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Anthony N Muiru, Prossy Bibangambah, Linda Hemphill, Ruth Sentongo, June-Ho Kim, Virginia A Triant, David R Bangsberg, Alexander C Tsai, Jeffrey N Martin, Jessica E Haberer, Yap Boum, Jorge Plutzky, Peter W Hunt, Samson Okello, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: The utility and validity of CVD risk scores are not well-studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared and correlated CVD risk scores with carotid intima media thickness (c-IMT) among HIV-infected and uninfected people in Uganda. METHODS: We first calculated CVD risk using the 1) Framingham laboratory-based score; 2) Framingham non-laboratory score (FRS-BMI); 3) Reynolds risk score; 4) American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association score; and 5) the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs score...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Robyn M Stuart, Laura Grobicki, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Jolene Skordis, Olivia Keiser, Janne Estill, Zofia Baranczuk, Sherrie L Kelly, Iyanoosh Reporter, David J Kedziora, Andrew J Shattock, Janka Petravic, S Azfar Hussain, Kelsey L Grantham, Richard T Gray, Xiao F Yap, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Clemens J Benedikt, Nicole Fraser-Hurt, Emiko Masaki, David J Wilson, Marelize Gorgens, Elizabeth Mziray, Nejma Cheikh, Zara Shubber, Cliff C Kerr, David P Wilson
INTRODUCTION: With limited funds available, meeting global health targets requires countries to both mobilize and prioritize their health spending. Within this context, countries have recognized the importance of allocating funds for HIV as efficiently as possible to maximize impact. Over the past six years, the governments of 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America have used the Optima HIV tool to estimate the optimal allocation of HIV resources. METHODS: Each study commenced with a request by the national government for technical assistance in conducting an HIV allocative efficiency study using Optima HIV...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Giulia Santinon, Irene Brian, Arianna Pocaterra, Patrizia Romani, Elisa Franzolin, Chiara Rampazzo, Silvio Bicciato, Sirio Dupont
YAP/TAZ, downstream transducers of the Hippo pathway, are powerful regulators of cancer growth. How these factors control proliferation remains poorly defined. Here, we found that YAP/TAZ directly regulate expression of key enzymes involved in deoxynucleotide biosynthesis and maintain dNTP precursor pools in human cancer cells. Regulation of deoxynucleotide metabolism is required for YAP-induced cell growth and underlies the resistance of YAP-addicted cells to chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis. During RAS-induced senescence, YAP/TAZ bypass RAS-mediated inhibition of nucleotide metabolism and control senescence...
April 12, 2018: EMBO Journal
Zhenhai Fan, Hongwei Xia, Huanji Xu, Ji Ma, Sheng Zhou, Wanting Hou, Qiulin Tang, Qiyong Gong, Yongzhan Nie, Feng Bi
High expression levels of CD44 and YAP have been identified as poor prognostic factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanistic relationship between CD44 and YAP during HCC tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. To investigate the mutual regulation between standard CD44 (CD44S) and YAP1 in HCC cell lines and tissue samples, CD44S and YAP1 expression in 40 pairs of tumor samples and matched distal normal tissues from HCC patients was examined by immunohistochemical staining. High expression of either CD44S or YAP1 was associated with a younger age and worse pathology grade...
April 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nuala McNicholas, Andrew Lockhart, Siew M Yap, Karen O'Connell, Niall Tubridy, Michael Hutchinson, Christopher McGuigan
The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) recently revised the 2010 McDonald criteria and made recommendations for revision, allowing for the earliest possible, accurate diagnosis of MS. For relapsing-remitting MS, positive, unmatched cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands may substitute for dissemination in time. Symptomatic lesions, including brainstem and spinal cord, may demonstrate dissemination in space or in time if enhancing (with the exception of the optic nerve). Cortical and juxtacortical lesions are equivalent...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Akram S Alyessary, Adrian U Yap, Siti A Othman, Mohammad T Rahman, N M Al-Namnam, Zamri Radzi
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated bone-borne expansion protocols on sutural separation and sutural bone formation were evaluated via histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry to determine the optimal initial activation without disruption of bone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Modified Hyrax expanders were placed across the midsagittal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants with the following activations: group 1 (control), 0...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Janine S A Warren, Yuxuan Xiao, John M Lamar
Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) and Transcriptional Co-activator with PDZ-binding Motif (TAZ) have both emerged as important drivers of cancer progression and metastasis. YAP and TAZ are often upregulated or nuclear localized in aggressive human cancers. There is abundant experimental evidence demonstrating that YAP or TAZ activation promotes cancer formation, tumor progression, and metastasis. In this review we summarize the evidence linking YAP/TAZ activation to metastasis, and discuss the roles of YAP and TAZ during each step of the metastatic cascade...
