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Latrodectus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089136/predicting-the-distribution-of-poorly-documented-species-northern-black-widow-latrodectus-variolus-and-black-purse-web-spider-sphodros-niger-using-museum-specimens-and-citizen-science-data
#1
Yifu Wang, Nicolas Casajus, Christopher Buddle, Dominique Berteaux, Maxim Larrivée
Predicting species distributions requires substantial numbers of georeferenced occurrences and access to remotely sensed climate and land cover data. Reliable estimates of the distribution of most species are unavailable, either because digitized georeferenced distributional data are rare or not digitized. The emergence of online biodiversity information databases and citizen science platforms dramatically improves the amount of information available to establish current and historical distribution of lesser-documented species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068686/urban-hubs-of-connectivity-contrasting-patterns-of-gene-flow-within-and-among-cities-in-the-western-black-widow-spider
#2
Lindsay S Miles, Rodney J Dyer, Brian C Verrelli
As urbanization drastically alters the natural landscape and generates novel habitats within cities, the potential for changes to gene flow for urban-dwelling species increases. The western black widow spider ( Latrodectus hesperus ) is a medically relevant urban adapter pest species, for which we have previously identified population genetic signatures consistent with urbanization facilitating gene flow, likely due to human-mediated transport. Here, in an analysis of 1.9 million genome-wide SNPs, we contrast broad-scale geographical analyses of 10 urban and 11 non-urban locales with fine-scale within-city analyses including 30 urban locales across the western USA...
August 1, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749999/freeze-dried-equine-derived-redback-spider-antivenom-a-local-irritation-study-by-intramuscular-injection-in-rabbits-and-a-repeated-dose-toxicity-study-in-rats
#3
Akihiko Yamamoto, Satomi Harano, Noriko Shinya, Ayataka Nagano, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyouko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
The redback spider ( Latrodectus hasseltii ) is nonindigenous to Japan but has now spread throughout the country. Bites to humans are rare but can be fatal. We prepared freeze-dried redback spider antivenom for therapeutic use against bites in Japan by immunization of horse plasma. This study included two nonclinical tests of the antivenom: a local irritation study involving a single intramuscular administration to rabbits (with injections of physiological saline and an existing freeze-dried diphtheria antitoxin as control and comparison substances, respectively) and a 2-week repeated intermittent intravenous-dose toxicity study in rats...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491237/venom-and-antivenom-of-the-redback-spider-latrodectus-hasseltii-in-japan-part-i-venom-extraction-preparation-and-laboratory-testing
#4
Takayuki Matsumura, Reona Mashiko, Tomomi Sato, Kentaro Itokawa, Yoshihide Maekawa, Kohei Ogawa, Haruhiko Isawa, Akihiko Yamamoto, Shigemi Mori, Akira Horita, Akihiro Ginnaga, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi, Kyoko Sawabe, Manabu Ato
The redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell) reportedly invaded Japan in September 1995. To date, 84 redback spider bite cases have been reported; 7 of these cases employed the antivenom. Antivenom has been imported from Australia in the past, but because of restrictions on exportation it was evident that nearly all of the antivenom present in Japan would expire during 2014. In 2014, a plan was proposed to experimentally manufacture and stockpile a horse antiserum for ourselves, using redback spiders indigenous to Japan...
March 22, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309619/natural-compounds-as-spider-repellents-fact-or-myth
#5
Andreas Fischer, Manfred Ayasse, Maydianne C B Andrade
Although some spiders are globally invasive, found at high densities, and may be considered pests (particularly those that are toxic to humans), there are few pest management methods based on experimental data. 'Common wisdom' and advertisements on internet websites assert that a number of natural substances repel spiders. We tested whether the three substances cited most frequently (lemon oil, peppermint oil, and chestnut-fruits) effectively repelled female spiders or whether these were myths. We presented each of the putative repellents versus a control in a two-choice assay and tested responses of females of three invasive spider species in two different families: theridiids, Latrodectus geometricus C...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229932/neutral-fitness-outcomes-contradict-inferences-of-sexual-coercion-derived-from-male-s-damaging-mating-tactic-in-a-widow-spider
#6
Luciana Baruffaldi, Maydianne C B Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed 'coercive' and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive for females...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196631/conservation-of-folding-and-association-within-a-family-of-spidroin-n-terminal-domains
#7
Julia C Heiby, Suhaila Rajab, Charlotte Rat, Christopher M Johnson, Hannes Neuweiler
Web spiders synthesize silk fibres, nature's toughest biomaterial, through the controlled assembly of fibroin proteins, so-called spidroins. The highly conserved spidroin N-terminal domain (NTD) is a pH-driven self-assembly device that connects spidroins to super-molecules in fibres. The degree to which forces of self-assembly is conserved across spider glands and species is currently unknown because quantitative measures are missing. Here, we report the comparative investigation of spidroin NTDs originating from the major ampullate glands of the spider species Euprosthenops australis, Nephila clavipes, Latrodectus hesperus, and Latrodectus geometricus...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133072/treatment-of-pediatric-black-widow-spider-envenomation-a-national-poison-center-s-experience
#8
Miguel Glatstein, Gary Carbell, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Black widow species (Latrodectus species) envenomation can produce a syndrome characterized by painful muscle rigidity and autonomic disturbances. Symptoms tend to be more severe in young children and adults. We describe black widow spider exposures and treatment in the pediatric age group, and investigate reasons for not using antivenom in severe cases. METHODS: All black widow exposures reported to the Rocky Mountain Poison Center between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, were reviewed...
