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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107636/visceral-white-adipose-tissue-following-chronic-intermittent-and-sustained-hypoxia-in-mice
#1
David Gozal, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Rene Cortese, Yan Li, Isaac Almendros, Zhuanhong Qiao, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Jorge Andrade, Abdelnaby Khalyfa
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, a process induced by hypoxia in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) in the context of obesity, mediates obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH) induce body weight reductions and insulin resistance of differing magnitude, suggesting different HIF-1α-related activity. METHODS: 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice (n=10-12/group) were exposed to either IH, SH,or room air (RA)...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097901/skin-whitening-agents-medicinal-chemistry-perspective-of-tyrosinase-inhibitors
#2
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Manoj Manickam, Vigneshwaran Namasivayam
Melanogenesis is a process to synthesize melanin, which is a primary responsible for the pigmentation of human skin, eye and hair. Although numerous enzymatic catalyzed and chemical reactions are involved in melanogenesis process, the enzymes such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 played a major role in melanin synthesis. Specifically, tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of the melanin synthesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent approach for the development of melanogenesis inhibitors...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091877/influence-of-enamel-dentin-thickness-on-the-toxic-and-esthetic-effects-of-experimental-in-office-bleaching-protocols
#3
C C de Oliveira Duque, D G Soares, F G Basso, J Hebling, C A de Souza Costa
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to assess the whitening effectiveness and toxicity of tooth-bleaching protocols applied to enamel/dentin disks simulating mandibular incisors (ICs) and premolars (PMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gel was applied for 3 × 15, 1 × 15, or 1 × 5 min to enamel/dentin disks simulating mandibular ICs and PMs, and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal diffusion products were applied to human dental pulp cells (1 h)...
January 14, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068974/an-in-vitro-screening-assay-for-dental-stain-cleaning
#4
Changxiang Wang, Robert Lucas, Anthony J Smith, Paul R Cooper
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to develop an in vitro model for stain removal from natural enamel for the assessment and comparison of oral hygiene products. METHODS: Bovine teeth (n = 8 per group) were ground/polished to provide flat enamel specimens and ferric-tannate deposits were precipitated onto the enamel surfaces. The ferric-tannate stained enamel specimens were brushed using an in vitro tooth-brushing simulator with slurries containing commercially available toothpaste products, dental abrasive particles, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) solutions of different concentrations...
January 9, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068263/chemical-burn-to-the-gingiva-after-misuse-of-an-over-the-counter-oral-whitening-mouthwash
#5
John K Brooks
A well-recognized consequence of the use of tooth whitening gels and strips, particularly prescription strength formulations, is gingival irritation and tooth sensitivity. Limited information is available in the literature on the risk of gingival chemical burns associated with over-the-counter (OTC) oral whitening rinses. This case report details the development of gingival chemical burns consequent to misuse of a whitening rinse. The affected patient had rinsed for 30 seconds daily for 3-4 days but had failed to rinse with water after usage, as specified by the manufacturer...
January 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065215/a-comparative-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-the-cultural-cognition-of-humans-and-other-apes
#6
Andrew Whiten
The comparative and evolutionary analysis of social learning and all manner of cultural processes has become a flourishing field. Applying the 'comparative method' to such phenomena allows us to exploit the good fortunate we have in being able to study them in satisfying detail in our living primate relatives, using the results to reconstruct the cultural cognition of the ancestral forms we share with these species. Here I offer an overview of principal discoveries in recent years, organized through a developing scheme that targets three main dimensions of culture: the patterning of culturally transmitted traditions in time and space; the underlying social learning processes; and the particular behavioral and psychological contents of cultures...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060136/purtscher-like-retinopathy-associated-with-adult-onset-still-disease
#7
Ralph Yachoui
PURPOSE: To describe clinical, laboratory, and funduscopic data of a patient presenting with newly diagnosed adult-onset Still disease and Purtscher-like retinopathy. METHODS: Observational case report. PATIENT: A 43-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of daily high-spiking fever, diffuse arthralgia and myalgia, sore throat, and a transient nonpruritic maculopapular rash. Two weeks from the onset of his illness, he developed a gradual decrease in visual acuity in both eyes...
January 2, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052295/in-vitro-dermal-absorption-of-hydroquinone-protocol-validation-and-applicability-on-illegal-skin-whitening-cosmetics
#8
Bart Desmedt, Gamze Ates, Patricia Courselle, Jacques O De Beer, Vera Rogiers, Benoit Hendrickx, Eric Deconinck, Kristien De Paepe
In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Dermal absorption studies can provide this information. In the EU, dermal absorption has to be assessed in vitro since the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009/EC forbids the use of animals. To obtain human-relevant data, a Franz diffusion cell protocol was validated using human skin...
January 5, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051932/social-learning-and-culture-in-child-and-chimpanzee
#9
Andrew Whiten
A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051915/alisol-b-a-triterpene-from-alismatis-rhizoma-dried-rhizome-of-alisma-orientale-inhibits-melanin-production-in-murine-b16-melanoma-cells
#10
Ichiro Yoshida, Chihiro Ito, Shinya Matsuda, Akihiko Tsuji, Noriyuki Yanaka, Keizo Yuasa
To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of alisol B on melanogenesis...
January 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034660/social-learning-culture-and-the-socio-cultural-brain-of-human-and-non-human-primates
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Whiten, Erica van de Waal
Noting important recent discoveries, we review primate social learning, traditions and culture, together with associated findings about primate brains. We survey our current knowledge of primate cultures in the wild, and complementary experimental diffusion studies testing species' capacity to sustain traditions. We relate this work to theories that seek to explain the enlarged brain size of primates as specializations for social intelligence, that have most recently extended to learning from others and the cultural transmission this permits...
