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Mike Thomas, Anne Bruton, Paul Little, Stephen Holgate, Amanda Lee, Lucy Yardley, Steve George, James Raftery, Jennifer Versnel, David Price, Ian Pavord, Ratko Djukanovic, Michael Moore, Sarah Kirby, Guiqing Yao, Shihua Zhu, Emily Arden-Close, Manimekalai Thiruvothiyur, Frances Webley, Mark Stafford-Watson, Elizabeth Dixon, Lynda Taylor
BACKGROUND: Asthma control is suboptimal, resulting in quality of life (QoL) impairment and costs. Breathing retraining exercises have evidence of effectiveness as adjuvant treatment, but are infrequently used. OBJECTIVES: To transfer the contents of a brief (three-session) physiotherapist-delivered breathing retraining programme to a digital versatile disc (DVD) and booklet format; to compare the effectiveness of the self-guided intervention with that of 'face-to-face' physiotherapy and usual care for QoL and other asthma-related outcomes; to perform a health economic assessment of both interventions; and to perform a process evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methods...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Tara Nazareth, John J Ko, Rahul Sasane, Christian Frois, Stephen Carpenter, Sebastian Demean, Ashok Vegesna, Eric Wu, Robert P Navarro
BACKGROUND: Outcomes-based contracts (OBCs), a type of risk-sharing arrangement (RSA), have emerged as a promising avenue for payers to engage with pharmaceutical manufacturers to share risk and improve patient access to medicines via evaluation of real-world outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of recent OBC activity and stakeholder perceptions of these arrangements, as well as the outlook for future OBC activity from a payer and manufacturer perspective in the United States and EU-5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom)...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Chantal Henry, Ophelia Godin, Philippe Courtet, Jean-Michel Azorin, Sébastien Gard, Frank Bellivier, Mircea Polosan, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Paul Roux, Valerie Aubin, Dominique Costagliola, Marion Leboyer, Bruno Etain
OBJECTIVE: A new health care system for patients with bipolar disorders was established in France under the auspices of Fondation FondaMental, based on thorough clinical assessment of patients and on close collaborations between expert centers and referring practitioners. We report the results of outcomes after 2 years of observational follow-up of adult patients assessed within the network. METHOD: A total of 984 patients were included in the study. We compared several parameters (e...
September 12, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
Y T Aba, A Fresard, A Gagneux-Brunon, M F Lutz, C Cazorla, F Lucht, E Botelho-Nevers, E Bissagnene, A Da Costa
This paper is about a Brugada syndrome (BS) of accidental discovery in a patient from Benin during an intestinal shigellosis episode in the infectiology department of university hospital of Saint-Etienne, France. Authors establish a link between these two diseases. After a literature's review, they underline that BS is under-diagnosed in Africa. Furthermore, they highlight socio-cultural characteristics of sudden deaths in West Africa including BS.
September 25, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio
In young adults and children, the eyes-closed (EC) resting state is one of low EEG arousal, with the change to eyes-open (EO) primarily involving an increase in arousal. We used this arousal perspective to interpret EC/EO differences in healthy young and older adults. EEG was recorded from 20 young (Mage=20.4years) and 20 gender-matched older (Mage=68.2years) right-handed adults during two 3min resting conditions; EC then EO. Older participants displayed less delta and theta, some reduction in alpha, and increased beta...