June 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093316/venom-and-antivenom-of-the-redback-spider-latrodectus-hasseltii-in-japan-part-ii-experimental-production-of-equine-antivenom-against-the-redback-spider
#9
Shigemi Mori, Akira Horita, Akihiro Ginnaga, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyoko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Akihiko Yamamoto, Keigo Shibayama, Satoru Arai, Takuya Yamagishi, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
This is the first report on large-scale experimental production of an equine antivenom against the redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) lived in Japan. We captured 10,000 redback spiders in Japan and prepared the toxoids of crude venom extract, mixed the toxoids with a mineral oil adjuvant, and immunized healthy horses repeatedly over a period of several weeks. Thereafter, we separated the horse plasma, purified the γ-globulin fraction, and stocked it as a purified antivenom concentrate. Consequently, we manufactured approximately 6,500 vials of a single-dose freeze-dried test lot from a portion of the purified γ-globulin fraction, equivalent to the extract derived from 520 spiders...
November 22, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018830/antivenom-efficacy-in-neutralizing-histopathological-complications-following-latrodectus-dahli-envenomation
#10
Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani, Abbas Zare-Mirakabadi, Ehsan Zayerzadeh
BACKGROUND: Nowadays use of specific antivenin for latrodectism is considered as the most effective treatment in the world. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific antivenom against histopathological complications caused by Latrodectus dahli venom on liver, heart and kidneys tissues within 72h. METHODS: Two groups were selected, each one contained 6 male New Zealand rabbits weighing 2±0.5kg. The animals were anesthetized with 0.5ml ketamine and 0...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536006/silk-gene-expression-of-theridiid-spiders-implications-for-male-specific-silk-use
#11
Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, R Crystal Chaw, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae)...
June 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396739/nephrotic-syndrome-due-to-minimal-change-disease-secondary-to-spider-bite-clinico-pathological-case-of-a-non-described-complication-of-latrodectism
#12
Gonzalo P Méndez, Daniel Enos, José Luis Moreira, Fátima Alvaredo, David Oddó
The patient was an 18-year-old man who developed nephrotic syndrome after a 'wheat spider' bite (Latrodectus mactans). Due to this atypical manifestation of latrodectism, a renal biopsy was performed showing minimal change disease. The nephrotic syndrome subsided after 1 week without specific treatment. This self-limited evolution suggests that the mechanism of podocyte damage was temporary and potentially mediated by a secondary mechanism of hypersensitivity or direct effect of the α-latrotoxin. The patient did not show signs of relapse in subsequent checkup...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306751/peptidomic-and-transcriptomic-profiling-of-four-distinct-spider-venoms
#13
Vera Oldrati, Dominique Koua, Pierre-Marie Allard, Nicolas Hulo, Miriam Arrell, Wolfgang Nentwig, Frédérique Lisacek, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Lucia Kuhn-Nentwig, Reto Stöcklin
Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246022/toxicity-of-the-venom-of-latrodectus-araneae-theridiidae-spiders-from-different-regions-of-argentina-and-neutralization-by-therapeutic-antivenoms
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Vanessa Costa de Oliveira, Lucia Elvira Irazu, Alda González, Luis Giambelluca, Néstor Nicolai, Javier Hugo Barragán, Leticia Ramallo, Raúl Alfredo López, Jorge Lopardo, Oscar Jensen, Edmundo Larrieu, Arnoldo Calabró, Miriam Guadalupe Vurcharchuc, Néstor Rubén Lago, Susana Isabel García, Ernesto Horacio de Titto, Carlos Fabián Damín
"Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233980/recombinant-production-characterization-and-fiber-spinning-of-an-engineered-short-major-ampullate-spidroin-masp1s
#15
Christopher Thamm, Thomas Scheibel
Spider dragline silk exhibits an extraordinary toughness and is typically composed of two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp1 and MaSp2), differing in their proline content and hydrophobicity. In this paper, we recombinantly produced an unusual but naturally occurring short major ampullate spidroin (MaSp1s) as a fusion construct between established Latrodectus hesperus terminal domains and the novel Cyrtophora moluccensis core domain. The sequence of the recombinant spidroin was engineered to guarantee high yields upon recombinant production and was named eMaSp1s...
April 10, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233057/co-segregation-of-sex-chromosomes-in-the-male-black-widow-spider-latrodectus-mactans-araneae-theridiidae
#16
Jeffrey G Ault, Kristen D Felt, Ryan N Doan, Alexander O Nedo, Cassondra A Ellison, Leocadia V Paliulis
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario...
October 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#17
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128547/conformational-stability-and-interplay-of-helical-n-and-c-terminal-domains-with-implications-on-major-ampullate-spidroin-assembly
#18
Joschka Bauer, Thomas Scheibel
Major ampullate spidroin (MaSp) assembly starts in the abdomen of the spider, where spidroins are stored as a liquid dope at a high concentration. The dope is squeezed into the spinning duct, and assembly is finished upon drawing of fibers. Unwanted aggregation of the spidroin solution in the gland is suppressed by prestructuring of the spidroins in micelle-like assemblies, with their hydrophobic stretches being hidden from the solvent and the hydrophilic nonrepetitive amino (NRN) and carboxy (NRC) terminal domains being exposed on the micelle surface...
March 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028084/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#19
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999389/transcriptome-analysis-to-understand-the-toxicity-of-latrodectus-tredecimguttatus-eggs
#20
Dehong Xu, Xianchun Wang
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is a kind of highly venomous black widow spider, with toxicity coming from not only venomous glands but also other parts of its body as well as newborn spiderlings and eggs. Up to date, although L. tredecimguttatus eggs have been demonstrated to be rich in proteinaceous toxins, there is no systematic investigation on such active components at transcriptome level. In this study, we performed a high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. tredecimguttatus eggs with Illumina sequencing technology...
December 20, 2016: Toxins
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