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Latrodectus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196631/conservation-of-folding-and-association-within-a-family-of-spidroin-n-terminal-domains
#1
Julia C Heiby, Suhaila Rajab, Charlotte Rat, Christopher M Johnson, Hannes Neuweiler
Web spiders synthesize silk fibres, nature's toughest biomaterial, through the controlled assembly of fibroin proteins, so-called spidroins. The highly conserved spidroin N-terminal domain (NTD) is a pH-driven self-assembly device that connects spidroins to super-molecules in fibres. The degree to which forces of self-assembly is conserved across spider glands and species is currently unknown because quantitative measures are missing. Here, we report the comparative investigation of spidroin NTDs originating from the major ampullate glands of the spider species Euprosthenops australis, Nephila clavipes, Latrodectus hesperus, and Latrodectus geometricus...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133072/treatment-of-pediatric-black-widow-spider-envenomation-a-national-poison-center-s-experience
#2
Miguel Glatstein, Gary Carbell, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Black widow species (Latrodectus species) envenomation can produce a syndrome characterized by painful muscle rigidity and autonomic disturbances. Symptoms tend to be more severe in young children and adults. We describe black widow spider exposures and treatment in the pediatric age group, and investigate reasons for not using antivenom in severe cases. METHODS: All black widow exposures reported to the Rocky Mountain Poison Center between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, were reviewed...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093316/venom-and-antivenom-of-redback-spider-latrodectus-hasseltii-in-japan
#3
Shigemi Mori, Akira Horita, Akihiro Ginnaga, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyoko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Akihiko Yamamoto, Keigo Shibayama, Satoshi Arai, Takuya Yamagishi, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
This is the first report of the large-scale experimentally production of an equine antivenom against redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) lived in Japan. We captured 10,000 redback spiders in Japan and prepared the toxoids of crude venom extract, mixed the toxoids with mineral oil adjuvant, and immunized repeatedly it to healthy horses over a period of several weeks. Then, we separated the horse plasma, and purified the γ-globulin fraction and stocked as a purified antivenom concentrate. Consequently, we manufactured approximately 6,500 vials of a single-dose freeze-dried test lot from a portion of the purified γ-globulin fraction, equivalent to the extract derived from 520 spiders...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018830/antivenom-efficacy-in-neutralizing-histopathological-complications-following-latrodectus-dahli-envenomation
#4
Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani, Abbas Zare-Mirakabadi, Ehsan Zayerzadeh
BACKGROUND: Nowadays use of specific antivenin for latrodectism is considered as the most effective treatment in the world. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific antivenom against histopathological complications caused by Latrodectus dahli venom on liver, heart and kidneys tissues within 72h. METHODS: Two groups were selected, each one contained 6 male New Zealand rabbits weighing 2±0.5kg. The animals were anesthetized with 0.5ml ketamine and 0...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536006/silk-gene-expression-of-theridiid-spiders-implications-for-male-specific-silk-use
#5
Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, R Crystal Chaw, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae)...
June 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396739/nephrotic-syndrome-due-to-minimal-change-disease-secondary-to-spider-bite-clinico-pathological-case-of-a-non-described-complication-of-latrodectism
#6
Gonzalo P Méndez, Daniel Enos, José Luis Moreira, Fátima Alvaredo, David Oddó
The patient was an 18-year-old man who developed nephrotic syndrome after a 'wheat spider' bite (Latrodectus mactans). Due to this atypical manifestation of latrodectism, a renal biopsy was performed showing minimal change disease. The nephrotic syndrome subsided after 1 week without specific treatment. This self-limited evolution suggests that the mechanism of podocyte damage was temporary and potentially mediated by a secondary mechanism of hypersensitivity or direct effect of the α-latrotoxin. The patient did not show signs of relapse in subsequent checkup...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306751/peptidomic-and-transcriptomic-profiling-of-four-distinct-spider-venoms
#7
Vera Oldrati, Dominique Koua, Pierre-Marie Allard, Nicolas Hulo, Miriam Arrell, Wolfgang Nentwig, Frédérique Lisacek, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Lucia Kuhn-Nentwig, Reto Stöcklin
Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246022/toxicity-of-the-venom-of-latrodectus-araneae-theridiidae-spiders-from-different-regions-of-argentina-and-neutralization-by-therapeutic-antivenoms
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Vanessa Costa de Oliveira, Lucia Elvira Irazu, Alda González, Luis Giambelluca, Néstor Nicolai, Javier Hugo Barragán, Leticia Ramallo, Raúl Alfredo López, Jorge Lopardo, Oscar Jensen, Edmundo Larrieu, Arnoldo Calabró, Miriam Guadalupe Vurcharchuc, Néstor Rubén Lago, Susana Isabel García, Ernesto Horacio de Titto, Carlos Fabián Damín
"Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233980/recombinant-production-characterization-and-fiber-spinning-of-an-engineered-short-major-ampullate-spidroin-masp1s
#9
Christopher Thamm, Thomas Scheibel
Spider dragline silk exhibits an extraordinary toughness and is typically composed of two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp1 and MaSp2), differing in their proline content and hydrophobicity. In this paper, we recombinantly produced an unusual but naturally occurring short major ampullate spidroin (MaSp1s) as a fusion construct between established Latrodectus hesperus terminal domains and the novel Cyrtophora moluccensis core domain. The sequence of the recombinant spidroin was engineered to guarantee high yields upon recombinant production and was named eMaSp1s...
