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María Del Pilar Cejudo-García de Alba, Jaime Guadalupe Valle-Leal, Jesús Gabriel Sánchez Beltrán, Amado de Jesús Francisco Vázquez-Amparano
INTRODUCTION: Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium tetanii. The disease can affect people of any age, and the fatality rate is high. Thanks to immunization the number of cases of the disease has decreased, although they are still present in isolation in countries with social and economic backwardness. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a pediatric patient with generalized tetanus to reinforce the relevance of prophylaxis and early detection...
2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Eric Rivas, Edgar Neri-Castro, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Arely I Hernánez-Dávila, F Zamudio, Alejandro Alagón
The venoms from two species of rock rattlesnakes and an intergrade population were studied. Differences were noted in SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC profiles and only the venom from the intergrade population showed low procoagulant activity. Also, a Crotoxin-like neurotoxic PLA2 was identified in the venom of C. l. klauberi, the most toxic of the analyzed venoms. This is the first report of such a toxin in C. l. klauberi from Aguascalientes, Mexico.
September 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lynn A Sheldon
The regulation of cell cycle progression by steroid hormones and growth factors is important for maintaining normal cellular processes including development and cell proliferation. Deregulated progression through the G1/S and G2/M cell cycle transitions can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. The transcription factor E2F1, a key cell cycle regulator, targets genes encoding proteins that regulate cell cycle progression through the G1/S transition as well as proteins important in DNA repair and apoptosis...
September 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
Samuel D Robinson, Eivind Ab Undheim, Beatrix Ueberheide, Glenn F King
Animal venoms are complex chemical arsenals. Most venoms are rich in bioactive peptides with proven potential as research tools, drug leads and drugs. Areas covered: We review recent advances in venom-peptide discovery, particularly the adoption of combined transcriptomic/proteomic approaches for the exploration of venom composition. Expert commentary: Advances in transcriptomics and proteomics have dramatically altered the manner and rate of venom-peptide discovery. The increasing trend towards a toxin-driven approach, as opposed to traditional target-based screening of venoms, is likely to expedite the discovery of venom-peptides with novel structures and new and unanticipated mechanisms of action...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
Dan Bar-Yaacov, Ernest Mordret, Ruth Towers, Tammy Biniashvili, Clara Soyris, Schraga Schwartz, Orna Dahan, Yitzhak Pilpel
Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is widespread in eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, however, A-to-I RNA editing was only reported to occur in tRNAs but not in protein-coding genes. By comparing DNA and RNA sequences of Escherichia coli, we show for the first time that A-to-I editing occurs also in prokaryotic mRNAs and has the potential to affect the translated proteins and cell physiology. We found 15 novel A-to-I editing events, of which 12 occurred within known protein-coding genes where they always recode a tyrosine (TAC) into a cysteine (TGC) codon...
September 1, 2017: Genome Research
Bryan S Barker, Aradhya Nigam, Matteo Ottolini, Ronald P Gaykema, Nicholas J Hargus, Manoj K Patel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common form of adult epilepsy involving the limbic structures of the temporal lobe. Subiculum neurons act to provide a major output from the hippocampus and consist of a large population of endogenously bursting excitatory neurons. In TLE, subiculum neurons are largely spared, become hyperexcitable and show spontaneous epileptiform activity. The basis for this hyperexcitability is unclear, but is likely to involve alterations in the expression levels and function of various ion channels...
August 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Adrián López García de Lomana, Amardeep Kaur, Serdar Turkarslan, Karlyn D Beer, Fred D Mast, Jennifer J Smith, John D Aitchison, Nitin S Baliga
Adaptive prediction is a capability of diverse organisms, including microbes, to sense a cue and prepare in advance to deal with a future environmental challenge. Here, we investigated the timeframe over which adaptive prediction emerges when an organism encounters an environment with novel structure. We subjected yeast to laboratory evolution in a novel environment with repetitive, coupled exposures to a neutral chemical cue (caffeine), followed by a sublethal dose of a toxin (5-FOA), with an interspersed requirement for uracil prototrophy to counter-select mutants that gained constitutive 5-FOA resistance...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Tadaaki Tsukamoto, Yukie Chiba, Minoru Wakamori, Tomoshi Yamada, Shunsuke Tsunogae, Yuko Cho, Ryo Sakakibara, Takuya Imazu, Shouta Tokoro, Yoshiki Satake, Masaatsu Adachi, Toshio Nishikawa, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Keiichi Konoki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of subtype-selective ligands to inhibit voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) has been attempted with the aim of developing therapeutic compounds. Tetrodotoxin is a toxin from pufferfish that strongly inhibits VSSCs. Many tetrodotoxin analogues have been identified from marine and terrestrial sources, although their specificity for particular VSSC subtypes has not been investigated. Herein, we describe the binding of 11 tetrodotoxin analogues to human VSSC subtypes Nav 1...
