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Latrodectus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536006/silk-gene-expression-of-theridiid-spiders-implications-for-male-specific-silk-use
#1
Sandra M Correa-Garhwal, R Crystal Chaw, Thomas H Clarke, Nadia A Ayoub, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders (order Araneae) rely on their silks for essential tasks, such as dispersal, prey capture, and reproduction. Spider silks are largely composed of spidroins, members of a protein family that are synthesized in silk glands. As needed, silk stored in silk glands is extruded through spigots on the spinnerets. Nearly all studies of spider silks have been conducted on females; thus, little is known about male silk biology. To shed light on silk use by males, we compared silk gene expression profiles of mature males to those of females from three cob-web weaving species (Theridiidae)...
April 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396739/nephrotic-syndrome-due-to-minimal-change-disease-secondary-to-spider-bite-clinico-pathological-case-of-a-non-described-complication-of-latrodectism
#2
Gonzalo P Méndez, Daniel Enos, José Luis Moreira, Fátima Alvaredo, David Oddó
The patient was an 18-year-old man who developed nephrotic syndrome after a 'wheat spider' bite (Latrodectus mactans). Due to this atypical manifestation of latrodectism, a renal biopsy was performed showing minimal change disease. The nephrotic syndrome subsided after 1 week without specific treatment. This self-limited evolution suggests that the mechanism of podocyte damage was temporary and potentially mediated by a secondary mechanism of hypersensitivity or direct effect of the α-latrotoxin. The patient did not show signs of relapse in subsequent checkup...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306751/peptidomic-and-transcriptomic-profiling-of-four-distinct-spider-venoms
#3
Vera Oldrati, Dominique Koua, Pierre-Marie Allard, Nicolas Hulo, Miriam Arrell, Wolfgang Nentwig, Frédérique Lisacek, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Lucia Kuhn-Nentwig, Reto Stöcklin
Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246022/toxicity-of-the-venom-of-latrodectus-araneae-theridiidae-spiders-from-different-regions-of-argentina-and-neutralization-by-therapeutic-antivenoms
#4
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Vanessa Costa de Oliveira, Lucia Elvira Irazu, Alda González, Luis Giambelluca, Néstor Nicolai, Javier Hugo Barragán, Leticia Ramallo, Raúl Alfredo López, Jorge Lopardo, Oscar Jensen, Edmundo Larrieu, Arnoldo Calabró, Miriam Guadalupe Vurcharchuc, Néstor Rubén Lago, Susana Isabel García, Ernesto Horacio de Titto, Carlos Fabián Damín
"Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233980/recombinant-production-characterization-and-fiber-spinning-of-an-engineered-short-major-ampullate-spidroin-masp1s
#5
Christopher Thamm, Thomas Scheibel
Spider dragline silk exhibits an extraordinary toughness and is typically composed of two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp1 and MaSp2), differing in their proline content and hydrophobicity. In this paper, we recombinantly produced an unusual but naturally occurring short major ampullate spidroin (MaSp1s) as a fusion construct between established Latrodectus hesperus terminal domains and the novel Cyrtophora moluccensis core domain. The sequence of the recombinant spidroin was engineered to guarantee high yields upon recombinant production and was named eMaSp1s...
March 6, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233057/co-segregation-of-sex-chromosomes-in-the-male-black-widow-spider-latrodectus-mactans-araneae-theridiidae
#6
Jeffrey G Ault, Kristen D Felt, Ryan N Doan, Alexander O Nedo, Cassondra A Ellison, Leocadia V Paliulis
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario...
February 23, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209133/house-spider-genome-uncovers-evolutionary-shifts-in-the-diversity-and-expression-of-black-widow-venom-proteins-associated-with-extreme-toxicity
#7
Kerry L Gendreau, Robert A Haney, Evelyn E Schwager, Torsten Wierschin, Mario Stanke, Stephen Richards, Jessica E Garb
BACKGROUND: Black widow spiders are infamous for their neurotoxic venom, which can cause extreme and long-lasting pain. This unusual venom is dominated by latrotoxins and latrodectins, two protein families virtually unknown outside of the black widow genus Latrodectus, that are difficult to study given the paucity of spider genomes. Using tissue-, sex- and stage-specific expression data, we analyzed the recently sequenced genome of the house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum), a close relative of black widows, to investigate latrotoxin and latrodectin diversity, expression and evolution...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128547/conformational-stability-and-interplay-of-helical-n-and-c-terminal-domains-with-implications-on-major-ampullate-spidroin-assembly
#8
Joschka Bauer, Thomas Scheibel
Major ampullate spidroin (MaSp) assembly starts in the abdomen of the spider, where spidroins are stored as a liquid dope at a high concentration. The dope is squeezed into the spinning duct, and assembly is finished upon drawing of fibers. Unwanted aggregation of the spidroin solution in the gland is suppressed by prestructuring of the spidroins in micelle-like assemblies, with their hydrophobic stretches being hidden from the solvent and the hydrophilic nonrepetitive amino (NRN) and carboxy (NRC) terminal domains being exposed on the micelle surface...
