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Jian Xie, Yan Feng, Ting Lin, Xiao-Yu Huang, Rui-Huan Gan, Yong Zhao, Bo-Hua Su, Lin-Can Ding, Lin She, Jiang Chen, Li-Song Lin, Xu Lin, Da-Li Zheng, You-Guang Lu
The cadherin-4 gene (CDH4) of the cadherin family encodes non-epithelial R-cadherin (R-cad); however, the function of this gene in different types of cancer remains controversial. In this study, we found higher expression of CDH4 mRNA in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line with low metastatic potential (SACC-83) than in a cell line with high metastatic potential (SACC-LM). By analyzing 67 samples of SACC tissues and 40 samples of paraneoplastic normal tissues, we found R-cad highly expressed in 100% of normal paraneoplastic tissue but only expressed in 64% of SACC tumor tissues (P<0...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Nilesh Chande, Cassandra M Townsend, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The results from controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of active Crohn's disease have been conflicting and controversial. An updated meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of these drugs for the induction of remission in active Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for induction of remission in active Crohn's disease...
October 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elisa Terracciano, Ermanno Zorzoli, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Vaccinations and the controversy around them always go in parallel. We identified four categories blending in various amounts of truth and imagination: history, myths, shams and frauds. Over the years, they have alternated and sometimes transformed into one another. This sharp separation into categories is certainly academic and forced. In fact, the line between these aspects is not clear enough to allow a rigid and well-defined division. Our work starts from the category containing the most truthfulness: history, and goes on to analyze two categories that add fantasy to facts: myths and shams (or better, "old wives' tales")...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
T Pamminger, W O H Hughes
The evolution of complex societies with obligate reproductive division of labour represents one of the major transitions in evolution. In such societies, functionally sterile individuals (workers) perform many of fitness-relevant behaviours including allomaternal ones, without getting any direct fitness benefits. The question of how such worker division of labour has evolved remains controversial. The reproductive groundplan hypothesis (RGPH) offers a powerful proximate explanation for this evolutionary leap...
October 26, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Andrew J D Nelson, Seralynne D Vann
Despite being historically one of the first brain regions linked to memory loss, there remains controversy over the core features of diencephalic amnesia as well as the critical site for amnesia to occur. The mammillary bodies and thalamus appear to be the primary locus of pathology in the cases of diencephalic amnesia, but the picture is complicated by the lack of patients with circumscribed damage. Impaired temporal memory is a consistent neuropsychological finding in Korsakoff syndrome patients, but again, it is unclear whether this deficit is attributable to pathology within the diencephalon or concomitant frontal lobe dysfunction...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Salem A Beshyah, Ibrahim H Sherif, Farida Chentli, Amir Hamrahian, Aly B Khalil, Hussein Raef, Mohamed El-Fikki, Selim Jambart
BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the commonest functional tumors of the pituitary gland. There are still controversies regarding medical therapy in specific clinical situations. Patients may be managed by different specialists in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and no data exist on patterns of clinical management. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to prolactinomas among relevant professionals from the MENA region. METHODS: An online survey of a large sample of physicians was conducted...
October 25, 2016: Pituitary
Koray Akkan, Erhan Ilgit, Baran Onal, Emetullah Cindil, Evsen Polattas Solak, Fatih Oncu, Dilan Ece Geylan
BACKGROUND: The treatment strategy and the correct incidence of near occlusion (NO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is still controversial. In routine radiological imaging NO can easily be misdiagnosed as complete occlusion and there is no consensus on the standard treatment strategy. PURPOSE: To present our perioperative and long-term follow-up results of ICA NO patients treated with carotid artery stenting (CAS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2004-2014 a total of 182 patients with ICA NO were evaluated for CAS...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Neuroradiology
William P Adams, Daniel Mckee
BACKGROUND: For primary breast augmentation, several implant selection systems have been described to guide the surgeon with choosing from a variety of manufactured implant dimensions and properties. Controversy exists regarding the most efficacious method of selecting an appropriate implant size that best matches the patient's breast. METHODS: The goal of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive list of documented implant size selection systems, and to critically evaluate them...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Tomasz Partyla, Henriette Hacker, Hardy Edinger, Bianca Leutzow, Joern Lange, Taras Usichenko
BACKGROUND: The hypoalgesic effect of electromagnetic millimeter waves (MW) is well studied in animal model; however, the results of human research are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various frequency ranges of MW on hypoalgesia using the cold pressor test (CPT). METHODS: Experimental pain was induced using standardized CPT protocols in 20 healthy male volunteers. The skin of the lower part of sternum was exposed to MW with a frequency of 42...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Young Bae Lee, Jaeho Han, Jeong Hyeon Cho, Hong Sub Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although surveillance endoscopy is recommended after the treatment of a benign gastric ulcer in Korea, improved survival, secondary to an endoscopic follow-up strategy, is controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the results of gastric ulcer surveillance endoscopy and to individualize surveillance endoscopy by analyzing known risk factors for gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 599 (M:F=424:175, median age=55.4 years) patients who were diagnosed with a gastric ulcer and who underwent follow-up endoscopy between January 2003 and August 2014 were retrospectively enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Yaacov Netanel Oded, Sergey Pogodin, Israel Agranat
Intramolecular Scholl reaction of 1-benzoylpyrene (1) gave 8H-dibenzo[def,qr]chrysen-8-one (2) and 11H-indeno[2,1-a]pyren-11-one (3) in a 1:2 ratio. The structures of 2 and 3 were determined, using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and IR spectroscopies. A DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) study of the reaction's arenium-cation mechanism of (E)-1 and (Z)-1 giving 2 and 3, respectively, indicated the reaction's regioselectivity and kinetic control. The analogous reaction of 1-(1'-naphthoyl)pyrene gave exclusively 13H-benz[4,5]indeno[2,1-a]pyren-13-one...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Manuela Merli, Concetta Torromeo, Michela Giusto, Gianna Iacovone, Oliviero Riggio, Paolo Emilio Puddu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy (CC) may interact with the clinical course of liver cirrhosis and can be implicated in the development of several complications in advanced liver disease. The best and easiest parameters which should define a condition of reduced cardiac reserve in cirrhosis are still controversial. The current study was aimed at selecting the cardiac parameters, derived by Doppler echocardiography, predictive of survival during follow-up. METHODS: The study included cirrhotic patients without cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases...
