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Bioenergetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166588/regulatory-t-cell-migration-is-dependent-on-glucokinase-mediated-glycolysis
#1
Madhav Kishore, Kenneth C P Cheung, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Guosu Wang, David Coe, Eleanor J Ward, Alessandra Colamatteo, Maryam Jangani, Andrea Baragetti, Giuseppe Matarese, David M Smith, Robert Haas, Claudio Mauro, David C Wraith, Klaus Okkenhaug, Alberico L Catapano, Veronica De Rosa, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Migration of activated regulatory T (Treg) cells to inflamed tissue is crucial for their immune-modulatory function. While metabolic reprogramming during Treg cell differentiation has been extensively studied, the bioenergetics of Treg cell trafficking remains undefined. We have investigated the metabolic demands of migrating Treg cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that glycolysis was instrumental for their migration and was initiated by pro-migratory stimuli via a PI3K-mTORC2-mediated pathway culminating in induction of the enzyme glucokinase (GCK)...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163365/functional-mitochondria-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Patries M Herst, Matthew R Rowe, Georgia M Carson, Michael V Berridge
The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163128/insulin-resistance-and-alzheimer-s-disease-bioenergetic-linkages
#3
REVIEW
Bryan J Neth, Suzanne Craft
Metabolic dysfunction is a well-established feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), evidenced by brain glucose hypometabolism that can be observed potentially decades prior to the development of AD symptoms. Furthermore, there is mounting support for an association between metabolic disease and the development of AD and related dementias. Individuals with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), hyperlipidemia, obesity, or other metabolic disease may have increased risk for the development of AD and similar conditions, such as vascular dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163061/cyclodextrins-and-iatrogenic-hearing-loss-new-drugs-with-significant-risk
#4
REVIEW
Mark A Crumling, Kelly A King, R Keith Duncan
Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with widespread usage in medicine, industry and basic sciences owing to their ability to solubilize and stabilize guest compounds. In medicine, cyclodextrins primarily act as a complexing vehicle and consequently serve as powerful drug delivery agents. Recently, uncomplexed cyclodextrins have emerged as potent therapeutic compounds in their own right, based on their ability to sequester and mobilize cellular lipids. In particular, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has garnered attention because of its cholesterol chelating properties, which appear to treat a rare neurodegenerative disorder and to promote atherosclerosis regression related to stroke and heart disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162863/pulse-frequency-dependency-of-photobiomodulation-on-the-bioenergetic-functions-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#5
Hong Bae Kim, Ku Youn Baik, Pill-Hoon Choung, Jong Hoon Chung
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy contributes to pain relief, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. The pulsed wave (PW) mode has been reported to be more effective than the continuous wave (CW) mode when applying PBM to many biological systems. However, the reason for the higher effectiveness of PW-PBM is poorly understood. Herein, we suggest using delayed luminescence (DL) as a reporter of mitochondrial activity after PBM treatment. DL originates mainly from mitochondrial electron transport chain systems, which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162500/the-emerging-role-of-immune-dysfunction-in-mitochondrial-diseases-as-a-paradigm-for-understanding-immunometabolism
#6
REVIEW
Senta M Kapnick, Susan E Pacheco, Peter J McGuire
Immunometabolism aims to define the role of intermediary metabolism in immune cell function, with bioenergetics and the mitochondria recently taking center stage. To date, the medical literature on mitochondria and immune function extols the virtues of mouse models in exploring this biologic intersection. While the laboratory mouse has become a standard for studying mammalian biology, this model comprises part of a comprehensive approach. Humans, with their broad array of inherited phenotypes, serve as a starting point for studying immunometabolism; specifically, patients with mitochondrial disease...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161091/dealing-with-stress-defective-metabolic-adaptation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-pathogenesis
#7
Charalambos Michaeloudes, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Sharon Mumby, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
The mitochondrion is the main site of energy production and a hub of key signaling pathways. It is also central in stress-adaptive response due to its dynamic morphology and ability to interact with other organelles. In response to stress, mitochondria fuse into networks to increase bioenergetic efficiency and protect against oxidative damage. Mitochondrial damage triggers segregation of damaged mitochondria from the mitochondrial network through fission and their proteolytic degradation by mitophagy. Post-translational modifications of the mitochondrial proteome and nuclear cross-talk lead to reprogramming of metabolic gene expression to maintain energy production and redox balance...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158502/competing-tradeoffs-between-increasing-marine-mammal-predation-and-fisheries-harvest-of-chinook-salmon