August 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Monique J T Crobach, Anne F Voor In 't Holt, Cornelis W Knetsch, Sofie M van Dorp, Willeke Bras, Celine Harmanus, Ed J Kuijper, Margreet C Vos
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate an unusual outbreak of 5 patients with in total 8 episodes of a Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on a gastro intestinal surgical ward of a Dutch tertiary care university affiliated hospital. METHODS: Clinical case investigations and laboratory analyses were performed. Laboratory analyses included PCR ribotyping, MLVA typing, toxinotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: The outbreak was associated with recurrent and severe disease in 2 out of 5 patients...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ofer Stempler, Amit K Baidya, Saurabh Bhattacharya, Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan, Elhanan Tzipilevich, Lior Sinai, Gideon Mamou, Sigal Ben-Yehuda
Bacteria have developed various mechanisms by which they sense, interact, and kill other bacteria, in an attempt to outcompete one another and survive. Here we show that Bacillus subtilis can kill and prey on Bacillus megaterium. We find that Bacillus subtilis rapidly inhibits Bacillus megaterium growth by delivering the tRNase toxin WapA. Furthermore, utilizing the methionine analogue L-azidohomoalanine as a nutrient reporter, we provide evidence of nutrient extraction from Bacillus megaterium by Bacillus subtilis...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Jing Zhang, Saki Taniguchi, Hironori Ito, Kazuhiro Iiyama, Madoka Hino, Tsutomu Katayama, Makoto Kimura
A toxin-antitoxin system, vp1842/vp1843, locates within a superintegron on the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome chromosome I whose toxin gene vp1843 encodes a DNA nicking endonuclease. We found that the vp1843 expression in Escherichia coli cells strongly induced chromosomal DNA degradation. On the basis of these observations, we discuss a possible physiological role of vp1842/vp1843 in V. parahaemolyticus.
August 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Byoung Sik Kim, Hannah E Gavin, Karla J F Satchell
Vibrio vulnificus is an environmental organism that causes septic human infections characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The annual incidence and global distribution of this pathogen are increasing as ocean waters warm. Clinical strains exhibit variations in the primary virulence toxin, suggesting a potential for the emergence of new strains with altered virulence properties. A clonal outbreak of tilapia-associated wound infections in Israel serves as a natural experiment for the sudden emergence of a new V...
July 2017: MSphere
Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Nature
Krzysztof Romaniuk, Tomasz Krucon, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Adrian Gorecki, Lukasz Dziewit
The knowledge on plasmids of cold-active bacteria is highly limited. In this study, the molecular characterization of the pA3J1 plasmid of Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ANT_J3 was performed. Within this plasmid, thirteen putative open reading frames were identified. Nine of them encoded proteins involved in replication, partitioning, postsegregational elimination of plasmid-less cells (via a toxin-antitoxin system activity), multimer resolution and mobilization by conjugal transfer. These genes constitute the plasmid backbone...
August 9, 2017: Plasmid
Meng Li, Zeng-Shan Liu, Xi-Lin Liu, Qi Hui, Shi-Ying Lu, Lin-Lin Qu, Yan-Song Li, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren, Pan Hu
Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are proteins that contain a toxin fused to an antibody or small molecules and are constructed by the genetic engineering technique. RITs can bind to and be internalized by cells and kill cancerous or non-cancerous cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. A wide variety of RITs have been tested against different cancers in cell culture, xenograft models, and human patients during the past several decades. RITs have shown activity in therapy of several kinds of cancers, but different levels of side effects, mainly related to vascular leak syndrome, were also observed in the treated patients...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
Jinshui Zheng, Qiuling Gao, Linlin Liu, Hualin Liu, Yueying Wang, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ben Raymond, Ming Sun
Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis, contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades...
August 8, 2017: MBio
Ariel Talavera, Hedvig Tamman, Andres Ainelo, San Hadǽi, Abel Garcia-Pino, Rita Hõrak, Albert Konijnenberg, Remy Loris
The graTA operon from Pseudomonas putida encodes a toxin-antitoxin module with an unusually moderate toxin. Here, the production, SAXS analysis and crystallization of the antitoxin GraA, the GraTA complex and the complex of GraA with a 33 bp operator fragment are reported. GraA forms a homodimer in solution and crystallizes in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.9, b = 48.9, c = 62.7 Å, β = 92.6°. The crystals are likely to contain two GraA dimers in the asymmetric unit and diffract to 1...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Daisuke Irikura, Morihiro Saito, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Takahiro Ohnishi, Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Maiko Watanabe, Akiko Yamazaki, Shinji Izumiyama, Hirotaka Sato, Yusuke Kimura, Rie Doi, Yoichi Kamata
Raw horsemeat has the potential to induce food poisoning which often presents with diarrheal symptoms. A sample of horsemeat was found to be infected with Sarcocystis fayeri, and a 15-kDa protein isolated from the cysts of S. fayeri was found to clearly show its diarrhea-inducing activity. A nested polymerase chain reaction was used to clone the cDNA of the 15-kDa protein. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF). A recombinant 15-kDa protein depolymerized prepolymerized actins in a test tube...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Tamara Escajadillo, Joshua Olson, Brian T Luk, Liangfang Zhang, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eun-Ik Koh, Anne E Robinson, Nilantha Bandara, Buck E Rogers, Jeffrey P Henderson
Copper plays a dual role as a nutrient and a toxin during bacterial infections. While uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains can use the copper-binding metallophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) to resist copper toxicity, Ybt also converts bioavailable copper to Cu(II)-Ybt in low-copper conditions. Although E. coli have long been considered to lack a copper import pathway, we observed Ybt-mediated copper import in UPEC using canonical Fe(III)-Ybt transport proteins. UPEC removed copper from Cu(II)-Ybt with subsequent re-export of metal-free Ybt to the extracellular space...
September 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
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