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Bioenergetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#1
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315952/kinetic-analysis-size-profiling-and-bioenergetic-association-of-dna-released-by-selected-cell-lines-in-vitro
#2
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Dimetrie L Peters, Hayley C Van Dyk, Francois H Van der Westhuizen, Piet J Pretorius
Although circulating DNA (cirDNA) analysis shows great promise as a screening tool for a wide range of pathologies, numerous stumbling blocks hinder the rapid translation of research to clinical practice. This is related directly to the inherent complexity of the in vivo setting, wherein the influence of complex systems of interconnected cellular responses and putative DNA sources creates a seemingly arbitrary representation of the quantitative and qualitative properties of the cirDNA in the blood of any individual...
March 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315370/control-of-mitochondrial-physiology-and-cell-death-by-the-bcl-2-family-proteins-bax-and-bok
#3
Beatrice D'Orsi, Julia Mateyka, Jochen H M Prehn
Neuronal cell death is often triggered by events that involve intracellular increases in Ca(2+). Under resting conditions, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is tightly controlled by a number of extrusion and sequestering mechanisms involving the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and ER. These mechanisms act to prevent a disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis. As these processes require ATP, excessive Ca(2+) overloading may cause energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and may eventually lead to Ca(2+)-dependent cell death...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314591/the-ubiquitin-binding-protein-tax1bp1-mediates-autophagasome-induction-and-the-metabolic-transition-of-activated-t-cells
#4
Michael I Whang, Rita M Tavares, Daniel I Benjamin, Michael G Kattah, Rommel Advincula, Daniel K Nomura, Jayanta Debnath, Barbara A Malynn, Averil Ma
During immune responses, naive T cells transition from small quiescent cells to rapidly cycling cells. We have found that T cells lacking TAX1BP1 exhibit delays in growth of cell size and cell cycling. TAX1BP1-deficient T cells exited G0 but stalled in S phase, due to both bioenergetic and biosynthetic defects. These defects were due to deficiencies in mTOR complex formation and activation. These mTOR defects in turn resulted from defective autophagy induction. TAX1BP1 binding of LC3 and GABARAP via its LC3-interacting region (LIR), but not its ubiquitin-binding domain, supported T cell proliferation...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303591/-31-p-magnetization-transfer-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessing-the-activation-induced-change-in-cerebral-atp-metabolic-rates-at-3-t
#5
Chen Chen, Mary C Stephenson, Andrew Peters, Peter G Morris, Susan T Francis, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: In vivo (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer (MT) provides a direct measure of neuronal activity at the metabolic level. This work aims to use functional (31) P MRS-MT to investigate the change in cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolic rates in healthy adults upon repeated visual stimuli. METHODS: A magnetization saturation transfer sequence with narrowband selective saturation of γ-ATP was developed for (31) P MT experiments at 3 T...
March 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300533/membranes-energetics-and-evolution-across-the-prokaryote-eukaryote-divide
#6
Michael Lynch, Georgi K Marinov
The evolution of the eukaryotic cell marked a profound moment in Earth's history, with most of the visible biota coming to rely on intracellular membrane-bound organelles. It has been suggested that this evolutionary transition was critically dependent on the movement of ATP synthesis from the cell surface to mitochondrial membranes and the resultant boost to the energetic capacity of eukaryotic cells. However, contrary to this hypothesis, numerous lines of evidence suggest that eukaryotes are no more bioenergetically efficient than prokaryotes...
March 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298335/hyperglycemia-and-hyperinsulinemia-induced-insulin-resistance-causes-alterations-in-cellular-bioenergetics-and-activation-of-inflammatory-signaling-in-lymphatic-muscle
#7
Yang Lee, James D Fluckey, Sanjukta Chakraborty, Mariappan Muthuchamy
Insulin resistance is a well-known risk factor for obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and associated cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanisms are undefined in the lymphatics. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels from MetSyn or LPS-injected rats exhibited impaired intrinsic contractile activity and associated inflammatory changes. Hence, we hypothesized that insulin resistance in lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) affects cell bioenergetics and signaling pathways that consequently alter contractility. LMCs were treated with different concentrations of insulin or glucose or both at various time points to determine insulin resistance...