September 21, 2017: Biological Psychology
Valerie Bridoux, Jean Marc Regimbeau, Mehdi Ouaissi, Muriel Mathonnet, Francois Mauvais, Estelle Houivet, Lilian Schwarz, Diane Mege, Igor Sielezneff, Charles Sabbagh, Jean Jacques Tuech
BACKGROUND: About 25% of patients with acute diverticulitis require emergency intervention. Currently, most patients with diverticular peritonitis undergo a Hartmann's procedure. Our objective was to assess whether primary anastomosis (PA) with a diverting stoma allows lower mortality than Hartmann's procedure (HP) inpatients with diverticular peritonitis. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted between June 2008 and May 2012: the DIVERTI study ...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Gilles Nevez, Solène Le Gal, Natacha Noel, Alain Wynckel, Antoine Huguenin, Yohann Le Govic, Laurence Pougnet, Michèle Virmaux, Dominique Toubas, Odile Bajolet
BACKGROUND: Twenty-five patients, of whom 22 were renal transplant recipients, developed Pneumocystis jirovecii (P.jirovecii) infections at the nephrology department of Reims University Hospital (France) from September 2008 through October 2009, whereas only four sporadic cases had been diagnosed in this department over the 14 previous years. AIM: This outbreak was investigated by analyzing patient encounters and P.jirovecii types. METHODS: A transmission map was drawn up...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
E Farfour, S Dimi, C Majerholc, E Fourn, T Séné, M B Chaida, M Vasse, D Zucman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a cohort of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), followed in a tertiary hospital of the Île-de-France region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a monocentric, retrospective, and prospective study. We included symptomatic HIV-infected MSM patients who consulted for their annual consultation. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty patients were seen between 2008-2011 and 215 between 2012-2015...
September 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
A Valdes, C Cazanave, F Dabis, D Neau, D Lacoste, V Gaborieau, S Farbos, M S Dworkin
OBJECTIVE: To explore knowledge on syphilis, sexual behaviors, and attitudes in men living with HIV in southwestern France. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort of people living with HIV (PLHIV), a self-administered questionnaire was proposed to all male PLHIV attending one of the seven participating clinics between September 22 and October 24, 2014. The 15 questions explored patient knowledge about syphilis disease, attitudes, and behaviors during sexual intercourse...
September 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
Carolin Hauler, Walter Vetter
Polyhalogenated N-methylpyrroles (PMPs) are halogenated natural products (HNPs) recently detected in seagrass, blue mussels, and other marine organisms. In this study, we synthesized 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-N-methylpyrrole (Cl4-MP), 2,3,4,5-tetrabrominated-N-methylpyrrole (Br4-MP, aka TBMP), and mixed tetrahalogenated (Cl and Br) N-methylpyrrole congeners. Use of one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR verified the structures of isolated/enriched 3,4-dibromo-2,5-dichloro-N-methylpyrrole (3,4-Br2-2,5-Cl2-MP), 2,3,4-tribromo-5-chloro-N-methylpyrrole (2,3,4-Br3-5-Cl-MP), and 3-bromo-2,4,5-trichloro-N-methylpyrrole (3-Br-2,4,5-Cl3-MP)...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
James Desaegher, Sophie Nadot, Isabelle Dajoz, Bruno Colas
Urbanisation, associated with habitat fragmentation, affects pollinator communities and insect foraging behaviour. These biotic changes are likely to select for modified traits in insect-pollinated plants from urban populations compared to rural populations. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment involving four plant species commonly found in both urban and rural landscapes of the Île-de-France region (France): Cymbalaria muralis, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum and Prunella vulgaris. The four species were grown in four urban and four rural experimental sites in 2015...
September 23, 2017: Genetica
Alain Brus, Yves Perrodin
The ecotoxicological risk assessment methodologies developed up to now mainly focus on local pollution and do not incorporate an evaluation and prioritization of the different risk situations present in the same territory. This article presents the different phases of formulating an innovative methodology developed to fill this gap, and its application to all the 18 WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTP) of a geographical area located northeast of Lyon, France. The aim was also take into account emerging pollutants that are very often "forgotten" in ecotoxicological risk assessments...
