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Therapy of spinal cord injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919982/effective-management-of-spasticity-and-impacts-on-weight-change-and-resting-energy-expenditure-in-a-female-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#1
Amy N Nevin, Khanh Nguyen, Sridhar Atresh, Angela Vivanti, Ingrid J Hickman
INTRODUCTION: The impact of muscle spasticity on weight change and energy expenditure after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study reports changes to body weight and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a 36-year-old female (T3 AIS A SCI; 80 kg; body mass index=28 kg m(-)(2) at injury) requiring escalating therapies to manage severe spasticity. Body weight, spasticity medications and fasted REE (measured using indirect calorimetry, canopy hood) were recorded at 4, 16, 17, 20 and 44 months post injury...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901182/effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-msc-transplantation-on-functional-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-comparisons-of-transplant-locations-and-cell-concentrations
#2
Jessica J Matyas, Andrew N Stewart, Alison Goldsmith, Zhenhong Nan, Reid L Skeel, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a widely disabling condition, constraining those affected by it to wheelchairs and requiring intense daily care and assistance. Cell replacement therapies, targeting regeneration of cells in the injured cord, are currently gaining momentum in the field of SCI research. Previous studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can reduce functional deficits through immunomodulation and production of trophic factors in a variety of neurological disorders. The present study assessed the efficacy of transplanted bone marrow-derived MSCs at different concentrations and locations for promoting functional recovery following SCI...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900844/a-pilot-study-on-the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cell-free-dna-in-intramedullary-spinal-ependymoma
#3
Ian David Connolly, Yingmei Li, Wenying Pan, Eli Johnson, Linya You, Hannes Vogel, John Ratliff, Melanie Hayden Gephart
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represents a promising source of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for tumors of the central nervous system. A CSF-based liquid biopsy may obviate the need for riskier tissue biopsies and serve as a means for monitoring tumor recurrence or response to therapy. Spinal ependymomas most commonly occur in adults, and aggressive resection must be delicately balanced with the risk of injury to adjacent normal tissue. In patients with subtotal resection, recurrence commonly occurs. A CSF-based liquid biopsy matched to the patient's spinal ependymoma mutation profile has potential to be more sensitive then surveillance MRI, but the utility has not been well characterized for tumors of the spinal cord...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900263/physicochemical-stability-and-transfection-efficiency-of-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-pdna-polyplexes-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#4
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Sooneon Bae, Noah Cecil, Jeoung Soo Lee
Multiple age-related and injury-induced characteristics of the adult central nervous system (CNS) pose barriers to axonal regeneration and functional recovery following injury. In situ gene therapy is a promising approach to address the limited availability of growth-promoting biomolecules at CNS injury sites. The ultimate goal of our work is to develop, a cationic amphiphilic copolymer for simultaneous delivery of drug and therapeutic nucleic acids to promote axonal regeneration and plasticity after spinal cord injury...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893706/hypertension-acute-stent-thrombosis-and-paraplegia-6-months-after-tevar-for-blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury-in-a-22-year-old-patient
#5
O Martinelli, F Faccenna, A Malaj, J Jabbour, S Venosi, R Gattuso, B Gossetti, L Irace
TEVAR is a less invasive option for managing traumatic injuries of the descending aorta in polytraumatized patients. Concerns arise when treating young patients with TEVAR. A 22-year old male was admitted to the Emergency Department following a high-impact road traffic collision. Whole body CT scan documented multiple injuries, including rupture of descending thoracic aorta just below the isthmus. There was no evidence of paraplegia or stroke. We decided to treat him in an endovascular fashion with a Zenith Cook (Cook Incorporated, Bloomington, IN) endograft...
September 8, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884834/transplantation-of-hypoxic-preconditioned-neural-stem-cells-benefits-functional-recovery-via-enhancing-neurotrophic-secretion-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#6
Wei-Li Fan, Peng Liu, Guan Wang, Jung-Ang Pu, Xin Xue, Jian-Hua Zhao
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating, costly, and common pathological condition that affects the function of central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are few promising therapeutic strategies available for SCI. To look for a suitable therapeutic strategy, we have developed a sublethal hypoxic preconditioning procedure using Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, LDH releasing and cell viability assays in vitro. Meanwhile, we have examined the benefits of neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation prior to hypoxic preconditioning on functional recovery and potential mechanism via MRI screening, H&E and Nissl staining, immunofluorescence staining and Elisa assays...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884476/probiotics-for-preventing-urinary-tract-infection-in-people-with-neuropathic-bladder
#7
REVIEW
Swee-Ling Toh, Claire L Boswell-Ruys, Bon San B Lee, Judy M Simpson, Kate R Clezy
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic or neurogenic bladder describes a process of dysfunctional voiding as the result of injury in the brain, spinal cord or nerves innervating the bladder. People with neuropathic bladder, such as from spinal cord injury (SCI), are at significant risk of morbidity from urinary tract infections (UTI). Effective methods to prevent UTI in people with SCI have been sought for many years. Probiotics (micro-organisms that exert beneficial health effects in the host) have been recommended for bacterial interference of the urological tract to reduce colonisation by uropathogen and to manage the dual problems of infection and antibiotic resistance...
