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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140873/experienced-hiv-related-stigma-in-healthcare-and-community-settings-mediated-associations-with-psychosocial-and-health-outcomes
#1
Emma Sophia Kay, Whitney S Rice, Kaylee B Crockett, Ghislaine C Atkins, D Scott Batey, Bulent Turan
INTRODUCTION: There are multiple dimensions of HIV-related stigma that can compromise the mental and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We focused on the dimension of experienced stigma, defined as exposure to acts of discrimination, devaluation, and prejudice, and investigated its relationship with HIV health and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: We examined associations between experienced stigma in the community and healthcare settings and psychosocial and health outcomes for PLWH (N=203) receiving care at an urban HIV clinic in the Southeastern United States...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140754/comparing-diversity-of-fungi-from-living-leaves-using-culturing-and-high-throughput-environmental-sequencing
#2
Peter R Johnston, Duckchul Park, Rob D Smissen
High-throughput sequencing technologies using amplicon approaches have changed the way that studies investigating fungal distribution are undertaken. These powerful and time-efficient technologies have the potential for the first time to accurately map fungal distributions across landscapes or changes in diversity across ecological or biological gradients of interest. There is no requirement for a fungus to form a fruiting body to be detected, and both culturable and nonculturable organisms can be detected...
October 6, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140577/herbivory-and-drought-generate-short-term-stochasticity-and-long-term-stability-in-a-savanna-understory-community
#3
Corinna Riginos, Lauren M Porensky, Kari E Veblen, Truman P Young
Rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long-term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. Understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. Livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. We examined patterns of change and stability in herbaceous community composition through four dry periods, or droughts, over 15 years of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), which consists of six different combinations of cattle, native wild herbivores (e...
November 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140503/social-action-among-social-work-practitioners-examining-the-micro-macro-divide
#4
Nicole Olivia Mattocks
Social work is a profession that seeks to enhance the well-being of all people and promote social justice and social change through a range of activities, such as direct practice, community organizing, social and political action, and policy development. However, the current literature suggests that the profession's focus on social justice and social action are weakening, replaced by individualism and therapeutic interventions. This article examines data derived from a survey of 188 National Association of Social Workers members from Maryland; Virginia; and Washington, DC, to explore levels of social action participation among social workers and determine whether identifying as a macro-level practitioner would predict higher levels of social action activity compared with being a micro-level practitioner...
November 13, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140497/integrating-complementary-and-traditional-practices-in-middle-eastern-supportive-cancer-care
#5
Eran Ben-Arye, Noah Samuels, Michel Daher, Ibrahim Turker, Omar Nimri, Maryam Rassouli, Michael Silbermann
The Middle East is a promising arena in which researchers can explore the interchange between cross-cultural traditional medicine and supportive cancer care, as provided within an integrative oncology setting. Integrative oncology research and clinical practice in this part of the world have been focusing, for the most part, on the use of herbal medicine and mind-body-spiritual modalities, both of which are deeply rooted in traditional medical care. A regional, multinational, and interdisciplinary collaboration is currently being undertaken as part of the academic activities of the Middle-East Research Group in Integrative Oncology (MERGIO)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139608/current-state-of-screening-high-ace-youth-and-emerging-adults-in-primary-care
#6
Michelle Pardee, Elizabeth Kuzma, Chin Hwa Gina Y Dahlem, Nicole Boucher, Cynthia S Darling-Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma comes in many forms, including interpersonal, community, and institutional trauma. The adverse childhood event (ACE) studies demonstrated that adverse experiences in childhood can have a profound, cumulative impact on the course of health and development over a lifetime. It is critical for healthcare providers, such as nurse practitioners (NPs), working in primary care to screen adolescents and emerging adults for a history of ACEs and trauma. A review of current assessment tools used in assessing this population in health settings is needed to determine how screening for ACEs is being performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139534/beyond-the-sea-crepidula-atrasolea-as-a-spiralian-model-system
#7
Jonathan Q Henry, Maryna P Lesoway, Kimberly J Perry, C Cornelia Osborne, Marty Shankland, Deirdre C Lyons
This paper introduces the black-footed slipper snail, Crepidula atrasolea, as a new model for biological studies in the Spiralia. C. atrasolea is a calyptraeid gastropod, and congener of the Atlantic slipper snail, C. fornicata. Like C. fornicata, C. atrasolea shares a sedentary, filter-feeding, protandrous lifestyle, but is preferable as a developmental model because of its short generation time, year-round reproduction, and direct development. In our lab, individuals go from egg to reproductive females in under six months, as compared to an estimated 1-2 years for C...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139278/improving-pain-control-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#8
Peter Paisley, Mick Serpell
Diabetic neuropathy is thought to affect 1.9% of the world’s population and 50% of patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus which would equate to 2.25 million people in the UK. The term diabetic neuropathy includes multiple distinct clinical entities that have been classified under the broad headings of focal and multifocal neuropathies and symmetrical neuropathies. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy, a chronic distal symmetrical predominantly sensory neuropathy, is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy...
