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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802584/molecular-characterization-of-the-pa3j1-plasmid-from-the-psychrotolerant-antarctic-bacterium-pseudomonas-sp-ant_j3
#1
Krzysztof Romaniuk, Tomasz Krucon, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Adrian Gorecki, Lukasz Dziewit
The knowledge on plasmids of cold-active bacteria is highly limited. In this study, the molecular characterization of the pA3J1 plasmid of Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ANT_J3 was performed. Within this plasmid, thirteen putative open reading frames were identified. Nine of them encoded proteins involved in replication, partitioning, postsegregational elimination of plasmid-less cells (via a toxin-antitoxin system activity), multimer resolution and mobilization by conjugal transfer. These genes constitute the plasmid backbone...
August 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790855/clinical-targeting-recombinant-immunotoxins-for-cancer-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Meng Li, Zeng-Shan Liu, Xi-Lin Liu, Qi Hui, Shi-Ying Lu, Lin-Lin Qu, Yan-Song Li, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren, Pan Hu
Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are proteins that contain a toxin fused to an antibody or small molecules and are constructed by the genetic engineering technique. RITs can bind to and be internalized by cells and kill cancerous or non-cancerous cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. A wide variety of RITs have been tested against different cancers in cell culture, xenograft models, and human patients during the past several decades. RITs have shown activity in therapy of several kinds of cancers, but different levels of side effects, mainly related to vascular leak syndrome, were also observed in the treated patients...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790205/comparative-genomics-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-reveals-a-path-to-specialized-exploitation-of-multiple-invertebrate-hosts
#3
Jinshui Zheng, Qiuling Gao, Linlin Liu, Hualin Liu, Yueying Wang, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ben Raymond, Ming Sun
Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis, contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777088/production-biophysical-characterization-and-crystallization-of-pseudomonas-putida-graa-and-its-complexes-with-grat-and-the-grata-operator
#4
Ariel Talavera, Hedvig Tamman, Andres Ainelo, San Hadǽi, Abel Garcia-Pino, Rita Hõrak, Albert Konijnenberg, Remy Loris
The graTA operon from Pseudomonas putida encodes a toxin-antitoxin module with an unusually moderate toxin. Here, the production, SAXS analysis and crystallization of the antitoxin GraA, the GraTA complex and the complex of GraA with a 33 bp operator fragment are reported. GraA forms a homodimer in solution and crystallizes in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.9, b = 48.9, c = 62.7 Å, β = 92.6°. The crystals are likely to contain two GraA dimers in the asymmetric unit and diffract to 1...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776895/characterization-of-sarcocystis-fayeri-s-actin-depolymerizing-factor-as-a-toxin-that-causes-diarrhea
#5
Daisuke Irikura, Morihiro Saito, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Takahiro Ohnishi, Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Maiko Watanabe, Akiko Yamazaki, Shinji Izumiyama, Hirotaka Sato, Yusuke Kimura, Rie Doi, Yoichi Kamata
Raw horsemeat has the potential to induce food poisoning which often presents with diarrheal symptoms. A sample of horsemeat was found to be infected with Sarcocystis fayeri, and a 15-kDa protein isolated from the cysts of S. fayeri was found to clearly show its diarrhea-inducing activity. A nested polymerase chain reaction was used to clone the cDNA of the 15-kDa protein. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF). A recombinant 15-kDa protein depolymerized prepolymerized actins in a test tube...
August 4, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769806/a-red-blood-cell-membrane-camouflaged-nanoparticle-counteracts-streptolysin-o-mediated-virulence-phenotypes-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus
#6
Tamara Escajadillo, Joshua Olson, Brian T Luk, Liangfang Zhang, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759019/copper-import-in-escherichia-coli-by-the-yersiniabactin-metallophore-system
#7
Eun-Ik Koh, Anne E Robinson, Nilantha Bandara, Buck E Rogers, Jeffrey P Henderson
Copper plays a dual role as a nutrient and a toxin during bacterial infections. While uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains can use the copper-binding metallophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) to resist copper toxicity, Ybt also converts bioavailable copper to Cu(II)-Ybt in low-copper conditions. Although E. coli have long been considered to lack a copper import pathway, we observed Ybt-mediated copper import in UPEC using canonical Fe(III)-Ybt transport proteins. UPEC removed copper from Cu(II)-Ybt with subsequent re-export of metal-free Ybt to the extracellular space...
