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community setting

Angus Fayia Tengbeh, Luisa Enria, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Mike Callaghan, David Ishola, Bailah Leigh, Deborah Watson-Jones, Brian Greenwood, Heidi Larson, Shelley Lees
The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic presented a challenging setting in which to carry out clinical trials. This paper reports findings from social science research carried out in Kambia, Northern Sierra Leone during first year of an Ebola vaccine trial (August 2015-July 2016). The social science team collected data through ethnographic observation, 42 in depth interviews; 4 life narratives; 200 exit interviews; 31 key informant interviews; and 8 focus group discussions with trial participants and community members not enrolled in the trial...
March 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Winnie Wing Yan Yuen, Albert Lee, Paul K S Chan, Lynn Tran, Erica Sayko
The present study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of delivering the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine to girls through a school-based program in Hong Kong, as well as to examine the facilitators and barriers associated with their participation. We approached 1,229 eligible girls aged 9 to 14 at eight schools in Hong Kong to join the program and then delivered the bivalent HPV vaccine at 0 and 6 months over the course of one school year. The students and their parents completed separate questionnaires to indicate their decision on whether or not to participate, and to assess their knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine...
2018: PloS One
Skye N Leedahl, Alicia Sellon, Rosemary K Chapin
A variety of terms and measures have been used in the literature to denote being socially integrated, and many studies of older adults focus on only social networks or social support and often only include those living in the community. The purpose of this study was to assess multiple constructs of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social support, and social engagement) for older adults in nursing homes. Data were collected from 140 older adults at 30 nursing homes in Kansas. We interviewed older adults' in-person using a survey questionnaire, and used multilevel confirmatory factor analysis to analyze the data...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Derek A Kreager, Candace Kruttschnitt
Inmate social organization was once a central area within criminology that stalled just as incarceration rates dramatically climbed. In this review, we return to seminal works on this topic before summarizing the changes that mass incarceration wrought in correctional contexts and the potential impacts of these changes for inmate society. We then review the few recent studies that document contemporary inmate social life and call for increased researcher-practitioner partnerships that embed criminologists within carceral settings...
2018: Annu Rev Criminol
Hitoyoshi Yasuo, Alex McDougall
Phallusia mammillata has recently emerged as a new ascidian model. Its unique characteristics, including the optical transparency of eggs and embryos and efficient translation of exogenously introduced mRNA in eggs, make the Phallusia system suitable for fluorescent protein (FP)-based imaging approaches. In addition, genomic and transcriptomic resources are readily available for this ascidian species, facilitating functional gene studies. Microinjection is probably the most versatile technique for introducing exogenous molecules such as plasmids, mRNAs, and proteins into ascidian eggs/embryos...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eiman Zargaran, Richard Spence, Lauren Adolph, Andrew Nicol, Nadine Schuurman, Pradeep Navsaria, Damon Ramsey, S Morad Hameed
Importance: Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. Objective: To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Nash Ak Witten, Joseph Humphry
The Lana'i Community Health Center (LCHC) like other health care organizations, is striving to implement technology-enabled care (TEC) in the clinical setting. TEC includes such technological innovations as patient portals, mobile phone applications, wearable health sensors, and telehealth. This study examines the utilization of communication technology by members of the Lana'i community and LCHC staff and board members in the home and in their daily lives and evaluates the community's electronic health literacy...
March 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
B N Subodh, Nidhi Sharma, Raghav Shah
Management of patients with dual diagnosis (Mental illness and substance use disorders) is a challenge. A lack of improvement in either disorder can lead to a relapse in both. The current consensus opinion favours an integrated approach to management of both the disorders wherein the same team of professionals manages both the disorders in the same setting. The role of pharmacotherapy for such dual diagnosis patients is well established but the non-pharmacological approaches for their management are still evolving...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Aixue Hu, Susan C Bates
Observational evidence points to a warming global climate accompanied by rising sea levels which impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities. Studies suggest that internal climate processes can modulate projected future sea level rise (SLR) regionally. It is not clear whether this modulation depends on the future climate pathways. Here, by analyzing two sets of ensemble simulations from a climate model, we investigate the potential reduction of SLR, as a result of steric and dynamic oceanographic affects alone, achieved by following a lower emission scenario instead of business-as-usual one over the twenty-first century and how it may be modulated regionally by internal climate variability...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Masayuki Ushio, Koichi Murata, Tetsuya Sado, Isao Nishiumi, Masamichi Takeshita, Wataru Iwasaki, Masaki Miya
Birds play unique functional roles in the maintenance of ecosystems, such as pollination and seed dispersal, and thus monitoring bird species diversity is a first step towards avoiding undesirable consequences of anthropogenic impacts on bird communities. In the present study, we hypothesized that birds, regardless of their main habitats, must have frequent contact with water and that tissues that contain their DNA that persists in the environment (environmental DNA; eDNA) could be used to detect the presence of avian species...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fabrizio Bernardi Aubry, Francesco Marcello Falcieri, Jacopo Chiggiato, Alfredo Boldrin, Gian Marco Luna, Stefania Finotto, Elisa Camatti, Francesco Acri, Mauro Sclavo, Sandro Carniel, Lucia Bongiorni
Dense waters (DW) formation in shelf areas and their cascading off the shelf break play a major role in ventilating deep waters, thus potentially affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether DW flow across shelves may affect the composition and structure of plankton communities down to the seafloor and the particles transport over long distances has not been fully investigated. Following the 2012 north Adriatic Sea cold outbreak, DW masses were intercepted at ca. 460 km south the area of origin and compared to resident ones in term of plankton biomass partitioning (pico to micro size) and phytoplankton species composition...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rajeev Seth, Ibukunoluwa Akinboyo, Ankur Chhabra, Yawar Qaiyum, Anita Shet, Nikhil Gupte, Ajay K Jain, Sanjay K Jain
OBJECTIVES: Young children in resource-poor settings remain inadequately immunized. We evaluated the role of compliance-linked incentives versus mobile phone messaging to improve childhood immunizations. METHODS: Children aged ≤24 months from a rural community in India were randomly assigned to either a control group or 1 of 2 study groups. A cloud-based, biometric-linked software platform was used for positive identification, record keeping for all groups, and delivery of automated mobile phone reminders with or without compliance-linked incentives (Indian rupee Rs30 or US dollar $0...