December 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032639/the-development-of-selective-copying-children-s-learning-from-an-expert-versus-their-mother
#12
Amanda J Lucas, Emily R R Burdett, Vanessa Burgess, Lara A Wood, Nicola McGuigan, Paul L Harris, Andrew Whiten
This study tested the prediction that, with age, children should rely less on familiarity and more on expertise in their selective social learning. Experiment 1 (N = 50) found that 5- to 6-year-olds copied the technique their mother used to extract a prize from a novel puzzle box, in preference to both a stranger and an established expert. This bias occurred despite children acknowledging the expert model's superior capability. Experiment 2 (N = 50) demonstrated a shift in 7- to 8-year-olds toward copying the expert...
December 29, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025128/potential-pitfalls-when-denoising-resting-state-fmri-data-using-nuisance-regression
#13
Molly G Bright, Christopher R Tench, Kevin Murphy
In resting state fMRI, it is necessary to remove signal variance associated with noise sources, leaving cleaned fMRI time-series that more accurately reflect the underlying intrinsic brain fluctuations of interest. This is commonly achieved through nuisance regression, in which the fit is calculated of a noise model of head motion and physiological processes to the fMRI data in a General Linear Model, and the "cleaned" residuals of this fit are used in further analysis. We examine the statistical assumptions and requirements of the General Linear Model, and whether these are met during nuisance regression of resting state fMRI data...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009773/iatrogenic-occlusion-of-the-ophthalmic-artery-after-sodium-tetradecyl-sulfate-injection-in-the-forehead
#14
Daniel D Esmaili
PURPOSE: To describe a patient with ophthalmic artery occlusion after sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam injection in the forehead. METHODS: In this case report, a description of the clinical examination and imaging findings, including fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography are reported. RESULTS: A 33-year-old white woman presented with severe painless vision loss in the left eye after cosmetic treatment of a forehead vein with sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam...
January 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975413/combination-of-fcpc-and-nmr-for-the-activity-guided-isolation-of-skin-whitening-natural-agents
#15
V I Boka, E Chaita, K Stathopoulou, D Benaki, M Sani, H Schäfer, M Spraul, N Aligiannis, E Mikros, A L Skaltsounis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943624/temporal-cross-correlation-between-influenza-like-illnesses-and-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-netherlands
#16
Wilke Hendriks, Hendriek Boshuizen, Arnold Dekkers, Mirjam Knol, Ge A Donker, Arie van der Ende, Hester Korthals Altes
BACKGROUND: While the burden of community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is still considerable, there is little insight in the factors contributing to disease. Previous research on the lagged relationship between respiratory viruses and pneumococcal disease incidence is inconclusive, and studies correcting for temporal autocorrelation are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal relation between influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and IPD, correcting for temporal autocorrelation...
December 10, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917575/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-a-new-topical-nitric-zinc-preparation-for-difficult-to-treat-warts
#17
Camila K Janniger, Robert A Schwartz
Treating plantar, periungual, and external genital warts can be challenging. A prospective study from four centers in Italy evaluated 37 immunocompetent patients with single or multiple warts and treated each lesion with a nitric-zinc topical solution composed of organic and inorganic acids meant to devitalize tissue and destroy HPV DNA in infected keratinocytes. Thirty of the 37 patients had external genital warts, two had plantar warts, two had palm and finger warts, and three had subungual warts for a total of 55 lesions treated...
December 5, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913279/a-randomised-clinical-in-situ-study-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-novel-low-abrasivity-anti-sensitivity-dentifrices-on-dentine-wear
#18
J Seong, C Hall, S Young, C Parkinson, E Macdonald, S Bodfel Jones, N X West
OBJECTIVES: To compare the abrasive wear on human dentine in an in situ model associated with use of an experimental low abrasivity anti-sensitivity dentifrice containing 1% alumina and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) with an experimental ultra-low abrasivity non-alumina 5% STP dentifrice, a higher abrasivity daily-use whitening dentifrice, and water as controls. METHODS: This was a single-centre, single-blind, randomised, split-mouth, four-treatment, two-period, crossover in situ study in 29 healthy subjects...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912751/anti-aging-and-tyrosinase-inhibition-effects-of-cassia-fistula-flower-butanolic-extract
#19
Pornngarm Limtrakul, Supachai Yodkeeree, Pilaiporn Thippraphan, Wanisa Punfa, Jatupol Srisomboon
BACKGROUND: Natural products made from plant sources have been used in a variety of cosmetic applications as a source of nutrition and as a whitening agent. The flowers of Cassia fistula L, family Fabaceae, have been used as a traditional medicine for skin diseases and wound healing and have been reported to possess anti-oxidant properties. The anti-aging effect of C. fistula flower extract on human skin fibroblast was investigated. METHODS: The butanolic extraction of C...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904077/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-derivatives-of-cysteine-for-suppressing-eumelanin-production
#20
Yusuke Amino, Yoshinobu Takino, Megumi Kaneko, Fumie Ookura, Mai Yamamoto, Tatsuki Kashiwagi, Keiji Iwasaki
In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Herein, N-acetyl-2-methylthiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid ethyl ester (AcCP2Et) was proposed as a candidate for a stable and prolonged-release derivative of Cys to inhibit dopachrome formation after its degradation in melanocytes...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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