April 10, 2018: Cancers
Xiaoguang Zhao, Jian Sun, Wei Su, Huitong Shan, Bowen Zhang, Yining Wang, Azaliia Shabanova, Hongli Shan, Haihai Liang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fibrotic interstitial pneumonia with high mortality. Melatonin, a hormone predominantly secreted by the pineal gland, has been reported to participate in the process of IPF. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of melatonin in pulmonary fibrosis have not been elucidated to date. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-fibrotic role of melatonin in pulmonary fibrosis and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. We observed that melatonin markedly attenuated bleomycin (BLM)-induced experimental lung fibrosis in mice and inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis in lung fibroblasts...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amy Klapheke, Stanley A Yap, Kevin Pan, Rosemary D Cress
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how socioeconomic status and other demographic factors are associated with the receipt of chemotherapy and subsequent survival in patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer. METHODS: Using data from the California Cancer Registry, we identified 3,667 patients diagnosed with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder between 1988 and 2014. The characteristics of patients who did and did not receive chemotherapy as part of the first course of treatment were compared using chi-square tests...
April 5, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Jinhu Xiong, Maria Almeida, Charles A O'Brien
The related transcriptional co-factors YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) have been proposed to either promote or inhibit osteoblast differentiation. Here we investigated the skeletal consequences of deleting YAP and TAZ at different stages of the osteoblast lineage using Prx1-Cre, Osx1-Cre, and Dmp1-Cre transgenic mice. Prx1-Cre-mediated deletion resulted in embryonic lethality. Mice lacking both copies of TAZ and one copy of YAP in cells targeted by Prx1-Cre were viable and displayed elevated bone mass associated increased bone formation...
April 4, 2018: Bone
Anne-Floor B E Quast, Vincent F van Dijk, Sing-Chien Yap, Alexander H Maass, Lucas V A Boersma, Dominic A Theuns, Reinoud E Knops
INTRODUCTION: Experience with the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is expanding rapidly. However, data on long-term performance or complications related to elective generator replacement is lacking. METHODS: Follow-up (FU) data of all patients implanted between December 2008 and April 2011 were collected. Complications were defined as those requiring surgical intervention. Kaplan-Meier estimates for complication and shock rates, with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Shier Nee Saw, Jess Yi Ru Low, May Han Huang Ong, Yu Wei Poh, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Arijit Biswas, Choon Hwai Yap
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is a serious and prevalent pregnancy complication that is due to placental insufficiency and IUGR babies suffer significantly higher risks of mortality and morbidity. Current detection rate for IUGR is generally poor and thus an alternative diagnostic tool is needed to improve the IUGR detection. Elastography, a non-invasive method that measures the tissue stiffness, has been proposed as one such technique. However, to date, we have limited information on the mechanical properties of IUGR placenta...
April 6, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Celene Y L Yap, Ya-Seng Arthur Hsueh, Jonathan C Knott, David McD Taylor, Esther W Chan, David C M Kong
BACKGROUND: The combination of midazolam and droperidol has proven superior to droperidol or olanzapine monotherapy in the management of acute agitation in emergency departments (EDs). OBJECTIVE: This is the first economic analysis to evaluate the cost-benefit and cost effectiveness of the midazolam-droperidol combination compared with droperidol or olanzapine for the management of acute agitation in EDs. METHODS: This analysis used data derived from a randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trial conducted in two metropolitan Australian EDs between October 2014 and August 2015...
