit...
May 16, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508407/structural-conservation-of-the-pin-domain-active-site-across-all-domains-of-life
#4
REVIEW
M Senissar, M C Manav, D E Brodersen
The PIN domain (Pil N-terminus) is a compact RNA-binding protein domain present in all domains of life. This 120-residue domain consists of a central and parallel β sheet surrounded by α helices, which together organise 4-5 acidic residues in an active site that binds one or more divalent metal ions and in many cases has endoribonuclease activity. In bacteria and archaea, the PIN domain is primarily associated with toxin-antitoxin loci, consisting of a toxin (the PIN domain nuclease) and an antitoxin that inhibits the function of the toxin under normal growth conditions...
May 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507562/antivenomics-as-a-tool-to-improve-the-neutralizing-capacity-of-the-crotalic-antivenom-a-study-with-crotamine
#5
Ricardo Teixeira-Araújo, Patrícia Castanheira, Leonora Brazil-Más, Francisco Pontes, Moema Leitão de Araújo, Maria Lucia Machado Alves, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Carlos Correa-Netto
BACKGROUND: Snakebite treatment requires administration of an appropriate antivenom that should contain antibodies capable of neutralizing the venom. To achieve this goal, antivenom production must start from a suitable immunization protocol and proper venom mixtures. In Brazil, antivenom against South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) bites is produced by public institutions based on the guidelines defined by the regulatory agency of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, ANVISA...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498064/polydopamine-polyethyleneimine-complex-adhered-to-micrometer-sized-magnetic-carbon-fibers-for-high-efficiency-hemoperfusion
#6
Rui-Lin Liu, Yan Wang, Xian-Li Ge, Pei Yu, Hui-Qin Liu, Ming-Chan Wang, Wen Lu, Qiang Fu
Carbon-based nanomaterials have recently attracted tremendous attention in adsorption, separation and biological fields. However, such modification is not always straightforward when the surface is not chemically reactive. Given this reason, most carbon materials modification processes employ reactive linkers or coupling agents, which are complicated and time-consuming. Herein, we report on a dopamine-polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating strategy to fabricate micrometer-sized magnetic carbon fiber (MSMCF)-based extracorporeal blood-cleansing sorbent for hemoperfusion...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484490/intraluminal-administration-of-resiniferatoxin-protects-against-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-induced-colitis
#7
Steven R Vigna
Clostridium difficile toxin A is a colonic inflammatory agent that acts partially by activation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1). Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an excitotoxin that activates TRPV1 at low concentrations and defunctionalizes TRPV1 at high concentrations. RTX at various doses was injected intraluminally into isolated ileal segments in anesthetized rats. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. This acute treatment with RTX resulted in biphasic responses: (1) an increase in inflammation similar to that caused by toxin A and capsaicin at low doses of up to 100 ng RTX and (2) no inflammatory effect of RTX at higher doses (1-100 μg), consistent with a defunctionalizing or neurotoxic effect of RTX at high doses...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478825/do-flexible-inter-injection-intervals-improve-the-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-a-treatment-in-reducing-impairment-and-disability-in-patients-with-spasticity
#8
Carlo Trompetto, Lucio Marinelli, Laura Mori, Luca Puce, Elisa Pelosin, Carlo Serrati, Francesco Fattapposta, Steno Rinalduzzi, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Antonio Currà
In patients treated with botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A), toxin-directed antibody formation was related to the dosage and frequency of injections, leading to the empirical adoption of minimum time intervals between injections of 3months or longer. However, recent data suggest that low immunogenicity of current BoNT-A preparations could allow more frequent injections. Our hypothesis is that a short time interval between injections may be safe and effective in reducing upper limb spasticity and related disability...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459803/effects-of-stochasticity-and-division-of-labor-in-toxin-production-on-two-strain-bacterial-competition-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Benedikt von Bronk, Sophia Anna Schaffer, Alexandra Götz, Madeleine Opitz
In phenotypically heterogeneous microbial populations, the decision to adopt one or another phenotype is often stochastically regulated. However, how this stochasticity affects interactions between competing microbes in mixed communities is difficult to assess. One example of such an interaction system is the competition of an Escherichia coli strain C, which performs division of labor between reproducers and self-sacrificing toxin producers, with a toxin-sensitive strain S. The decision between reproduction or toxin production within a single C cell is inherently stochastic...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443656/acyl-fluorides-fast-efficient-and-versatile-lysine-based-protein-conjugation-via-plug-and-play-strategy
#10
Igor Dovgan, Sylvain Ursuegui, Stéphane Erb, Chloé Michel, Sergii Kolodych, Sarah Cianférani, Alain Wagner
We report a plug-and-play strategy for the preparation of functionally enhanced antibodies with a defined average degree of conjugation (DoC). The first stage (plug) allows the controllable and efficient installation of azide groups on lysine residues of a native antibody using 4-azidobenzoyl fluoride. The second step (play) allows for versatile antibody functionalization with a single payload or combination of payloads, such as a toxin, a fluorophore, or an oligonucleotide, via copper-free strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC)...