September 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884424/immunobiology-of-spinal-cord-injuries-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Aabra Ahmed, Arun-Angelo Patil, Devendra K Agrawal
The incidence of spinal cord injuries (SCI) is high every year. As the spinal cord is the highway that allows for the brain to control the rest of the body, spinal cord injuries greatly impact the quality of life of the patients. The SCI include the primary response consisting of the initial accident-induced damage and the secondary response that is characterized by damage due to inflammation and biological responses. Astrocytes are the first to act at the site of the injury, forming a glial scar and attracting immune cells...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880132/linking-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation-between-the-world-wars-the-r-tait-mckenzie-legacy
#9
John F Ditunno
Spinal cord injury (SCI) medicine emerged after World War II due to mass casualties, which required specialized treatment centers. This approach to categorical care, however, was first developed during World War I, led by pioneers R. Tait McKenzie and George Deaver, who demonstrated that soldiers disabled by paralysis could return to society through fitness/mobility, recreational and vocational training. McKenzie, a Canadian and the first professor of physical therapy in the US, influenced Deaver and military physicians in Britain, Canada, and the U...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880130/the-effects-of-semi-immersive-virtual-reality-therapy-on-standing-balance-and-upright-mobility-function-in-individuals-with-chronic-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-preliminary-study
#10
Chang-Man An, Young-Hyun Park
Background Individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) commonly face persistent balance or mobility impairments. Virtual reality (VR) therapy is a useful rehabilitation approach; however, little is known about its effects in individuals with chronic iSCI. Objective To investigate the effects of semi-immersive VR therapy on standing balance and upright mobility function in individuals with chronic iSCI. Methods Ten subjects with chronic iSCI underwent VR therapy 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875858/managing-neuropathic-pain-in-multiple-sclerosis-pharmacological-interventions
#11
Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Of the plethora of motor and sensory disturbances experienced by sufferers, neuropathic pain is a highly prevalent and debilitating symptom, and at present remains extremely difficult to treat. Common forms of neuropathic pain seen in MS patients include central neuropathic pain, Lhermitte's phenomenon and trigeminal neuralgia, which are all speculated to arise from specific patterns of lesion formation...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874986/neuropathic-pain-related-with-spinal-disorders-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Kwang-Sup Song, Jae Hwan Cho, Jae-Young Hong, Jae Hyup Lee, Hyun Kang, Dae-Woong Ham, Hyun-Jun Ryu
Systematic literature review. To review the evidence from high-quality studies regarding the treatment of neuropathic pain originating specifically from spinal disorders. In general, treatment guidelines for neuropathic pain cover all its various causes, including medical disease, peripheral neuropathy, and cancer. However, the natural history of neuropathic pain originating from spinal disorders may differ from that of the pain originating from other causes or lesions. An expert research librarian used terms related to neuropathic pain and spinal disorders, disc herniation, stenosis, and spinal cord injury to search in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL for primary research from January 2000 to October 2015...
