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Bridget L Ryan, Joshua Shadd, Heather Maddocks, Moira Stewart, Amardeep Thind, Amanda L Terry
  A referral from a family physician (FP) to a specialist is an inflection point in the patient journey, with potential implications for clinical outcomes and health policy. Primary care electronic medical record (EMR) databases offer opportunities to examine referral patterns. Until recently, software techniques were not available to model these kinds of multi-level count data. OBJECTIVE:  To establish methodology for determining referral rates from FPs to medical specialists using the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) EMR database...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Daniel J Scott, Natalie J Gunn, Kelvin J Yong, Verena C Wimmer, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Leesa M Challis, Mouna Haidar, Steven Petrou, Ross A D Bathgate, Michael D W Griffin
Recent advances in thick tissue clearing are enabling high resolution, volumetric fluorescence imaging of complex cellular networks. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) such as GFP, however, can be inactivated by the denaturing chemicals used to remove lipids in some tissue clearing methods. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a recently engineered ultra-stable GFP (usGFP) and propose that the two stabilising mutations, Q69L and N164Y, act to improve hydrophobic packing in the core of the protein and facilitate hydrogen bonding networks at the surface, respectively...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isao Takayanagi, Norio Yoshimura, Kazuya Mori, Shinichiro Matsuo, Shunsuke Tanaka, Hirofumi Abe, Naoto Yasuda, Kenichiro Ishikawa, Shunsuke Okura, Shinji Ohsawa, Toshinori Otaka
To respond to the high demand for high dynamic range imaging suitable for moving objects with few artifacts, we have developed a single-exposure dynamic range image sensor by introducing a triple-gain pixel and a low noise dual-gain readout circuit. The developed 3 μm pixel is capable of having three conversion gains. Introducing a new split-pinned photodiode structure, linear full well reaches 40 ke-. Readout noise under the highest pixel gain condition is 1 e- with a low noise readout circuit. Merging two signals, one with high pixel gain and high analog gain, and the other with low pixel gain and low analog gain, a single exposure dynamic rage (SEHDR) signal is obtained...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
Alberto J Pérez, Rolando J González-Peña, Roberto Braga, Ángel Perles, Eva Pérez-Marín, Fernando J García-Diego
Dynamic laser speckle (DLS) is used as a reliable sensor of activity for all types of materials. Traditional applications are based on high-rate captures (usually greater than 10 frames-per-second, fps). Even for drying processes in conservation treatments, where there is a high level of activity in the first moments after the application and slower activity after some minutes or hours, the process is based on the acquisition of images at a time rate that is the same in moments of high and low activity. In this work, we present an alternative approach to track the drying process of protective layers and other painting conservation processes that take a long time to reduce their levels of activity...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
Kimbroe J Carter, Frank Castro, Roy N Morcos
OBJECTIVE: The debate over the value of screening mammography is rekindled with each new published study or guideline. Central to the discussion are the uncertainties about screening benefits and harms and the criteria used to assess them. Today, the magnitude of benefits for a population is less certain, and the evolving concept of harm has come to encompass false-positives (FPs), unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment. This study uses a Monte Carlo computer simulation to study the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic breast cancer screening for average-risk women...
January 11, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Enrique Balleza, J Mark Kim, Philippe Cluzel
The slow maturation time of fluorescent proteins (FPs) limits the temporal accuracy of measurements of rapid processes such as gene expression dynamics and effectively reduces fluorescence signal in growing cells. We used high-precision time-lapse microscopy to characterize the maturation kinetics of 50 FPs that span the visible spectrum at two different temperatures in Escherichia coli cells. We identified fast-maturing FPs from this set that yielded the highest signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution in individual growing cells...
January 2018: Nature Methods
Hajime Shinoda, Yuanqing Ma, Ryosuke Nakashima, Keisuke Sakurai, Tomoki Matsuda, Takeharu Nagai
The fluorescent protein (FP) color palette has greatly contributed to the visualization of molecular and cellular processes. However, most FPs lose fluorescence at a pH lower than their neutral pKa (∼6), and this has hampered their application in acidic organelles (pH ∼4.5-6.0). Currently, several cyan- and red-colored acid-tolerant FPs are available; however, there are few reports of acid-tolerant green FPs (GFPs) that are practically applicable to bioimaging. Here, we developed the acid-tolerant monomeric GFP "Gamillus" from the jellyfish Olindias formosa, with excellent brightness, maturation speed, and photostability...
December 23, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
Yosuke Miyaji, Yuki Hatanaka, Mana Higashihara, Takamichi Kanbayashi, Fumiaki Tanaka, Masahiro Sonoo
OBJECTIVE: The positive correlation between fasciculation potentials (FPs) and decremental responses in repetitive nerve stimulation test (RNS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients has been described based on only one past study. We revisited this issue. METHODS: Subjects consisted of 30 prospectively-enrolled ALS patients on whom both needle EMG and RNS were conducted in the same trapezius muscle. Fasciculation potentials (FPs) were identified off-line from the restored 3-min signal...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Ruben D Costa, Verónica Fernández-Luna, Pedro Coto
Over the last decades, fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been extensively employed for imaging and tracing in cell-biology and medicine. However, their application for lighting devices like light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers has recently started. The interest of FPs lies on their good photoluminescence features (high emission efficiency with a narrow spectrum and a high photon flux saturation), good photostability, low-cost production via bacteria, and eco-friendly recycling. The low stability at high temperatures as well as the need of an aqueous environment have, however, strongly limited their use in optoelectronics...