July 24, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734845/leveraging-siglec-8-endocytic-mechanisms-to-kill-human-eosinophils-and-malignant-mast-cells
#8
Jeremy A O'Sullivan, Daniela J Carroll, Yun Cao, Adriano N Salicru, Bruce S Bochner
BACKGROUND: Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is a cell-surface protein expressed selectively on human eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils, making it an ideal target for the treatment of diseases involving these cell types. However, the effective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells requires an understanding of the dynamics of Siglec-8 surface expression. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Siglec-8 is endocytosed in human eosinophils and malignant mast cells, identify mechanisms underlying its endocytosis, and demonstrate whether a toxin can be targeted to Siglec-8-bearing cells to kill these cells...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729858/toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-estuarine-synechococcus-strain-cb0101-and-their-transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-stressors
#9
David Marsan, Allen Place, Daniel Fucich, Feng Chen
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements composed of a toxin gene and its cognate antitoxin, with the ability to regulate growth. TA systems have not previously been reported in marine Synechococcus or Prochlorococcus. Here we report the finding of seven TA system pairs (Type II) in the estuarine Synechococcus CB0101, and their responses of these TA genes to under different stress conditions, which include; nitrogen and phosphate starvation, phage infection, zinc toxicity, and photo-oxidation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727385/abobotulinum-a-toxin-injection-in-patients-with-refractory-idiopathic-detrusor-overactivity-injections-in-detrusor-trigone-and-bladder-neck-or-prostatic-urethra-versus-detrusor-only-injections
#10
Maryam Emami, Pejman Shadpour, Amir H Kashi, Masoud Choopani, Mohammadreza Zeighami
PURPOSE: To evaluate if the injections of abobotulinum-A toxin in trigone and bladder neck/prostatic urethra in addition to detrusor provides better symptoms relief and urodynamic findings in patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) refractory to medical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 74 patients with IDO refractory to anticholinergics received injections in detrusor, trigone and bladder neck/prostatic urethra (Group A, N=36) versus detrusor only injections (Group B, N=38) of abobotulinum-A toxin...
July 20, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707191/clostridium-difficile-colitis-and-colonoscopy-pediatric-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Randolph McConnie, Arthur Kastl
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Review tests available for detection of Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) induced disease, including when such tests should be done in children and how they should be interpreted. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple tests are available for detecting disease due to C. diff. These include colonoscopy and stool analysis. Colonoscopy with biopsy is the most sensitive test for detecting the presence of colitis. The toxins produced by the C. diff. (toxin A, toxin B, and binary toxin) are the agents that cause injury and disease...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704538/intestinal-calcium-and-bile-salts-facilitate-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores
#12
Travis J Kochan, Madeline J Somers, Alyssa M Kaiser, Michelle S Shoshiev, Ada K Hagan, Jessica L Hastie, Nicole P Giordano, Ashley D Smith, Alyxandria M Schubert, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI) typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate) in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691660/endoribonuclease-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-functional-or-selfish
#13
Bhaskar Chandra Mohan Ramisetty, Ramachandran Sarojini Santhosh
Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686600/analysis-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-macrophage-interaction-dispensability-of-corynomycolic-acids-for-inhibition-of-phagolysosome-maturation-and-identification-of-a-new-gene-involved-in-synthesis-of-the-corynomycolic-acid-layer
#14
Lisa Ott, Elena Hacker, Timo Kunert, Ian Karrington, Philipp Etschel, Roland Lang, Veit Wiesmann, Thomas Wittenberg, Albel Singh, Cristian Varela, Apoorva Bhatt, Vartul Sangal, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria, a toxin mediated disease of upper respiratory tract, which can be fatal. As a member of the CMNR group, C. diphtheriae is closely related to members of the genera Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Almost all members of these genera comprise an outer membrane layer of mycolic acids, which is assumed to influence host-pathogen interactions. In this study, three different C. diphtheriae strains were investigated in respect to their interaction with phagocytic murine and human cells and the invertebrate infection model Caenorhabditis elegans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681613/the-toxicological-significance-of-post-mortem-drug-concentrations-in-bile