March 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297565/rationale-for-determining-the-functional-potency-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-preventing-regulated-cell-death-for-therapeutic-use
#8
Abderrahim Naji, Narufumi Suganuma, Nicolas Espagnolle, Ken-Ichi Yagyu, Nobuyasu Baba, Luc Sensebé, Frédéric Deschaseaux
Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) are being investigated for treating degenerative and inflammatory disorders because of their reparative and immunomodulatory properties. Intricate mechanisms relate cell death processes with immune responses, which have implications for degenerative and inflammatory conditions. We review the therapeutic value of MSCs in terms of preventing regulated cell death (RCD). When cells identify an insult, specific intracellular pathways are elicited for execution of RCD processes, such as apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293876/changes-in-the-mitochondrial-function-and-in-the-efficiency-of-energy-transfer-pathways-during-cardiomyocyte-aging
#9
Kersti Tepp, Marju Puurand, Natalja Timohhina, Jasper Adamson, Aleksandr Klepinin, Laura Truu, Igor Shevchuk, Vladimir Chekulayev, Tuuli Kaambre
The role of mitochondria in alterations that take place in the muscle cell during healthy aging is a matter of debate during recent years. Most of the studies in bioenergetics have a focus on the model of isolated mitochondria, while changes in the crosstalk between working myofibrils and mitochondria in senescent cardiomyocytes have been less studied. The aim of our research was to investigate the modifications in the highly regulated ATP production and energy transfer systems in heart cells in old rat cardiomyocytes...
March 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289721/platelets-from-pulmonary-hypertension-patients-show-increased-mitochondrial-reserve-capacity
#10
Quyen L Nguyen, Catherine Corey, Pamela White, Annie Watson, Mark T Gladwin, Marc A Simon, Sruti Shiva
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285833/integrative-proteomics-and-phosphoproteomics-profiling-reveals-dynamic-signaling-networks-and-bioenergetics-pathways-underlying-t-cell-activation
#11
Haiyan Tan, Kai Yang, Yuxin Li, Timothy I Shaw, Yanyan Wang, Daniel Bastardo Blanco, Xusheng Wang, Ji-Hoon Cho, Hong Wang, Sherri Rankin, Cliff Guy, Junmin Peng, Hongbo Chi
The molecular circuits by which antigens activate quiescent T cells remain poorly understood. We combined temporal profiling of the whole proteome and phosphoproteome via multiplexed isobaric labeling proteomics technology, computational pipelines for integrating multi-omics datasets, and functional perturbation to systemically reconstruct regulatory networks underlying T cell activation. T cell receptors activated the T cell proteome and phosphoproteome with discrete kinetics, marked by early dynamics of phosphorylation and delayed ribosome biogenesis and mitochondrial activation...
March 3, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284597/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-pa01-impairs-enzymes-of-the-phosphotransfer-network-in-the-gills-of-rhamdia-quelen
#12
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Roberto C V Santos, Lenita M Stefani, Karen Luise S Moreira, Marcelo L da Veiga, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for gills bioenergetics, since this tissue plays an important role in the respiratory energy metabolism. The effects of bacterial infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether experimental infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01 alters the enzymes of the phosphoryltransfer network (adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK)) in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283884/resveratrol-and-brain-mitochondria-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Fernanda Rafaela Jardim, Fernando Tonon de Rossi, Marielle Xavier Nascimento, Renata Gabriele da Silva Barros, Paula Agrizzi Borges, Isabella Cristina Prescilio, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; C14H12O3) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, berries, peanuts, and wines. Resveratrol has been viewed as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anticancer agent. Moreover, it has been reported that resveratrol modulates mitochondrial function, redox biology, and dynamics in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Resveratrol also attenuates mitochondrial impairment induced by certain stressors. Resveratrol upregulates, for example, mitochondria-located antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the production of reactive species by these organelles...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279571/sex-dependent-mental-illnesses-and-mitochondria
#14
REVIEW
Akiko Shimamoto, Virginie Rappeneau
The prevalence of some mental illnesses, including major depression, anxiety-, trauma-, and stress-related disorders, some substance use disorders, and later onset of schizophrenia, is higher in women than men. While the higher prevalence in women could simply be explained by socioeconomic determinants, such as income, social status, or cultural background, extensive studies show sex differences in biological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological factors contribute to females' vulnerability to these mental illnesses...
