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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328977/skin-lightening-practices-among-female-high-school-students-in-ghana
#1
M Osei, M Ali, A Owusu, F Baiden
OBJECTIVE: The practice of skin lightening (SL) persist despite warnings about its harmful health effects. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and at risk of prolonged use of SL products. We explored SL practices among high school students in Ghana, West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We used a self-administered questionnaire in a survey on SL practices among randomly selected female students in five Senior High Schools in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana...
January 9, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324997/skin-lighteners-and-hair-relaxers-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer-results-from-the-ghana-breast-health-study
#2
Louise A Brinton, Jonine D Figueroa, Daniel Ansong, Kofi M Nyarko, Seth Wiafe, Joel Yarney, Richard Biritwum, Michelle Brotzman, Jake E Thistle, Ernest Adjei, Francis Aitpillah, Florence Dedey, Lawrence Edusei, Nicholas Titiloye, Baffour Awuah, Joe Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Beatrice Wiafe-Addai, Verna Vanderpuye
Skin lighteners and hair relaxers, both common among women of African descent, have been suggested as possibly affecting breast cancer risk. In Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, we collected detailed information on usage patterns of both exposures among 1,131 invasive breast cancer cases and 2,106 population-controls. Multivariate analyses estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors. Control usage was 25.8% for ever use of skin lighteners and 90.0% for use of hair relaxers for >1 year...
January 6, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320596/double-blind-placebo-controlled-evaluation-of-a-novel-skin-lightening-agent
#3
James M Spencer, Julianna Accioly, Neal Kitchen
Melasma remains a troubling problem for physicans and patients alike. It is a chronic irregular, symmetric hyperpigmentation seen most often in women. In this study, a unique combination of ingredients with non-irritating properties was tested for treatment of melasma. In a double blind, placebo controlled, split face trial, 17 patients with melasma were treated on one half of the face, left or right, while the other received placebo control. All patients used sunscreen on both sides. Measurement with a colorimeter (Mexameter) was taken at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily use...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319217/the-science-behind-skin-care-moisturizers
#4
REVIEW
Zoe D Draelos
Moisturizers provide functional skin benefits, such as making the skin smooth and soft, increasing skin hydration, and improving skin optical characteristics; however, moisturizers also function as vehicles to deliver ingredients to the skin. These ingredients may be vitamins, botanical antioxidants, peptides, skin-lightening agents, botanical anti-inflammatories, or exfoliants. This discussion covers the science of moisturizers.
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316744/anti-pigmentation-effect-of-phellinus-linteus-fermented-eight-traditional-crude-herbalextracts-in-brown-guinea-pigsof-ultraviolet-b-uvb-induced-hyperpigmentation
#5
Hee-Young Ahn, Young-Moo Choo, Young-Su Cho
We have previously found that mycelia culture broth of eight kinds of traditional herbal extracts fermented with Phellinus linteus (previously named as 8-HsPLCB) not only inhibited melanin and tyrosinase activity, but also reduced the contents of melanogenesis-related proteins including tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in 3- isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated B16F0 melanoma cells. For a further study, the effect of 8-HsPLCB against skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation was investigated...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313234/specific-features-of-immediate-ultrastructural-changes-in-brain-cortex-mitochondria-of-rats-with-different-tolerance-to-hypoxia-under-various-modes-of-hypoxic-exposures
#6
L L Pavlik, I B Mikheeva, Ya M Al'-Mugkhrabi, V P Berest, Yu I Kirova, E L Germanova, L D Luk'yanova, G D Mironova
We performed ultrastructural study of cerebral cortex mitochondria in rats with different tolerance to oxygen deficiency (low resistant and highly resistant specimens). Low resistant rats were characterized by the prevalence of mitochondria with lightened matrix due to the nondense packing of cristae. By contrast, mitochondria of highly resistant animals had the dense packing of cristae. The structure of mitochondria underwent adaptive changes at 14-10% O2 in the inspired air. Under these conditions, structural characteristics of the cerebral cortex in hypoxia-sensitive rats resembled those in resistant animals...
January 8, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291194/the-evaluation-of-total-mercury-and-arsenic-in-skin-bleaching-creams-commonly-used-in-trinidad-and-tobago-and-their-potential-risk-to-the-people-of-the-caribbean
#7
Terry Mohammed, Elisabeth Mohammed, Shermel Bascombe
Background. Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one's potential of being successful. Design and Methods. Fifteen (15) common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS) and Arsenic by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HGAAS)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289230/note-hybrid-active-passive-force-feedback-actuator-using-hydrostatic-transmission
#8
Yea-Seok Park, Juwon Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun Kim
A hybrid actuator for haptic devices is proposed in this paper. The actuator is composed of a DC motor and a magneto-rheological (MR) brake to realize transparency and stable force control. Two piston cylinders are connected with a flexible tube to lighten the weight of the structures on the endpoint that interacts with an operator. Also, the MR brake is designed to be suitable for hydraulic transmission. For the proposed hybrid actuator, a cooperative force control method using a pressure sensor instead of a force sensor is proposed...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243893/preliminary-appraisal-of-clinical-drug-trials-is-changing
#9
Outi Konttinen, Ulla Närhi
The EU Clinical Trials Regulation will change the preliminary appraisal of trials and lighten the bureaucracy. Routines of the member states will be standardized, processing of applications provided with tighter time limits, and the licensing procedure made more flexible by using a common European portal. At the same time, definitions will be provided for low intervention trials subject to more flexible rules of follow-up, requirements of master file content, and traceability of test drugs. Implementation of the regulation depends on the completion of the EU portal, currently estimated to take place in the autumn of 2018...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237936/characteristics-of-mercury-intoxication-induced-by-skin-lightening-products
#10
Gui-Fang Sun, Wen-Tao Hu, Zhi-Hao Yuan, Bo-Ai Zhang, Hong Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232889/preparation-characterization-and-biological-activities-of-topical-anti-aging-ingredients-in-a-citrus-junos-callus-extract
#11
Deepak Adhikari, Vijay Kumar Panthi, Rudra Pangeni, Hyun Jung Kim, Jin Woo Park
In this study, we prepared and characterized a callus extract from Citrus junos and assessed its utility as a source of topical anti-aging ingredients. Callus extract was produced by aqueous extraction from Citrus junos grown on Murashige and Skoog medium with picloram as a growth regulator. After measuring the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the major phenolic compound in calli was identified as p-hydroxycinnamoylmalic acid (1) by spectroscopic analysis. The total phenol content in the extract was determined to be 24...