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139199/in-silico-ligand-based-modeling-of-hbace-1-inhibitors
#9
Govindan Subramanian, Gennady Poda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease affecting more than 30 million people worldwide. Development of small molecule inhibitors of human β-secretase 1 (hBACE-1) is being the focus of pharmaceutical industry for the past 15-20 years. Here, we successfully applied multiple ligand-based in silico modeling techniques to understand the inhibitory activities of a diverse set of small molecule hBACE-1 inhibitors reported in the scientific literature. Strikingly, the use of only a small subset of 230 (13%) molecules allowed us to develop quality models that performed reasonably well on the validation set of 1476 (87%) inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139114/operation-family-caregiver-problem-solving-training-for-military-caregivers-in-a-community-setting
#10
Leisa R Easom, Ke Wang, Renee H Moore, Heqiong Wang, Laura Bauer
OBJECTIVE: This study, conducted over a 2-year period at 9 sites, describes the outcomes of an evidence-based support program, Operation Family Caregiver, to gain an understanding of how a tailored, problem-solving training could assist military caregivers, who provide care and assistance to those injured, ill, or disabled as a result of war. METHOD: A pre-post research design was employed to examine caregiver burden, depression, health complaints, satisfaction with life, children's anxiety, and problem solving among a convenience sample of caregivers of 128 military service members and veterans...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139056/ensuring-implementation-fidelity-of-a-10-week-home-visiting-program-in-two-randomized-clinical-trials
#11
Monica L Oxford, Susan J Spieker, Mary Jane Lohr, Charles B Fleming, Colleen Dillon, Jennifer Rees
Introduction Implementation fidelity is a challenge for the adoption of evidence-based programs within social service broadly and child welfare specifically. However, implementation fidelity is critical for maintaining the integrity of clinical trials and for ensuring successful delivery of services in public health settings. Methods Promoting First Relationships (®) (PFR), a 10-week home visiting parenting intervention, was evaluated in two randomized clinical trials with populations of families in child welfare...
November 14, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139019/pharmacists-confidence-when-providing-pharmaceutical-care-on-anticoagulants-a-multinational-survey
#12
John Papastergiou, Nadir Kheir, Katerina Ladova, Silas Rydant, Fabio De Rango, Sotiris Antoniou, Reka Viola, Maria Dolores Murillo, Stephane Steurbaut, Filipa Alves da Costa
Background Guidelines on the management of orally anticoagulated patients are continuously evolving, leading to an increased need for pharmacists to be fully integrated in care provision. Objective To identify self-reported gaps in confidence among practicing pharmacists in the area of anticoagulation. Setting Pharmacists in different work settings in different countries. Method Cross-sectional international survey from October 2015 till November 2016 among pharmacists working in different settings to assess their level of confidence when delivering anticoagulants as well as to identify possible educational needs regarding this medication class...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138665/-epidemiological-profile-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteria-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases
#13
Mohammed Sbiti, Khalid Lahmadi, Lhoussaine Louzi
Urinary tract infections due to enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-E) constitute a infectious risk, a major therapeutic challenge and can even lead, in some cases, to a deadlock beacuse of their multi-resistance to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological profile of uropathogenic ESBL-E and to describe their current level of resistance to antibiotics for a better patient management according to local data. We conducted a retrospective study of all ESBL-E strains isolated from all cytobacteriogical testing of urine (CBEU) treated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Military Hospital of Moulay Ismail, Meknes over a period of three years (from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138571/timed-up-and-go-test-combined-with-self-rated-multifactorial-questionnaire-on-falls-risk-and-sociodemographic-factors-predicts-falls-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-better-than-the-timed-up-and-go-test-on-its-own
#14
Azianah Ibrahim, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, Suzana Shahar, Mohd Azahadi Omar
Background: Early detection of falls risk among older adults using simple tools may assist in fall prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to identify the best parameters associated with previous falls, either the timed up and go (TUG) test combined with sociodemographic factors and a self-rated multifactorial questionnaire (SRMQ) on falls risk or the TUG on its own. Falls risk was determined based on parameters associated with previous falls. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138537/development-of-novel-ultrashort-antimicrobial-peptide-nanoparticles-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activities-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#15
