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Therapy of spinal cord injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213069/a-pilot-study-of-cell-mediated-gene-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-in-mini-pigs
#1
Islamov Rustem Robertovich, Sokolov Mikhail Evgenyevich, Bashirov Farid Vagizovich, Fadeev Filip Olegovich, Shmarov Maxim Michaylovich, Naroditskiy Boris Savelyevich, Povysheva Tatyana Vyacheslavovna, Shaymardanova Gulnara Ferdinantovna, Yakupov Radik Albertovich, Chelyshev Yuri Aleksandrovich, Lavrov Igor Aleksandrovich
Currently, in clinical practice there is no efficient way to overcome the sequences of neurodegeneration after spinal cord traumatic injury. Using a new experimental model of spinal cord contusion injury on miniature pigs, we proposed to deliver therapeutic genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to the damaged area, using umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBC). In this study, genetically engineered UCBC (2×10(6) cells in 200 ml of saline) were injected intrathecally to mini-pigs 10days after SCI...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207570/international-survey-of-critically-ill-children-with-acute-neurologic-insults-the-prevalence-of-acute-critical-neurological-disease-in-children-a-global-epidemiological-assessment-study
#3
Ericka L Fink, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert C Tasker, John Beca, Michael J Bell, Robert S B Clark, Jamie Hutchison, Monica S Vavilala, Anthony Fabio, Derek C Angus, R Scott Watson
OBJECTIVE: The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). PATIENTS: Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197342/the-function-of-fgfr1-signalling-in-the-spinal-cord-therapeutic-approaches-using-fgfr1-ligands-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Barbara Haenzi, Lawrence D F Moon
Extensive research is ongoing that concentrates on finding therapies to enhance CNS regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to cure paralysis. This review sheds light on the role of the FGFR pathway in the injured spinal cord and discusses various therapies that use FGFR activating ligands to promote regeneration after SCI. We discuss studies that use peripheral nerve grafts or Schwann cell grafts in combination with FGF1 or FGF2 supplementation. Most of these studies show evidence that these therapies successfully enhance axon regeneration into the graft...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188847/pharmacological-inhibition-of-spinal-cord-injury-stimulated-ribosomal-biogenesis-does-not-affect-locomotor-outcome
#6
Ewa Kilanczyk, Kariena R Andres, Justin Hallgren, Sujata Saraswat Ohri, Marikki Laiho, Scott R Whittemore, Michal Hetman
After unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress, recovery of protein synthesis including increased expression of ribosomal components and translation factors may induce cell death. Using a mouse model of moderate contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) at the T9 level, upregulation of ribosomal biogenesis was observed in the injury epicenter at 24h after trauma. Such upregulation coincided with endoplasmic reticulum stress response as previously reported in this model. It was also accompanied by changes in expression of many other genes associated with translational regulation...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187803/management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injuries
#7
C D Shank, B C Walters, M N Hadley
Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease process affecting tens of thousands of people across the USA each year. Despite the increase in primary prevention measures, such as educational programs, motor vehicle speed limits, automobile running lights, and safety technology that includes automobile passive restraint systems and airbags, SCIs continue to carry substantial permanent morbidity and mortality. Medical measures implemented following the initial injury are designed to limit secondary insult to the spinal cord and to stabilize the spinal column in an attempt to decrease devastating sequelae...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186470/image-guidance-based-on-mri-for-spinal-interstitial-laser-thermotherapy-technical-aspects-and-accuracy
#8
Claudio E Tatsui, Clarissa N G Nascimento, Dima Suki, Behrang Amini, Jing Li, Amol J Ghia, Jonathan G Thomas, R Jason Stafford, Laurence D Rhines, Juan P Cata, Ashok J Kumar, Ganesh Rao