#8
Brandon E Chasco, Isaac C Kaplan, Austen C Thomas, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Dawn P Noren, Michael J Ford, M Bradley Hanson, Jonathan J Scordino, Steven J Jeffries, Kristin N Marshall, Andrew O Shelton, Craig Matkin, Brian J Burke, Eric J Ward
Many marine mammal predators, particularly pinnipeds, have increased in abundance in recent decades, generating new challenges for balancing human uses with recovery goals via ecosystem-based management. We used a spatio-temporal bioenergetics model of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify how predation by three species of pinnipeds and killer whales (Orcinus orca) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has changed since the 1970s along the west coast of North America, and compare these estimates to salmon fisheries...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155008/-alternative-fuels-contributing-to-mitochondrial-electron-transport-importance-of-non-classical-pathways-in-the-diversity-of-animal-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Allison E McDonald, Nicolas Pichaud, Charles-A Darveau
The study of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in animals has yielded a wealth of information about bioenergetics. Less is known about how animals use fuels other than glucose and less characterized enzymes that are also used to provide electrons to the electron transport system. It has become clear that bioenergetic flexibility is employed by a wide variety of animals in order to successfully grow, maintain cells, and reproduce, and has contributed to the exploitation of new environments and ecological niches through evolution...
November 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153923/macrophages-sensing-oxidized-damps-reprogram-their-metabolism-to-support-redox-homeostasis-and-inflammation-through-a-tlr2-syk-ceramide-dependent-mechanism
#10
Vlad Serbulea, Clint M Upchurch, Katelyn W Ahern, Gael Bories, Paxton Voigt, Dory E DeWeese, Akshaya K Meher, Thurl E Harris, Norbert Leitinger
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages control tissue homeostasis and inflammation by sensing and responding to environmental cues. However, the metabolic adaptation of macrophages to oxidative tissue damage and its translation into inflammatory mechanisms remains enigmatic. METHODS: Here we identify the critical regulatory pathways that are induced by endogenous oxidation-derived DAMPs (oxidized phospholipids, OxPL) in vitro, leading to formation of a unique redox-regulatory metabolic phenotype (Mox), which is strikingly different from conventional classical or alternative macrophage activation...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146487/mitochondria-a-master-regulator-in-macrophage-and-t-cell-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Pu-Ste Liu, Ping-Chih Ho
Orchestrating biological activities of immune cells through metabolic reprogramming reveals a new approach to harnessing immune responses. Increasing evidence reveals that the mitochondrion is a central regulator for modulating metabolic reprogramming and controlling immune cell activation and functions. In addition to supporting bioenergetic demands, the mitochondrion serves as a signaling platform through the generation of reactive oxygen species and metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to modulate signaling cascades controlling immune cell activation and immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141558/modulation-of-cancer-metabolism-by-phytochemicals-a-brief-overview
#12
Danina Muntean, Sturza Adrian, Ioana Pavel, Oana Duicu
Despite tremendous research efforts for effective therapies, cancer remains the plague of the century and its burden is expected to increase worldwide in the near future. Metabolic reprogramming is a firmly established hallmark of all cancers, regardless their cellular or tissue origin, being a prerequisite for both tumor growth and invasion. Functional dependence of tumors on glycolysis and glutaminolysis and the crucial contribution of mitochondria to the tumor bioenergetic versatility are well recognized features and established therapeutic targets...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141199/disruption-of-mitochondrial-function-as-mechanism-for-anti-cancer-activity-of-a-novel-mitochondriotropic-menadione-derivative
#13
José Teixeira, Ricardo Amorim, Katia Santos, Pedro Soares, Sandipan Datta, Gino A Cortopassi, Teresa L Serafim, Vilma A Sardão, Jorge Garrido, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Menadione, also known as vitamin K3, is a 2-methyl-1,4 naphthoquinone with a potent cytotoxic activity mainly resulting from its quinone redox-cycling with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although increased ROS generation is considered a relevant mechanism in cancer cell death, it may not be sufficiently effective to kill cancer cells due to phenotypic adaptations. Therefore, combining ROS-generating agents with other molecules targeting important cancer cell phenotypes can be an effective therapeutic strategy...