July 24, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Yan'an Hou, Yi-Roe Tan, Wei Yen Lim, Vernon Lee, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Peiling Yap
BACKGROUND: Singapore remains vulnerable to worldwide epidemics due to high air traffic with other countries This study aims to measure the public's awareness of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Avian Influenza A (H7N9), identify population groups who are uninformed or misinformed about the diseases, understand their choice of outbreak information source, and assess the effectiveness of communication channels in Singapore. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, comprising of face-to-face interviews, was conducted between June and December 2013 to assess the public's awareness and knowledge of MERS and H7N9, including their choice of information source...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Anna Fogel, Keri Mccrickerd, Lisa R Fries, Ai Ting Goh, Phaik Ling Quah, Mei Jun Chan, Jia Ying Toh, Yap-Seng Chong, Kok Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Lynette P Shek, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman, Yung Seng Lee, Keith M Godfrey, Mary Foong Fong Chong, Ciarán G Forde
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been linked to obesity in adults and children. This study examined the stability of EAH in children between 4.5 and 6 years old, and associations with energy intake and portion selection, as well as cross-sectional and prospective associations with body composition. METHODS: The participants were 158 boys and girls from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort. At ages 4.5 and 6 years old children were provided lunch ad libitum, and immediately afterwards were exposed to palatable snacks to measure energy intake in the absence of hunger...
March 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Denosshan Sri, Arunan Sujenthiran, Wayne Lam, Janice Minter, Brendan E Tinwell, Catherine M Corbishley, Tet Yap, Davendra M Sharma, Benjamin E Ayres, Nick W Watkin
BACKGROUND: Organ sparing surgery (OSS) in the treatment of penile squamous cell cancer (SCCp) is well established. A 5 mm margin has previously been considered oncologically safe. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of close surgical margins in OSS and clinico-pathological factors that may influence local recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At our tertiary referral centre, between March 2001 and September 2012, 332 patients treated with OSS for SCCp had clear surgical margins...
March 31, 2018: BJU International
Vera J Goh, Jasper Tromp, Tiew-Hwa K Teng, Wan Ting Tay, Peter Van Der Meer, Lieng Hsi Ling, Bambang B Siswanto, Chung-Lieh Hung, Wataru Shimizu, Shu Zhang, Calambur Narasimhan, Cheuk Man Yu, Sang Weon Park, Tachapong Ngarmukos, Houng Bang Liew, Eugenio Reyes, Jonathan Yap, Michael MacDonald, Mark A Richards, Inder Anand, Carolyn S P Lam
AIMS: Recent international heart failure (HF) guidelines recognize anaemia as an important comorbidity contributing to poor outcomes in HF, based on data mainly from Western populations. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of anaemia in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction across Asia. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 3886 Asian patients (60 ± 13 years, 21% women) with HF (ejection fraction ≤40%) from 11 regions in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure study...
March 31, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Jaimee E Hoefert, Glen A Bjerke, Dongmei Wang, Rui Yi
The microRNA (miRNA)-200 (miR-200) family is highly expressed in epithelial cells and frequently lost in metastatic cancer. Despite intensive studies into their roles in cancer, their targets and functions in normal epithelial tissues remain unclear. Importantly, it remains unclear how the two subfamilies of the five-miRNA family, distinguished by a single nucleotide within the seed region, regulate their targets. By directly ligating miRNAs to their targeted mRNA regions, we identify numerous miR-200 targets involved in the regulation of focal adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, cell cycle, and Hippo/Yap signaling...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Raffaela Santoro, Marco Zanotto, Carmine Carbone, Geny Piro, Giampaolo Tortora, Davide Melisi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most threatening and poorly understood human malignancies. MEKK3 (MAP3K3) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by different signaling pathways. YAP and TAZ are critical oncogenic effectors in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that MEKK3 could sustain pancreatic cancer by inducing YAP/TAZ oncogenic activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Panc1 and AsPC1 pancreatic cancer cell lines MEKK3 was knocked-out (KO) by the CRISPR/Cas9 method...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
Ramón García-Escudero, Carmen Segrelles, Marta Dueñas, María Pombo, Claudio Ballestín, Marina Alonso-Riaño, Pablo Nenclares, Roberto Álvarez-Rodríguez, Gregorio Sánchez-Aniceto, Ana Ruíz-Alonso, José Luis López-Cedrún, Jesús M Paramio, Corina Lorz
OBJECTIVES: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) is commonly altered in many human tumors, leading to the activation of p110α enzymatic activity that stimulates growth factor-independent cell growth. PIK3CA alterations such as mutation, gene amplification and overexpression are common in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and. We aim to explore how these alterations and clinical outcome are associated, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved...
April 2018: Oral Oncology
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