October 26, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Kun-Chun Chiang, Ta-Sen Yeh, Ren-Chin Wu, Jong-Hwei S Pang, Chi-Tung Cheng, Shang-Yu Wang, Horng-Heng Juang, Chun-Nan Yeh
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to resistance to traditional chemotherapies and radiotherapies. New therapeutic strategies against CCA are urgently needed. This study investigated the role of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in human cholangiocarcinoma as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker. So far, the role of LCN2 in cancer is still controversial and studies regarding the role of LCN2 in CCA are limited. LCN2 knockdown inhibited CCA cell growth in vitro and in vivo through induction of cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phases and decreased metastatic potential due to repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Trond Aasen, Marc Mesnil, Christian C Naus, Paul D Lampe, Dale W Laird
Fifty years ago, tumour cells were found to lack electrical coupling, leading to the hypothesis that loss of direct intercellular communication is commonly associated with cancer onset and progression. Subsequent studies linked this phenomenon to gap junctions composed of connexin proteins. Although many studies support the notion that connexins are tumour suppressors, recent evidence suggests that, in some tumour types, they may facilitate specific stages of tumour progression through both junctional and non-junctional signalling pathways...
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
G Chick, N Hollevoet, J Victor, S Bianchi
The diagnosis of nerve tumor(s) must be suspected in all cases of tumefaction or pain on the path of a nerve exacerbated by percussion. Solitary nerve tumors are primarily schwannomas, but other rare tumors may be present such as intraneural ganglion cysts of controversial origin. Preservation of nerve continuity is the underlying goal for any surgical procedure, irrespective of the type of tumor. Therapeutic outcomes are closely linked to tumor resectability; in most patients, the resectability of the tumor, its type and benignity can be predicted based on medical imaging...
October 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
A Del Sole, S Malaspina, Alberto Magenta Biasina
Neuroimaging, both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), has gained a pivotal role in the diagnosis of primary neurodegenerative diseases. These two techniques are used as biomarkers of both pathology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative diseases. MRI is able to identify structural changes including patterns of atrophy characterizing neurodegenerative diseases, and to distinguish these from other causes of cognitive impairment, e...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
Yoshiya Horimoto, Takuo Hayashi, Atsushi Arakawa
Several aspects of the article by Morita et al. (Cancer Medicine 5:1607-18, 2016), examining the spontaneous healing phenomenon with reference to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), require clarification. The concept of "healing", which can perhaps be more accurately termed "regressive change", remains controversial due to a lack of concrete evidence. Since regressive change is characterized by fibrosis and lymphocytes, a cancer nest that appears to lack a distinct basement membrane, surrounded only by lymphocytes, as in Morita et al's Figure 2F, should be meticulously examined because the appearance may correspond to a tumor having just completed the process of invasion...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Alexander O Vargas, Quirin Krabichler, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Paul Kammerer was the most outstanding neo-Lamarckian experimentalist of the early 20th century. He reported spectacular results in the midwife toad, including crosses of environmentally modified toads with normal toads, where acquired traits were inherited in Mendelian fashion. Accusations of fraud generated a great scandal, ending with Kammerer's suicide. Controversy reignited in the 1970s, when journalist Arthur Koestler argued against these accusations. Since then, others have argued that Kammerer's results, even if real, were not groundbreaking and could be explained by somatic plasticity, inadvertent selection, or conventional genetics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Kirsty Dunn, J Gavin Bremner
Accumulated looking time has been widely used to index violation of expectation (VoE) response in young infants. But there is controversy concerning the validity of this measure, with some interpreting infant looking behaviour in terms of perceptual preferences (Cohen & Marks, ; Haith, ). The current study aimed to compare the use of looking time with a recently used measure of social looking (Walden et al., ) in distinguishing between 6-month-old infants' response to novelty/familiarity and a condition in which the object was covertly switched for a different object...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Science
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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