April 26, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433497/clostridium-difficile-toxin-glucosyltransferase-domains-in-complex-with-a-non-hydrolyzable-udp-glucose-analogue
#11
Joseph W Alvin, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The organism produces two homologous toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which enter and disrupt host cell function by glucosylating and thereby inactivating key signalling molecules within the host. As a toxin-mediated disease, there has been a significant interest in identifying small molecule inhibitors of the toxins' glucosyltransferase activities. This study was initiated as part of an effort to identify the mode of inhibition for a small molecule inhibitor of glucosyltransferase activity called apigenin...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431223/pink1-based-screen-shines-light-on-autophagy-enhancers-for-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Dominik Haddad, Ken Nakamura
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Zhang et al. (2017) report a zebrafish model of Parkinson's disease (PD), incorporating the PD-protein PINK1 and rotenone, a toxin linked to PD. Using it as a drug-screening platform, they identify trifluoperazine and other piperazine phenothiazines as protective compounds that enhance autophagy independent of PINK1.
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402338/insulin-deprivation-induces-pp2a-inhibition-and-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-htau-mice-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-pathology
#13
Maud Gratuze, Jacinthe Julien, Franck R Petry, Françoise Morin, Emmanuel Planel
Abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau aggregated as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles is one of the two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of AD cases are sporadic with numerous environmental, biological and genetic risks factors. Interestingly, insulin dysfunction and hyperglycaemia are both risk factors for sporadic AD. However, how hyperglycaemia and insulin dysfunction affect tau pathology, is not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of insulin deficiency on tau pathology in transgenic hTau mice by injecting different doses of streptozotocin (STZ), a toxin that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385835/genome-sequence-of-a-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-strain-isolated-from-murine-feces
#14
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Benoit Chassaing, Oluwaseyi Adekunle, Lisa M Mattei, Adrianne N Edwards, Shonna M McBride, Frederic D Bushman, Andrew T Gewirtz
Herein, we report the genome sequence of a Clostridium difficile strain isolated from the feces of antibiotic-treated C57BL/6 mice. We have named this strain, which differs considerably from those of the previously sequenced C. difficile strains, LEM1.
April 6, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382315/supervised-classification-of-etoposide-treated-in-vitro-adherent-cells-based-on-noninvasive-imaging-morphology
#15
Anna Leida Mölder, Johan Persson, Zahra El-Schich, Silvester Czanner, Anette Gjörloff-Wingren
Single-cell studies using noninvasive imaging is a challenging, yet appealing way to study cellular characteristics over extended periods of time, for instance to follow cell interactions and the behavior of different cell types within the same sample. In some cases, e.g., transplantation culturing, real-time cellular monitoring, stem cell studies, in vivo studies, and embryo growth studies, it is also crucial to keep the sample intact and invasive imaging using fluorophores or dyes is not an option. Computerized methods are needed to improve throughput of image-based analysis and for use with noninvasive microscopy such methods are poorly developed...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369668/selective-proteomic-proximity-labeling-assay-using-tyramide-spplat-a-quantitative-method-for-the-proteomic-analysis-of-localized-membrane-bound-protein-clusters
#16
Johanna Susan Rees, Xue-Wen Li, Sarah Perrett, Kathryn Susan Lilley, Antony Philip Jackson
This manuscript describes a new and general method to identify proteins localized into spatially restricted membrane microenvironments. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is brought into contact with a target protein by being covalently linked to a primary or secondary antibody, an antigen or substrate, a drug, or a toxin. A biotinylated tyramide-based reagent is then added. In the presence of HRP and hydrogen peroxide, the reagent is converted into a free radical that only diffuses a short distance before covalently labeling proteins within a few tens to hundreds of nanometers from the target...