August 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874102/ertapenem-associated-neurotoxicity-in-the-spinal-cord-injury-sci-population-a-case-series
#13
Ursula C Patel, Mallory A Fowler
Context Ertapenem, a broad spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, is used often in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients due to increased risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections in this population. Neurotoxicity, specifically seizures, due to ertapenem is a known adverse effect and has been described previously. Other manifestations such as delirium and visual hallucinations have rarely been reported, and no literature, to the best of our knowledge, specifically describes these effects solely in the SCI population...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872600/effects-of-visual-stimulation-with-bonsai-trees-on-adult-male-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Hiroko Ochiai, Chorong Song, Harumi Ikei, Michiko Imai, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
Nature therapy has been demonstrated to induce physiological relaxation. The psychophysiological effects of nature therapy (stimulation with bonsai trees) on adult male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) were examined. Oxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, and heart rate variability was analyzed. Psychological responses were evaluated using the modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale scores. Visual stimulation of adult male patients with SCI elicited significantly decreased left prefrontal cortex activity, increased parasympathetic nervous activity, decreased sympathetic nervous activity, increased positive feelings, and resulted in lower negative POMS subscale scores...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868156/post-traumatic-syringomyelia-with-holocord-involvement-a-case-report
#15
Idris Amin, Gavriil Ilizarov, Nayeema Chowdhury, Shailaja Kalva
INTRODUCTION: Syringomyelia is a disorder in which a cyst, or syrinx, develops within the spinal cord. Historically, syringomyelia in post-traumatic spinal cord injury has been uncommon; however, its diagnosis has been increasing due to the advances in medical technology. Syringomyelia that involves the entire spinal cord, or holocord, is rare after traumatic spinal cord injury, with only a few cases reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 57-year-old male who had a motorcycle accident 30 years ago resulting in a spinal cord injury, who presented a rapid decline in the function of his left upper extremity...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863085/early-chemoprophylaxis-is-associated-with-decreased-venous-thromboembolism-risk-without-concomitant-increase-in-intraspinal-hematoma-expansion-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Ronald Chang, Michelle H Scerbo, Karl M Schmitt, Sasha D Adams, Timothy J Choi, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), there is increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but chemoprophylaxis (PPX) may cause expansion of intraspinal hematoma (ISH). METHODS: Single-center retrospective study of adult trauma patients from 2012-2015 with SCI. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: VTE diagnosis, death, or discharge within 48 hours. Patients were dichotomized based on early (≤48 hours) heparinoid and/or aspirin PPX. ISH expansion was diagnosed intraoperatively or by follow-up radiology...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859883/analgesic-effects-of-novel-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-5-antagonist-as2717638-in-rodents
#17
Nobuhito Murai, Hideki Hiyama, Tetsuo Kiso, Toshihiro Sekizawa, Tomonari Watabiki, Hiromasa Oka, Toshiaki Aoki
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that acts via at least six G protein-coupled receptors, LPA receptors 1-6 (LPA1-6), for various physiological functions. We examined (1) whether LPA5 is involved in pain signaling in the spinal cord; and (2) the pharmacological effects of a novel LPA5 antagonist on intrathecal prostaglandin (PG)- and (S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-induced allodynia, and neuropathic and inflammatory pain in rodents. Intrathecal injection of a selective LPA5 agonist, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and a non-selective agonist, LPA, induced allodynia in wild type, but not in LPA5 knockout mice...
August 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852085/nanoparticle-delivery-of-fidgetin-sirna-as-a-microtubule-based-therapy-to-augment-nerve-regeneration
#18
Timothy O Austin, Andrew J Matamoros, Joel M Friedman, Adam J Friedman, Parimala Nacharaju, Wenqian Yu, David J Sharp, Peter W Baas
Microtubule-stabilizing drugs have gained popularity for treating injured adult axons, the rationale being that increased stabilization of microtubules will prevent the axon from retracting and fortify it to grow through inhibitory molecules associated with nerve injury. We have posited that a better approach would be not to stabilize the microtubules, but to increase labile microtubule mass to levels more conducive to axonal growth. Recent work on fetal neurons suggests this can be accomplished using RNA interference to reduce the levels of fidgetin, a microtubule-severing protein...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851622/improved-stem-cell-therapy-of-spinal-cord-injury-using-gdnf-overexpressed-bone-marrow-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model
#19
Mostafa Shahrezaie, Reyhaneh Nassiri Mansour, Bahare Nazari, Hadi Hassannia, Fatemeh Hosseini, Hossein Mahboudi, Mohamad Eftekhary, Mousa Kehtari, Arash Veshkini, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami
The use of stem cell base therapy as an effective strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) is very promising. Although some strategy has been made to generate neural-like cells using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), the differentiation strategies are still inefficiently. For this purpose, we improved the therapeutic outcome with utilize both of N-neurotrophic factor derived Gelial cells (GDNF) gene and differentiation medium that induce the BMSCs into the neural-like cells. The differentiated GDNF overexpressed BMSCs (BMSCs-GDNF) were injected on the third day of post-SCI...
August 26, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845391/neuroprotective-effects-of-estrogen-in-cns-injuries-insights-from-animal-models
#20
Narayan Raghava, Bhaskar C Das, Swapan K Ray
Among the estrogens that are biosynthesized in the human body, 17β-estradiol (estradiol or E2) is the most common and the best estrogen for neuroprotection in animal models of the central nervous system (CNS) injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ischemic brain injury (IBI). These CNS injuries are not only serious health problems, but also enormous economic burden on the patients, their families, and the society at large. Studies from animal models of these CNS injuries provide insights into the multiple neuroprotective mechanisms of E2 and also suggest the possibility of translating the therapeutic efficacy of E2 in the treatment SCI, TBI, and IBI in humans in the near future...
2017: Neuroscience and Neuroeconomics
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