April 10, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233057/co-segregation-of-sex-chromosomes-in-the-male-black-widow-spider-latrodectus-mactans-araneae-theridiidae
#10
Jeffrey G Ault, Kristen D Felt, Ryan N Doan, Alexander O Nedo, Cassondra A Ellison, Leocadia V Paliulis
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario...
October 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#11
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128547/conformational-stability-and-interplay-of-helical-n-and-c-terminal-domains-with-implications-on-major-ampullate-spidroin-assembly
#12
Joschka Bauer, Thomas Scheibel
Major ampullate spidroin (MaSp) assembly starts in the abdomen of the spider, where spidroins are stored as a liquid dope at a high concentration. The dope is squeezed into the spinning duct, and assembly is finished upon drawing of fibers. Unwanted aggregation of the spidroin solution in the gland is suppressed by prestructuring of the spidroins in micelle-like assemblies, with their hydrophobic stretches being hidden from the solvent and the hydrophilic nonrepetitive amino (NRN) and carboxy (NRC) terminal domains being exposed on the micelle surface...
March 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028084/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#13
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999389/transcriptome-analysis-to-understand-the-toxicity-of-latrodectus-tredecimguttatus-eggs
#14
Dehong Xu, Xianchun Wang
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is a kind of highly venomous black widow spider, with toxicity coming from not only venomous glands but also other parts of its body as well as newborn spiderlings and eggs. Up to date, although L. tredecimguttatus eggs have been demonstrated to be rich in proteinaceous toxins, there is no systematic investigation on such active components at transcriptome level. In this study, we performed a high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. tredecimguttatus eggs with Illumina sequencing technology...
December 20, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889602/toxicity-evaluation-and-initial-characterization-of-the-venom-of-a-colombian-latrodectus-sp
#15
Alexandra Rueda, Emilio Realpe, Alfredo Uribe
The genus Latrodectus has not been studied in Colombia even though it is medically important worldwide; there are three species for the country, this study focused on a non-identified species found in the Tatacoa Desert in the Huila Department. This research is the first approximation to the extraction, composition analysis and toxicity evaluation of the venom of a species of the genus Latrodectus in Colombia; and aims to evaluate the toxicity by the initial characterization of its venom. The venom extraction was accomplished with electrostimulation and total protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method and BCA assays from crude venom; with these methods, high protein concentration of the samples was measured...
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699754/-tarantism-in-spain-in-the-eighteen-century-latrodectism-and-suggestion
#16
REVIEW
I Corral-Corral, C Corral-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. AIM: To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. DEVELOPMENT: An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681031/acidic-residues-control-the-dimerization-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-black-widow-spiders-major-ampullate-spidroin-1
#17
Joschka Bauer, Daniel Schaal, Lukas Eisoldt, Kristian Schweimer, Stephan Schwarzinger, Thomas Scheibel
Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651535/copulation-with-immature-females-increases-male-fitness-in-cannibalistic-widow-spiders
#18
M Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R Harari, Maydianne C B Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male 'widow' spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have similar fecundity to adult-mated females...
September 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639243/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#19
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517909/evidence-of-decoupling-protein-structure-from-spidroin-expression-in-spider-dragline-silks
#20
Sean J Blamires, Michael M Kasumovic, I-Min Tso, Penny J Martens, James M Hook, Aditya Rawal
The exceptional strength and extensibility of spider dragline silk have been thought to be facilitated by two spidroins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and major ampullate spidroin 2 (MaSp2), under the assumption that protein secondary structures are coupled with the expressed spidroins. We tested this assumption for the dragline silk of three co-existing Australian spiders, Argiope keyserlingi, Latrodectus hasselti and Nephila plumipes. We found that silk amino acid compositions did not differ among spiders collected in May...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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