November 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137866/development-of-noviomimetics-that-modulate-molecular-chaperones-and-manifest-neuroprotective-effects
#14
Leah K Forsberg, Mercy Anyika, Zhenyuan You, Sean Emery, Mason McMullen, Rick T Dobrowsky, Brian S J Blagg
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone under investigation for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroprotective Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors derived from novobiocin (novologues) include KU-32 and KU-596. These novologues modulate molecular chaperones and result in an induction of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70). "Noviomimetics" replace the synthetically complex noviose sugar with a simple cyclohexyl moiety to maintain biological efficacy as compared to novologues KU-596 and KU-32...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137280/ppar%C3%AE-sumoylation-mediated-lipid-accumulation-in-lung-cancer
#15
Ai N H Phan, Vu T A Vo, Tuyen N M Hua, Min-Kyu Kim, Se-Young Jo, Jong-Whan Choi, Hyun-Won Kim, Jaekyoung Son, Young-Ah Suh, Yangsik Jeong
Metabolic reprogramming as a crucial emerging hallmark of cancer is critical for tumor cells to maintain cellular bioenergetics, biosynthesis and reduction/oxidation (REDOX) balance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor regulating transcription of diverse gene sets involved in inflammation, metabolism, and suppressing tumor growth. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), as selective PPARγ ligands, are insulin-sensitizing drugs widely prescribed for type 2 diabetic patients in the clinic...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131367/influence-of-the-neural-microenvironment-on-prostate-cancer
#16
Christian Coarfa, Diego Florentin, NagiReddy Putluri, Yi Ding, Jason Au, Dandan He, Ahmed Ragheb, Anna Frolov, George Michailidis, MinJae Lee, Dov Kadmon, Brian Miles, Christopher Smith, Michael Ittmann, David Rowley, Arun Sreekumar, Chad J Creighton, Gustavo Ayala
BACKGROUND: Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. METHOD: We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy...
November 13, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129681/decreased-sirtuin-deacetylase-activity-in-lrrk2-g2019s-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons
#17
Andrew J Schwab, Samantha L Sison, Michael R Meade, Katarzyna A Broniowska, John A Corbett, Allison D Ebert
Mitochondrial changes have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The glycine to serine mutation (G2019S) in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause for PD and has been shown to impair mitochondrial function and morphology in multiple model systems. We analyzed mitochondrial function in LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons to determine whether the G2019S mutation elicits similar mitochondrial deficits among central and peripheral nervous system neuron subtypes...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119655/targeting-host-mitochondria-a-role-for-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-amastigote-flagellum
#18
Gaelle Lentini, Nicolas Dos Santos Pacheco, Barbara A Burleigh
Trypanosoma cruzi is the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite that causes human Chagas disease, a chronic disease with complex outcomes including severe cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In mammalian hosts, T. cruzi colonizes a wide range of tissues and cell types where it replicates within the host cell cytoplasm. Like all intracellular pathogens, T. cruzi amastigotes must interact with its immediate host cell environment in a manner that facilitates access to nutrients and promotes a suitable niche for replication and survival...
November 8, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113698/the-control-of-oligodendrocyte-bioenergetics-by-interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-and-src-homology-region-2-domain-containing-phosphatase-1-shp-1
#19
Scott B Minchenberg, Paul T Massa
Glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration are essential for oligodendrocyte metabolism in both the developing and adult CNS. Based on recent reports on the effects of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ on metabolism and on oligodendrocytes, we addressed whether IFN-γ may affect oligodendrocyte bioenergetics in ways relevant to CNS disease. Oligodendrocytes of mice treated with IFN-γ showed significant reductions in aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. As expected, IFN-γ treatment led to the induction of STAT1 in oligodendrocytes indicating active signaling into these cells...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113281/direct-effects-of-phenformin-on-metabolism-bioenergetics-and-viability-of-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#20
Fintan Geoghegan, Naomi Chadderton, G Jane Farrar, Daniela M Zisterer, Richard K Porter
Phenformin, a member of the biguanides class of drugs, has been reported to be efficacious in cancer treatment. The focus of the current study was to establish whether there were direct effects of phenformin on the metabolism and bioenergetics of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed using the alamar blue assay, flow cytometry analysis using propidium iodide and annexin V stain and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase analysis. Cellular and mitochondrial oxygen consumption was determined using a Seahorse Bioscience Flux analyser and an Oroboros Oxygraph respirometer...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
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