March 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277956/reduced-mitochondrial-efficiency-explains-mismatched-growth-and-metabolic-rate-at-supraoptimal-temperatures
#15
Eloy Martinez, Michael A Menze, Salvatore J Agosta
The relationship between whole-organism growth and metabolism is generally assumed to be positive and causative; higher metabolic rates support higher growth rates. In Manduca sexta, existing data demonstrate a deviation from this simple prediction: at supraoptimal temperatures for larval growth, metabolic rate keeps increasing while growth rate is decreasing. This mismatch presumably reflects the rising "cost of maintenance" with temperature. Precisely what constitutes this cost is not clear, but we suspect the efficiency with which mitochondria harness oxygen and organic substrates into cellular energy (ATP) is key...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276021/assessing-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-various-mouse-tissues-using-seahorse-xf96-analyzer
#16
Arcangela Iuso, Birgit Repp, Caroline Biagosch, Caterina Terrile, Holger Prokisch
Working with isolated mitochondria is the gold standard approach to investigate the function of the electron transport chain in tissues, free from the influence of other cellular factors. In this chapter, we outline a detailed protocol to measure the rate of oxygen consumption (OCR) with the high-throughput analyzer Seahorse XF96. More importantly, this protocol wants to provide practical tips for handling many different samples at once, and take a real advantage of using a high-throughput system. As a proof of concept, we have isolated mitochondria from brain, heart, liver, muscle, kidney, and lung of a wild-type mouse, and measured basal respiration (State II), ADP-stimulated respiration (State III), non-ADP-stimulated respiration (State IVo), and FCCP-stimulated respiration (State IIIu) using respiratory substrates specific to the respiratory chain complex I (RCCI) and complex II (RCCII)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276013/isolation-of-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mam-from-mouse-brain-tissue
#17
Bernadette Schreiner, Maria Ankarcrona
During the last decades, increasing evidence indicated that subcellular organelles do not exist as autarkic units but instead communicate constantly and extensively with each other in various ways. Some communication, for example, the exchange of small molecules, requires the marked convergence of two distinct organelles for a certain period of time. The cross talk between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, two subcellular organelles of utmost importance for cellular bioenergetics and protein homeostasis, has been increasingly investigated under the last years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272795/inhibition-of-prostate-cancer-proliferation-by-deferiprone
#18
Rui V Simões, Suresh Veeraperumal, Inna S Serganova, Natalia Kruchevsky, Joseph Varshavsky, Ronald G Blasberg, Ellen Ackerstaff, Jason A Koutcher
Cancer growth and proliferation rely on intracellular iron availability. We studied the effects of Deferiprone (DFP), a chelator of intracellular iron, on three prostate cancer cell lines: murine, metastatic TRAMP-C2; murine, non-metastatic Myc-CaP; and human, non-metastatic 22rv1. The effects of DFP were evaluated at different cellular levels: cell culture proliferation and migration; metabolism of live cells (time-course multi-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy cell perfusion studies, with 1-(13) C-glucose, and extracellular flux analysis); and expression (Western blot) and activity of mitochondrial aconitase, an iron-dependent enzyme...
March 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270511/quantifying-intracellular-rates-of-glycolytic-and-oxidative-atp-production-and-consumption-using-extracellular-flux-measurements
#19
Shona A Mookerjee, Akos A Gerencser, David G Nicholls, Martin D Brand
Partitioning of ATP generation between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation is central to cellular bioenergetics but cumbersome to measure. We describe here how rates of ATP generation by each pathway can be calculated from simultaneous measurements of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption. We update theoretical maximum ATP yields by mitochondria and cells catabolizing differ- ent substrates. Mitochondrial P/O ratios are 2.73 for oxidation of pyruvate plus malate and 1.64 for oxidation of succinate...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270146/bmi1-a-new-target-of-ck2%C3%AE
#20
Soumyajit Banerjee Mustafi, Prabir Kumar Chakraborty, Shailendra Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Kai Ding, Katherine M Moxley, Priyabrata Mukherjee, Resham Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: The polycomb group protein, BMI1 plays important roles in chromatin modification, stem cell function, DNA damage repair and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Such diverse cellular functions of BMI1 could be, in part, due to post-translational modifications, especially phosphorylation. To date, AKT has been reported as a kinase that by site specific phosphorylation of BMI1 modulates its oncogenic functions. METHODS: Immunoprecipitation in conjunction with kinase assay and mass spectrometry was used to determine association with and site specific phosphorylation of BMI1 by CK2α...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Cancer
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