Ammar Almaaytah, Gubran Khalil Mohammed, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Qosay Al-Balas
Conventional antibiotics are facing strong microbial resistance that has recently reached critical levels. This situation is leading to significantly reduced therapeutic potential of a huge proportion of antimicrobial agents currently used in clinical settings. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could provide the medical community with an alternative strategy to traditional antibiotics for combating microbial resistance. However, the development of AMPs into clinically useful antibiotics is hampered by their relatively low stability, toxicity, and high manufacturing costs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138363/primary-care-interventions-for-early-childhood-development-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth Peacock-Chambers, Kathryn Ivy, Megan Bair-Merritt
CONTEXT: The pediatric primary care setting offers a platform to promote positive parenting behaviors and the optimal development of young children. Many new interventions have been developed and tested in this setting over the past 2 decades. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the recent published evidence regarding the impact of primary care-based interventions on parenting behaviors and child development outcomes; to provide recommendations for incorporation of effective interventions into pediatric clinics...
November 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138016/the-challenges-of-detecting-and-responding-to-a-lassa-fever-outbreak-in-an-ebola-affected-setting
#17
E L Hamblion, P Raftery, A Wendland, E Dweh, G S Williams, R N C George, L Soro, V Katawera, P Clement, A N Gasasira, E Musa, T K Nagbe
OBJECTIVES: Lassa fever(LF), a priority emerging pathogen likely to cause major epidemics, is endemic in much of West Africa and difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease(EVD). Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation not widely available in affected settings. We report the public health action to contain a LF outbreak and challenges encountered in an EVD-affected setting. METHODS: In February 2016 a rapid response team was deployed in Liberia in response to a cluster of LF cases...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137968/food-bundling-as-a-health-nudge-investigating-consumer-fruit-and-vegetable-selection-using-behavioral-economics
#18
Kathryn A Carroll, Anya Samek, Lydia Zepeda
Displaying bundles of healthy foods at the grocery store is a health nudge that simplifies shopping and may have the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchasing. To evaluate the impact of food bundling, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with community participants in a laboratory set up as a grocery store. Dual-self theory suggests that food choices may differ depending on whether shoppers are under cognitive load - in our experiment, we exogenously vary whether bundles are displayed (with and without a price discount) and whether shoppers are under cognitive load...
November 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137936/the-field-of-medical-anthropology-in-social-science-medicine
#19
Catherine Panter-Brick, Mark Eggerman
Conceptually and methodologically, medical anthropology is well-positioned to support a "big-tent" research agenda on health and society. It fosters approaches to social and structural models of health and wellbeing in ways that are critically reflective, cross-cultural, people-centered, and transdisciplinary. In this review article, we showcase these four main characteristics of the field, as featured in Social Science & Medicine over the last fifty years, highlighting their relevance for an international and interdisciplinary readership...
October 31, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137697/the-readiness-to-change-for-bariatric-surgery-assessment-tool-validity-factor-structure-and-reliability
#20
Susan M S Carlson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently, there is no guideline or standard of practice for performing the psychiatric/psychological evaluation that is a requirement for approval for bariatric surgery. The Readiness to Change for Bariatric Surgery Assessment Tool (RCB-SAT) establishes a means for psychiatric evaluators to objectively assess the patient's cognition, beliefs, and motivation around the bariatric diet and lifestyle changes. Development of a clinical decision-making tool for assessing readiness to change in bariatric patients will be useful regarding The Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research...
November 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
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