#15
Robin E Ferner, Jeffrey K Aronson
CONTEXT: Some authors have proposed that post-mortem drug concentrations in bile are useful in estimating concentrations in blood. Both The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT) and the US Federal Aviation Administration recommend that samples of bile should be obtained in some circumstances. Furthermore, standard toxicological texts compare blood and bile concentrations, implying that concentrations in bile are of forensic value. AIM: To review the evidence on simultaneous measurements of blood and bile drug concentrations reported in the medical literature...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678186/whole-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-toxin-biosynthesis-in-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-achk-t
#16
Yong Zhang, Shu-Fei Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of neurotoxic alkaloids, are the most potent biotoxins for aquatic ecosystems and human health. Marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria are two producers of PSTs. The biosynthesis mechanism of PSTs has been well elucidated in cyanobacteria; however, it remains ambiguous in dinoflagellates. Here, we compared the transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) at different toxin biosynthesis stages within the cell cycle using RNA-seq...
July 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677629/mechanisms-for-differential-protein-production-in-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#17
Heather S Deter, Roderick V Jensen, William H Mather, Nicholas C Butzin
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are key regulators of bacterial persistence, a multidrug-tolerant state found in bacterial species that is a major contributing factor to the growing human health crisis of antibiotic resistance. Type II TA systems consist of two proteins, a toxin and an antitoxin; the toxin is neutralized when they form a complex. The ratio of antitoxin to toxin is significantly greater than 1.0 in the susceptible population (non-persister state), but this ratio is expected to become smaller during persistence...
July 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672859/astrocytic-expression-of-gsta4-is-associated-to-dopaminergic-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Michael Jewett, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Maria Swanberg
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disease caused by multiple, mainly unknown, genetic and environmental factors. The Ventral root avulsion 1 (Vra1) locus on rat chromosome 8 includes the Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4) gene and has been identified in crosses between Dark Agouti (DA) and Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) rat strains as being associated to neurodegeneration after nerve and brain injury. The Gsta4 protein clears lipid peroxidation by-products, a process suggested to being implicated in PD...
June 26, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651990/a-novel-function-of-vitellogenin-subdomain-vwf-type-d-as-a-toxin-binding-protein-in-the-pufferfish-takifugu-pardalis-ovary
#19
Xianzhe Yin, Aya Kiriake, Akira Ohta, Yoichiro Kitani, Shoichiro Ishizaki, Yuji Nagashima
Marine pufferfish of the Tetraodontidae family contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the liver and ovary. TTX is suggested to transfer from the liver to the ovary in female pufferfish during maturation. TTX in pufferfish eggs may act as a repellent against predators and as a sexual pheromone to attract male pufferfish. The toxification mechanism of the pufferfish ovary is poorly understood. Here we evaluated the chemical form of TTX and its related substances in the ovary of the panther pufferfish Takifugu pardalis by LC-ESI/MS...
June 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648292/fusarium-proliferatum-causal-agent-of-garlic-bulb-rot-in-spain-genetic-variability-and-mycotoxin-production
#20
Laura Gálvez, Monika Urbaniak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień, Daniel Palmero
Fusarium proliferatum is a world-wide occurring fungal pathogen affecting several crops included garlic bulbs. In Spain, this is the most frequent pathogenic fungus associated with garlic rot during storage. Moreover, F. proliferatum is an important mycotoxigenic species, producing a broad range of toxins, which may pose a risk for food safety. The aim of this study is to assess the intraspecific variability of the garlic pathogen in Spain implied by analyses of translation elongation factor (tef-1α) and FUM1 gene sequences as well as the differences in growth rates...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
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