March 14, 2018: Pediatrics
Adélaïde Compaoré, Sabine Gies, Bernard Brabin, Halidou Tinto, Loretta Brabin
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency remains a prevalent adolescent health problem in low income countries. Iron supplementation is recommended but improvement of iron status requires good adherence. OBJECTIVES: We explored factors affecting adolescent adherence to weekly iron and/or folic acid supplements in a setting of low secondary school attendance. METHODS: Taped in-depth interviews were conducted with participants in a randomised, controlled, periconceptional iron supplementation trial for young nulliparous women living in a rural, malaria endemic region of Burkina Faso...
March 14, 2018: Reproductive Health
Lisabeth V Scalzi, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Emily Mascuilli, Nancy Olsen
BACKGROUND: Self-management skills, including medication management, are vital to the health of adolescents and young adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and preliminary effects of an online educational program in a cohort of adolescent and young adults with SLE with and without a social media (SM) experience. METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with SLE participated weekly for 8 sessions on a web-based educational program about SLE created specifically for this project...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Linda Weiss, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Michael E Hodge, José A Pagán, Elizabeth A Walker
The National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) has been effectively translated to various community and clinical settings; however, regardless of setting, enrollment among men and lower-income populations is low. This study presents participant perspectives on Power Up for Health, a novel NDPP pilot adaption for men residing in low-income communities in New York City. We conducted nine interviews and one focus group with seven participants after the program ended. Interview and focus group participants had positive perceptions of the program and described the all-male aspect of the program and its reliance on male coaches as major strengths...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Brittany L Cornwell, Laurie M Brockmann, Elaine C Lasky, Jennifer Mach, John F McCarthy
OBJECTIVES: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has achieved substantial national implementation of primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) services. However, little is known regarding program characteristics, variation in characteristics across settings, or associations between program fidelity and performance. This study identified core elements of PC-MHI services and evaluated their associations with program characteristics and performance. METHODS: A principal-components analysis (PCA) of reports from 349 sites identified factors associated with PC-MHI fidelity...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Jacob C Easaw, Susan McCall, Adrian Azim
Stable cancer patients diagnosed with a pulmonary embolus or deep vein thrombosis are commonly referred to the emergency department for management. This practice strains an already overburdened emergency department and is associated with long wait times and poor disease/injection education for patients. This pilot study sought to determine if stable cancer patients with newly diagnosed cancer-associated thrombosis could be effectively managed by community-based pharmacists who followed an evidence-based protocol to prescribe and initiate low-molecular weight heparin therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Amber Hoffman, Ingrid A Larson
It can be difficult to assist children with medical complexities (CMC) in maintaining wellness outside of hospital and emergency department settings. This growing population, with high use of medical technology and specialty care, has created a challenge for community providers who may infrequently care for children with these rare disorders and needs. CMCs have increased hospitalization rates and emergency care use. It is not realistic to believe that emergency health providers will know how to manage every type of CMC when they present for emergency care...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Rangarirai Matima, Katherine Murphy, Naomi S Levitt, Rhonda BeLue, Tolu Oni
BACKGROUND: Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town...
2018: PloS One
Christoph Ratzke, Jeff Gore
Microbes usually exist in communities consisting of myriad different but interacting species. These interactions are typically mediated through environmental modifications; microbes change the environment by taking up resources and excreting metabolites, which affects the growth of both themselves and also other microbes. We show here that the way microbes modify their environment and react to it sets the interactions within single-species populations and also between different species. A very common environmental modification is a change of the environmental pH...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
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