OBJECTIVE Image guidance for spinal procedures is based on 3D-fluoroscopy or CT, which provide poor visualization of soft tissues, including the spinal cord. To overcome this limitation, the authors developed a method to register intraoperative MRI (iMRI) of the spine into a neuronavigation system, allowing excellent visualization of the spinal cord. This novel technique improved the accuracy in the deployment of laser interstitial thermal therapy probes for the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174025/effects-of-liposome-based-local-suppression-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-bladder-on-autonomic-dysreflexia-during-urinary-bladder-distention-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Katsumi Kadekawa, Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Tsuyoshi Majima, Pradeep Tyagi, William C de Groat, Kimio Sugaya, Naoki Yoshimura
PURPOSE: To examine (1) whether spinal cord injury (SCI) time-dependently increases the severity of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and expression levels of bladder nerve growth factor (NGF) protein, and (2) whether local suppression of NGF in the bladder improves SCI-induced AD in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SCI was produced by the transection of the T2/3 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley rats. At 4 or 8weeks after SCI, differences in the mean arterial blood pressure (ΔMAP) and heart rate (ΔMHR) during graded increases in intravesical pressure to 20, 40 and 60cm H2O from those before bladder distention and NGF protein levels in the bladder wall were evaluated in spinal intact and SCI rats under urethane anesthesia...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166824/in-lab-versus-at-home-activity-recognition-in-ambulatory-subjects-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Mark V Albert, Yohannes Azeze, Michael Courtois, Arun Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: Although commercially available activity trackers can aid in tracking therapy and recovery of patients, most devices perform poorly for patients with irregular movement patterns. Standard machine learning techniques can be applied on recorded accelerometer signals in order to classify the activities of ambulatory subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury in a way that is specific to this population and the location of the recording-at home or in the clinic. METHODS: Subjects were instructed to perform a standardized set of movements while wearing a waist-worn accelerometer in the clinic and at-home...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165815/effective-improvement-of-the-neuroprotective-activity-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-synergistic-effect-of-glucocorticoid-with-biodegradable-amphipathic-nanomicelles
#12
YueLong Wang, Min Wu, Lei Gu, XiaoLing Li, Jun He, LiangXue Zhou, Aiping Tong, Juan Shi, HongYan Zhu, JianGuo Xu, Gang Guo
Dexamethasone acetate (DA) produces neuroprotective effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation by reducing cytokine release and expression. However, its clinical application is limited by its hydrophobicity, low biocompatibility and numerous side effects when using large dosage. Therefore, improving DA's water solubility, biocompatibility and reducing its side effects are important goals that will improve its clinical utility. The objective of this study is to use a biodegradable polymer as the delivery vehicle for DA to achieve the synergism between inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation effects of the hydrophobic-loaded drugs and the amphipathic delivery vehicle...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160063/enhanced-axonal-regeneration-by-transplanted-wnt3a-secreting-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Dong Kwang Seo, Jeong Hoon Kim, Joongkee Min, Hyung Ho Yoon, Eun-Sil Shin, Seong Who Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon
BACKGROUND: While pure mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) is known to be safe, its efficacy is insufficient. Therefore, gene-modified stem cells are being developed to enhance the effect of pure MSCs. We investigated the effect of stem cell therapy through the transfection of a Wnt3a-producing gene that stimulates axonal regeneration. METHOD: MSCs obtained from the human umbilical cord blood (hMSCs) were multiplied, cultivated, and transfected with the pLenti-Wnt3a-GFP viral vector to produce Wnt3a-secreting hMSCs...
February 3, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128063/tonic-and-rhythmic-spinal-activity-underlying-locomotion
#14
Yury P Ivanenko, Victor S Gurfinkel, Victor A Selionov, Irina A Solopova, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Pierre A Guertin, Francesco Lacquaniti
In recent years, many researches put significant efforts into understanding and assessing the functional state of the spinal locomotor circuits in humans. Various techniques have been developed to stimulate the spinal cord circuitries, which may include both diffuse and quite specific tuning effects. Overall, the findings indicate that tonic and rhythmic spinal activity control are not separate phenomena but are closely integrated to properly initiate and sustain stepping. The spinal cord does not simply transmit information to and from the brain...