April 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Protein Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357912/bioinformatic-prediction-and-experimental-validation-of-a-pe38-based-recombinant-immunotoxin-targeting-the-fn14-receptor-in-cancer-cells
#17
Maryam Keshtvarz, Jafar Salimian, Mehdi Yaseri, Seyedeh Zahra Bathaie, Ehsan Rezaie, Amir Aliramezani, Zahra Norouzbabaei, Jafar Amani, Masoumeh Douraghi
AIM: AFn14R can serve as an ideal target for cancer immunotherapy. Here, a combined bioinformatic and experimental approach was applied to characterize an immunotoxin consisting of single-chain variable fragment antibody that targets Fn14 and a toxin fragment (PE38). METHODS & RESULTS: Flow cytometry results showed that the rate of PE38-P4A8 binding to Fn14 was approximately 60 and 40% in HT-29 and A549 cells, respectively. Moreover, 1 ng/µl of immunotoxin was able to lyse approximately 53 and 41% of HT-29 and A549, respectively...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353450/predominance-of-clostridium-difficile-027-during-a-five-year-period-in-bolzano-northern-italy
#18
Richard Aschbacher, Alexander Indra, Christian J Wiedermann, Albert March, Bruno Giacon, Peter Mian, Mirella Bombonato, Angelika Kaneppele, Stefano Sansone, Johanna Burth, Alessandro Felici, Franziska Ebner, Werner Passler, Renelda M Lerchner, Claudio Vedovelli, Greta Spoladore, Raffaella Binazzi, Leonardo Pagani, Ludwig Moroder, Clara Larcher, Elisabetta Pagani
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other diseases. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly-virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of the study was to collect epidemiological and molecular data for C. difficile isolates during 2009-2013 in the Central Hospital of Bolzano, Northern Italy. Stool samples from inpatients of the Bolzano Central Hospital were screened for toxins A and B, and C. difficile was cultured and tested for antibiotic susceptibility...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334932/ribosome-dependent-vibrio-cholerae-mrnase-higb2-is-regulated-by-a-%C3%AE-strand-sliding-mechanism
#19
San Hadži, Abel Garcia-Pino, Sarah Haesaerts, Dukas Jurenas, Kenn Gerdes, Jurij Lah, Remy Loris
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are small operons involved in bacterial stress response and persistence. higBA operons form a family of TA modules with an inverted gene organization and a toxin belonging to the RelE/ParE superfamily. Here, we present the crystal structures of chromosomally encoded Vibrio cholerae antitoxin (VcHigA2), toxin (VcHigB2) and their complex, which show significant differences in structure and mechanisms of function compared to the higBA module from plasmid Rts1, the defining member of the family...
May 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334216/deletion-of-mazf-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-an-ica-dependent-manner
#20
Fuminori Kato, Yusuke Yabuno, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Motoyuki Sugai, Masayori Inouye
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a toxin that inhibits an essential cellular process (e.g., DNA replication, transcription, membrane integrity) and its cognate antitoxin that neutralizes the effect of the toxin. Staphylococcus aureus harbors two types of chromosomally encoded TA systems, namely mazEFsa encoding a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase and two paralogous genes of yefM-yoeBsa encoding a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease system. However, little is known about the physiological role of MazEFsa and YefM-YoeBsa in S...
March 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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