September 13, 2017: Chemosphere
P Chiron, L Demoulin, K Wytrykowski, E Cavaignac, N Reina, J Murgier
BACKGROUND: In plain pelvic X-ray, magnification makes measurement unreliable. The EOS™ (EOS Imaging, Paris France) imaging system is reputed to reproduce patient anatomy exactly, with a lower radiation dose. This, however, has not been assessed according to patient weight, although both magnification and irradiation are known to vary with weight. We therefore conducted a prospective comparative study, to compare: 1) image magnification and 2) radiation dose between the EOS imaging system and plain X-ray...
September 20, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Melanie Jessup, Paul Fulbrook, Frances B Kinnear
AIM: To utilise multidisciplinary staff feedback to assess their perceptions of a novel emergency department nurse navigator role and to understand the impact of the role on the department. BACKGROUND: Prolonged emergency department stays impact patients, staff and quality of care, and are linked to increased morbidity and mortality. One innovative strategy to facilitate patient flow is the navigator: a nurse supporting staff in care delivery to enhance efficient, timely movement of patients through the department...
September 20, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
N J Prat, J-L Daban, E J Voiglio, F Rongieras
Wounds due to gunshot and explosions, while usually observed during battlefield combat, are no longer an exceptional occurrence in civilian practice in France. The principles of wound ballistics are based on the interaction between the projectile and the human body as well as the transfer of energy from the projectile to tissues. The treatment of ballistic wounds relies on several principles: extremity wound debridement and absence of initial closure, complementary medical treatment, routine immobilization, revision surgery and secondary closure...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
G Boddaert, E Hornez, H De Lesquen, A Avramenko, B Grand, T MacBride, J-P Avaro
Resuscitation thoracotomy is a rarely performed procedure whose use, in France, remains marginal. It has five specific goals that correspond point-by-point to the causes of traumatic cardiac arrest: decompression of pericardial tamponade, control of cardiac hemorrhage, performance of internal cardiac massage, cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta, and control of lung injuries and other intra-thoracic hemorrhage. This approach is part of an overall Damage Control strategy, with a targeted operating time of less than 60minutes...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Graeme Benstead-Hume, Sarah K Wooller, Frances M G Pearl
The development of improved cancer therapies is frequently cited as an urgent unmet medical need. Here we describe how genetic interactions are being therapeutically exploited to identify novel targeted treatments for cancer. We discuss the current methodologies that use 'omics data to identify genetic interactions, in particular focusing on synthetic sickness lethality (SSL) and synthetic dosage lethality (SDL). We describe the experimental and computational approaches undertaken both in humans and model organisms to identify these interactions...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Solene Doat, Sylvie Cénée, Brigitte Trétarre, Xavier Rebillard, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Jean-Pierre Bringer, François Iborra, Thibaut Murez, Marie Sanchez, Florence Menegaux
Chronic inflammation may play a role in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In that context, our objective was to investigate the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in prostate cancer risk based on the EPICAP data. EPICAP is a population-based case-control study carried out in 2012-2013 (département of Hérault, France) that enrolled 819 men aged less than 75 years old newly diagnosed for prostate cancer and 879 controls frequency matched to the cases on age. Face to face interviews gathered information on several potential risk factors including NSAIDs use...
September 21, 2017: Cancer Medicine
Steven Van Cruchten, Vanessa Vrolyk, Marie-France Perron Lepage, Marie Baudon, Hélène Voute, Sabine Schoofs, Julius Haruna, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano, Benoît Ruot, Karel Allegaert
In this review paper, literature data on pre- and postnatal eye development are compared between humans and nonclinical species that are commonly used for human safety assessment, namely, mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, minipig, and nonhuman primates. Some new data on rat and minipig ocular development are also included. This compiled information can be helpful for species selection in juvenile toxicity studies or assist in the interpretation of (non)clinical data during pediatric drug development. Despite some differences in developmental windows and anatomical peculiarities, such as the lack of a fovea centralis in nonprimate species or the presence of a nictitating membrane in some nonclinical species, the functioning and development of the eye is strikingly similar between humans and other mammals...
September 22, 2017: Birth defects research
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