December 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230271/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-decreased-acetylcholinesterase-activity-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-of-the-diaphragm-during-sepsis
#12
Hua Liu, Jin Wu, Jun-Yan Yao, Hong Wang, Shi-Tong Li
Our recent study demonstrated that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of the diaphragm decreased during sepsis. However, the mechanisms were not clearly identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the decreased AChE activity was related to oxidative stress by observing AChE activity in different grades of sepsis induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At 24 h after surgery, an assay of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyls, as well as the myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity, was conducted...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220598/hope-for-the-future-but-fear-the-risk-of-stigma-ethiopian-family-caregivers-lived-experience-of-caring-for-their-hiv-positive-child-two-years-after-starting-antiretroviral-treatment
#13
Mulatu Biru, Pia Lunqvist, Mitikie Molla, Degu Jerene, Inger Hallström
Family caregivers are believed to be the primary source of support for HIV-affected children. There is limited evidence about practices of support for caregivers, to strengthen them and to enhance the welfare of HIV positive children, especially in African settings. Our aim was therefore to illuminate caregivers' lived experiences of caring for a child in Ethiopia 2 years after the child was enrolled in antiretroviral therapy. Qualitative interviews with 18 family caregivers of 18 children were performed and analyzed using an inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach...
December 8, 2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200759/increased-skin-irritation-by-hydroquinone-and-rsetinoic-acid-used-in-combination
#14
Gwang Hoon Kim, Kyung Ah Cheong, Ai-Young Lee
Background: Hydroquinone (HQ) is frequently combined with retinoic acid (RA) to enhance lightening efficacy, which may also affect skin irritancy. Although skin irritation leads to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, little research has been performed to compare skin irritancy between each component and the combination. Objective: This study was done to examine whether HQ-RA combination increased skin irritation induced by HQ or RA alone. Methods: Patch testing was performed using maximum therapeutic and higher concentrations of HQ and RA in 10 volunteers, and then, it was performed using their popular therapeutic concentrations and combination in the other 20 volunteers...
December 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200686/an-investigation-of-bayes-algorithm-and-neural-networks-for-identifying-the-breast-cancer
#15
E Udayakumar, S Santhi, P Vetrivelan
Context: Breast cancer is a biggest threat to women. X-ray mammography is the most effective method for early detection and screening of breast cancer. It is a tough challenge for the radiologist in reading mammography since it does not provide consistent result every time. Aim: To improve the primary sign of this disease, computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed. Using monitor, digital images of mammography are displayed and they can be lightened or darkened before they are printed on the film...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200257/hexagonal-vs2-anchored-mwcnts-first-approach-to-design-flexible-solid-state-symmetric-supercapacitor-device
#16
Bidhan Pandit, Swapnil S Karade, Babasaheb R Sankapal
Transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) embedded with carbon network is gaining much courtesy due to high power capability which can be easily integrated to portable electronic devices. Facile chemical route has been explored to synthesize hexagonal structured VS2 nanoparticles onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) matrix. Such surface modified VS2/MWCNTs electrode has boosted the electrochemical performance to reach high capacitance to 830 F/g and excellent stability to 95.9 % over 10000 cycles. Designed flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device (FSSD) with a wide voltage window of 1...
December 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193788/efficacy-and-safety-of-topical-depigmenting-agent-in-healthy-human-fair-skin-female-volunteers-a-single-arm-study
#17
Saurabh Shah, Soon-Keong Chew
BACKGROUND: Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. METHODS: This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191617/pulmonary-sclerosing-pneumocytoma-did-lightening-just-strike-twice
#18
EDITORIAL
Ihab Alshelli, Eric J Seeley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188141/the-relationship-between-egg-size-and-helper-number-in-cooperative-breeders-a-meta-analysis-across-species
#19
Tanmay Dixit, Sinead English, Dieter Lukas
Background: Life history theory predicts that mothers should adjust reproductive investment depending on benefits of current reproduction and costs of reduced future reproductive success. These costs and benefits may in turn depend on the breeding female's social environment. Cooperative breeders provide an ideal system to test whether changes in maternal investment are associated with the social conditions mothers experience. As alloparental helpers assist in offspring care, larger groups might reduce reproductive costs for mothers or alternatively indicate attractive conditions for reproduction...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183309/assessment-of-the-effects-of-skin-microneedling-as-adjuvant-therapy-for-facial-melasma-a-pilot-study
#20
Emerson V A Lima, Mariana Modesto D A Lima, Mauricio Pedreira Paixão, Hélio Amante Miot
BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. METHODS: Open pilot trial including six women with facial refractory melasma submitted to two sessions of microneedling (1...
November 28, 2017: BMC Dermatology
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