December 30, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Malte Renz, Christian Wunder
Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (PA-FPs) have been widely used to assess the dynamics of cell biological processes. In addition, PA-FPs enabled single-molecule based super-resolution imaging (photoactivated localization microscopy) and thereby provided unprecedented structural insight. For the lack of tools, however, the fraction of PA-FPs that is, actually being switched on to fluoresce, that is, the photoactivation efficiency, has been difficult to assess. Uncertainty about photoactivation efficiency has hampered an understanding of the absolute amount of PA-FPs, that is, being examined...
December 29, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Sheng Wang, Miao Ding, Boxin Xue, Yingping Hou, Yujie Sun
As one of the most powerful tools to visualize PPIs in living cells, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) has gained great advancement during the recent years, including deep tissue imaging with far-red or near-infrared fluorescent proteins or super-resolution imaging with photochromic fluorescent proteins. However, little progress has been made towards simultaneous detection and visualization of multiple PPIs in the same cell, mainly due to the spectral crosstalk. In this report, we developed novel BiFC assays based on large-Stokes-shift fluorescent proteins (LSS-FPs) to detect and visualize multiple PPIs in living cells...
December 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Ardil Jabar, Tolu Oni, Mark E Engel, Nemanja Cvetkovic, Richard Matzopoulos
The establishment of violence and injury observatories elsewhere has been found to reduce the burden within a relatively short period. Currently no integrated system exists in South Africa to provide collated data on violence, to allow for targeted interventions and routine monitoring and evaluation.This research seeks to identify if bringing multiple data sources, including but not limited to data from the South African Police Service (SAPS), Forensic Pathology Services (FPS), Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and local hospital clinical databases, together are (1) feasible; (2) able to generate data for action, that is valid, reliable and robust and (3) able to lead to interventions...
December 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Danting Zhan, Ling Guo, Lige Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To observe if inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) promotes proliferation and repair of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) stimulated by high glucose. In addition, we also discuss the effects of the NF-κB signaling pathway in relation to this process. METHODS: Primary cultured hPDLFs were exposed to either low glucose (5.5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L), and RAGE expression was measured by Western blot analysis...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Kyleigh E Schraeder, Judith Belle Brown, Graham J Reid
Children's mental health (CMH) problems often recur. Following specialized mental health treatment, youth may require monitoring and follow-up. For these youth, primary health care is highly relevant, as family physicians (FPs) are the only professionals who follow patients across the lifespan. The current study gained multiple perspectives about (1) the role of FPs in caring for youth with ongoing/recurring CMH problems and (2) incorporating routine mental health monitoring into primary health care. A total of 33 interviews were conducted, including 10 youth (aged 12-15) receiving CMH care, 10 parents, 10 CMH providers, and 3 FPs...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Mohammad Reza Heydari, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohamma Hadi Imanieh, Homataj Baghi, Mohammad Javad Lolia
Background: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran has developed a new version of health urban posts called Urban Community Health Center (UCHC) with primary aim of improving primary health care (PHC) in urban areas. The aim of present study was to evaluate this newly developed model of UCHC in Ghaleno, a suburban region of Shiraz, Iran in 2014. Methods: Besides descriptive analysis of foregoing model and considering its goal, plan, and dimensions, a qualitative study was carried out using in-depth interview with four managers of this model in Ghaleo region as well as the family physicians (FPs) of the model...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Robert T A Willemsen, Michelle M A Kip, Hendrik Koffijberg, Ron Kusters, Frank Buntinx, Jan F C Glatz, Geert Jan Dinant
The objective of the paper is to estimate the number of patients presenting with chest pain suspected of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in primary care and to calculate possible cost effects of a future clinical decision rule (CDR) incorporating a point-of-care test (PoCT) as compared with current practice. The annual incidence of chest pain, referrals and ACS in primary care was estimated based on a literature review and on a Dutch and Belgian registration study. A health economic model was developed to calculate the potential impact of a future CDR on costs and effects (ie, correct referral decisions), in several scenarios with varying correct referral decisions...
December 18, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Hao Wang, Fang Chen, Yi-Feng Du, Yan Long, Miranda N Reed, Mei Hu, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Hao Hong, Su-Su Tang
AIMS: To investigate restorative effects of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-specific inhibitor FPS-ZM1 on abnormal amyloid (Aβ) influx across the blood brain-barrier (BBB) and cognitive deficits in db/db mice. METHODS: Aβ influx across the BBB was determined by intra-arterial infusion of 125I-Aβ1-40. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Aβ, NF-κB p65, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PSD-95 and synaptophysin were assayed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry or RT-PCR...
December 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
M Echternach, F Burk, F Rose, C T Herbst, M Burdumy, M Döllinger, B Richter
BACKGROUND: The influence of functional mass lesions on vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocally challenging tasks is not yet understood in detail. MATERIALS UND METHODS: Glissandi on the vowel [a:] from 220 to 440 Hz and 440 to 880 Hz were analyzed in three groups of four professional female singers: without a mass lesion or dysphony (group A), with a functional mass lesion (swellings without a great impact on oscillation patterns during stroboscopy; group B), and with organic dysphony (group C)...
December 15, 2017: HNO
Meng-Chang Ko, Ming-Chung Lee, Tso-Hao Tang, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Maria A Tikhonova, Yi-Ling Yang, Kwok-Tung Lu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Administration of bumetanide has anxiolytic effects in rat models of conditioned fear. As a loop diuretic, bumetanide may act as an anxiolytic by modulating GABAergic synaptic transmission through the antagonism of cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs). Its clinical potential for the treatment of anxiety disorders deserves further investigation. In this study, we evaluated the possible role of the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) in the anxiolytic effect of bumetanide...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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