January 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123490/reduced-inflammatory-cell-recruitment-and-tissue-damage-in-spinal-cord-injury-by-acellular-spinal-cord-scaffold-seeded-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Yu-Hai Wang, Jian Chen, Jing Zhou, Feng Nong, Jin-Han Lv, Jia Liu
Therapy using acellular spinal cord (ASC) scaffolds seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has previously been shown to restore function of the damaged spinal cord and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute hemisected spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to determine whether BMSCs and ASC scaffolds promote the functional recovery of the damaged spinal cord in a rat SCI model through regulation of apoptosis and immune responses. Whether this strategy regulates secondary inflammation, which is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells and inflammatory mediators to the lesion site, in SCI repair was investigated...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123426/development-of-a-3d-matrix-for-modeling-mammalian-spinal-cord-injury-in-vitro
#16
Juan Felipe Diaz Quiroz, Yuping Li, Conrado Aparicio, Karen Echeverri
Spinal cord injury affects millions of people around the world, however, limited therapies are available to improve the quality of life of these patients. Spinal cord injury is usually modeled in rats and mice using contusion or complete transection models and this has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular complexities of the injury. However, it has not to date led to development of successful novel therapies, this is in part due to the complexity of the injury and the difficulty of deciphering the exact roles and interactions of different cells within this complex environment...
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120075/the-rehabilitation-of-spinal-cord-injury-patients-in-europe
#17
Giorgio Scivoletto, Massimo Miscusi, Stefano Forcato, Luca Ricciardi, Mariano Serrao, Roberto Bellitti, Antonino Raco
In Western European countries there is an incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) of 16 to 19.4 new cases per million inhabitants per year. Since World War II, European physicians have been fundamental in the development of SCI medicine, starting from Sir Ludwig Guttman, who developed the idea of the integrated treatment of these patients. More recently, scientists from Germany and Switzerland have developed a new rehabilitative approach, Body Weight Support Treadmill Training, based on the concept of activity-based therapy and aimed at restoring walking in SCI patients...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120050/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-vegetative-state-and-minimally-conscious-state-changes-in-consciousness-level-and-motor-function
#18
Takamitsu Yamamoto, Mitsuru Watanabe, Toshiki Obuchi, Kazutaka Kobayashi, Hideki Oshima, Chikashi Fukaya, Atsuo Yoshino
Twenty-one vegetative state (VS) patients and 10 minimally conscious state (MCS) patients were treated by spinal cord stimulation (SCS) following an electrophysiological evaluation 3 months or more after the onset of brain injury.A flexible four-contact cylindrical electrode was inserted into the epidural space of the cervical vertebrae, and placed at cervical levels C2-C4. Five-hertz stimulation was applied for 5 min every 30 min during the daytime at an intensity that produced muscle twitches of the upper extremities...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119846/effects-of-radiation-therapy-on-established-neurogenic-heterotopic-ossification
#19
Chan Ho Lee, Su Jung Shim, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyuna Yang, Youn Joo Kang
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is frequently seen on rehabilitation units after spinal cord injuries, fractures, brain injuries, and limb amputations. Currently, there is no effective treatment for HO other than prophylaxis with anti-inflammatory medications, irradiation, and bisphosphonate administration. These prophylactic treatments are not effective for managing ectopic bone once it has formed. Here we describe three cases of established neurogenic HO treated with radiation therapy (RT). All patients had decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific ALP levels with decreased pain but increased range of motion immediately after RT...
December 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107629/discovery-of-1-2-3-triazole-derivatives-for-multimodality-pet-ct-cryoimaging-of-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Chunying Wu, Brendan Eck, Sheng Zhang, Junqing Zhu, Anand Dev Tiwari, Yifan Zhang, Yunjie Zhu, Jinming Zhang, Bin Wang, Xizhen Wang, Xu Wang, Jingqiang You, Jian Wang, Yihui Guan, Xingdang Liu, Xin Yu, Bruce D Trapp, Robert Miller, Jerry Silver, David Wilson, Yanming Wang
Myelin pathology is present in many neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To facilitate development of novel therapies aimed at myelin repair, we set out to develop imaging agents that permit direct quantification of myelination in vivo. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of fluorescent fluorinated myelin imaging agents that can be used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging combined with subsequent post-mortem fluorescent cryoimaging...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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