March 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028084/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#9
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999389/transcriptome-analysis-to-understand-the-toxicity-of-latrodectus-tredecimguttatus-eggs
#10
Dehong Xu, Xianchun Wang
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is a kind of highly venomous black widow spider, with toxicity coming from not only venomous glands but also other parts of its body as well as newborn spiderlings and eggs. Up to date, although L. tredecimguttatus eggs have been demonstrated to be rich in proteinaceous toxins, there is no systematic investigation on such active components at transcriptome level. In this study, we performed a high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. tredecimguttatus eggs with Illumina sequencing technology...
December 20, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889602/toxicity-evaluation-and-initial-characterization-of-the-venom-of-a-colombian-latrodectus-sp
#11
Alexandra Rueda, Emilio Realpe, Alfredo Uribe
The genus Latrodectus has not been studied in Colombia even though it is medically important worldwide; there are three species for the country, this study focused on a non-identified species found in the Tatacoa Desert in the Huila Department. This research is the first approximation to the extraction, composition analysis and toxicity evaluation of the venom of a species of the genus Latrodectus in Colombia; and aims to evaluate the toxicity by the initial characterization of its venom. The venom extraction was accomplished with electrostimulation and total protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method and BCA assays from crude venom; with these methods, high protein concentration of the samples was measured...
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699754/-tarantism-in-spain-in-the-eighteen-century-latrodectism-and-suggestion
#12
REVIEW
I Corral-Corral, C Corral-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. AIM: To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. DEVELOPMENT: An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681031/acidic-residues-control-the-dimerization-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-black-widow-spiders-major-ampullate-spidroin-1
#13
Joschka Bauer, Daniel Schaal, Lukas Eisoldt, Kristian Schweimer, Stephan Schwarzinger, Thomas Scheibel
Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651535/copulation-with-immature-females-increases-male-fitness-in-cannibalistic-widow-spiders
#14
M Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R Harari, Maydianne C B Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male 'widow' spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have similar fecundity to adult-mated females...
September 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639243/using-global-and-regional-species-distribution-models-sdm-to-infer-the-invasive-stage-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae-in-the-americas
#15
Andrés Taucare-Ríos, Gustavo Bizama, Ramiro O Bustamante
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517909/evidence-of-decoupling-protein-structure-from-spidroin-expression-in-spider-dragline-silks
#16
Sean J Blamires, Michael M Kasumovic, I-Min Tso, Penny J Martens, James M Hook, Aditya Rawal
The exceptional strength and extensibility of spider dragline silk have been thought to be facilitated by two spidroins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and major ampullate spidroin 2 (MaSp2), under the assumption that protein secondary structures are coupled with the expressed spidroins. We tested this assumption for the dragline silk of three co-existing Australian spiders, Argiope keyserlingi, Latrodectus hasselti and Nephila plumipes. We found that silk amino acid compositions did not differ among spiders collected in May...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461115/vibration-transmission-through-sheet-webs-of-hobo-spiders-eratigena-agrestis-and-tangle-webs-of-western-black-widow-spiders-latrodectus-hesperus
#17
Samantha Vibert, Catherine Scott, Gerhard Gries
Web-building spiders construct their own vibratory signaling environments. Web architecture should affect signal design, and vice versa, such that vibratory signals are transmitted with a minimum of attenuation and degradation. However, the web is the medium through which a spider senses both vibratory signals from courting males and cues produced by captured prey. Moreover, webs function not only in vibration transmission, but also in defense from predators and the elements. These multiple functions may impose conflicting selection pressures on web design...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308281/specific-antivenom-ability-in-neutralizing-hepatic-and-renal-changes-24-hours-after-latrodectus-dahli-envenomation
#18
Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani, Abbas Zare-Mirakabadi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Hamid Reza Goodarzi, Mahdise Rajabi
BACKGROUND: Latrodectism, a syndrome caused by Latrodectus genus, is one of the clinical problems that occur predominantly in north east of Iran. Nowadays antivenom therapy has become the most useful treatment for animal bites; however there is still a controversy about route and time of antivenom administration in spider bite. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of specific antivenom in neutralizing hepatic and renal symptoms 24 h after Latrodectus dahli envenomation...
June 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955918/chemical-signals-might-mediate-interactions-between-females-and-juveniles-of-latrodectus-geometricus-araneae-theridiidae
#19
Ingrid de Carvalho Guimarães, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Sandro Marcio Lima, Luis Humberto da Cunha Andrade, William Fernnando Antonialli Junior
Studies related to communication on spiders show that, as in other invertebrates, the interactions between conspecifics are also made through chemical signals. Therefore, in order to assess whether the composition of cuticular compounds might be involved in interactions that occur during the days after the emergence of juveniles in Latrodectus geometricus, we conducted behavioral and cuticular chemical profiles analysis of females and juveniles of different ages. The results show that females, regardless of their reproductive state, tolerate juveniles of other females with up to 40 days post-emergence and attack juveniles of 80 days post-emergence...
May 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937627/the-contribution-of-developmental-experience-vs-condition-to-life-history-trait-variation-and-individual-differences
#20
Nicholas DiRienzo, Pierre-Olivier Montiglio
1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood...
July 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
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