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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782848/impaired-tfeb-mediated-lysosome-biogenesis-and-autophagy-promote-chronic-ethanol-induced-liver-injury-and-steatosis-in-mice
#1
Xiaojuan Chao, Shaogui Wang, Katrina Zhao, Yuan Li, Jessica A Williams, Tiangang Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, Partha Krishnamurthy, Xi C He, Linheng Li, Andrea Ballabio, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. METHODS: We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfebflox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779216/glutamate-metabolism-in-cerebral-mitochondria-after-ischemia-and-post-ischemic-recovery-during-aging-relationships-with-brain-energy-metabolism
#2
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779174/correction-to-impaired-bioenergetics-in-mutant-mitochondrial-dna-determines-cell-fate-during-seizure-like-activity
#3
Stjepana Kovac, Elisavet Preza, Henry Houlden, Matthew C Walker, Andrey Y Abramov
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistake. The author's family name "Kov ac" was written with space thus this should be corrected to "Kovac".
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778974/metabolic-plasticity-during-transition-to-na%C3%A3-ve-like-pluripotency-in-canine-embryo-derived-stem-cells
#4
I C Tobias, R R Isaac, J G Dierolf, R Khazaee, R C Cumming, D H Betts
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been described in naïve or primed pluripotent states. Domestic dogs are useful translational models in regenerative medicine, but their embryonic stem cells (cESCs) remain narrowly investigated. Primed-like cESCs expanded in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 (LIF-FGF2) acquire features of naïve pluripotency when exposed to chemical inhibitors and LIF (2iL). However, proliferation of cESCs is influenced by the pluripotent state and is comparatively slower than human or mouse PSCs...
May 16, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778462/altered-mitochondrial-acetylation-profiles-in-a-kainic-acid-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Lindsey B Gano, Li-Ping Liang, Kristen Ryan, Cole R Michel, Joe Gomez, Athanassios Vassilopoulos, Nichole Reisdorph, Kristofer S Fritz, Manisha Patel
Impaired bioenergetics and oxidative damage in the mitochondria are implicated in the etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy, and hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins has recently emerged as a critical negative regulator of mitochondrial functions. However, the roles of mitochondrial acetylation and activity of the primary mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3, have not been explored in acquired epilepsy. We investigated changes in mitochondrial acetylation and SIRT3 activity in the development of chronic epilepsy in the kainic acid rat model of TLE...
May 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776923/environmental-adaptability-for-quorum-sensing-regulating-iron-uptake-during-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#6
Yang Zhang, Jie Gao, Lushan Wang, Shuangjiang Liu, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Paracoccus denitrificans is a valuable model organism due to its versatile respiration capability and bioenergetic flexibility, both of which are critical to its survival in different environments. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of many cell functions; however, whether QS systems play a role in P. denitrificans is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that iron uptake systems in P. denitrificans were directly regulated by a newly identified QS system. Genes coding for TonB-dependent systems, which transport chelated iron, were transcribed at higher levels in the QS-defective mutants...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774023/ferritin-h-deficiency-in-myeloid-compartments-dysregulates-host-energy-metabolism-and-increases-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Vineel P Reddy, Krishna C Chinta, Vikram Saini, Joel N Glasgow, Travis D Hull, Amie Traylor, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Miguel P Soares, Rajhmun Madansein, Md Aejazur Rahman, Coral Barbas, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, James F George, Anupam Agarwal, Adrie J C Steyn
Iron is an essential factor for the growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) . However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the host controls iron availability during infection. Since ferritin heavy chain (FtH) is a major intracellular source of reserve iron in the host, we hypothesized that the lack of FtH would cause dysregulated iron homeostasis to exacerbate TB disease. Therefore, we used knockout mice lacking FtH in myeloid-derived cell populations to study Mtb disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768250/metabolic-regulation-of-synaptic-activity
#8
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767665/karyotype-and-genome-size-comparative-analyses-among-six-species-of-the-oilseed-bearing-genus-jatropha-euphorbiaceae
#9
Anne C T A Marinho, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Emanuelle V Vasconcelos, Daniela A Marques, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal
Jatropha is an important genus of Euphorbiaceae, with species largely used for various purposes, including the manufacturing of soaps and pharmaceutical products and applications in the bioenergetic industry. Although there have been several studies focusing J. curcas in various aspects, the karyotype features of Jatropha species are poorly known. Therefore, we analyzed six Jatropha species through fluorochrome staining (CMA/DAPI), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes and genome size estimation by flow cytometry...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764521/amino-acid-transporter-slc7a11-xct-at-the-crossroads-of-regulating-redox-homeostasis-and-nutrient-dependency-of-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Pranavi Koppula, Yilei Zhang, Li Zhuang, Boyi Gan
Cancer cells often upregulate nutrient transporters to fulfill their increased biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs, and to maintain redox homeostasis. One nutrient transporter frequently overexpressed in human cancers is the cystine/glutamate antiporter solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11; also known as xCT). SLC7A11 promotes cystine uptake and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in protection from oxidative stress and ferroptotic cell death. Recent studies have unexpectedly revealed that SLC7A11 also plays critical roles in glutamine metabolism and regulates the glucose and glutamine dependency of cancer cells...
April 25, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763629/ventricular-pro-arrhythmic-phenotype-arrhythmic-substrate-ageing-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-deficient-pgc-1%C3%AE-murine-hearts
#11
Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Karan R Chadda, James Cranley, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L-H Huang
INTRODUCTION: Ageing and age-related bioenergetic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus and heart failure constitute clinical ventricular arrhythmic risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pro-arrhythmic properties in electrocardiographic and intracellular recordings were compared in young and aged, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β knockout (Pgc-1β-/- ) and wild type (WT), Langendorff-perfused murine hearts, during regular and programmed stimulation (PES), comparing results by two-way ANOVA...
May 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760217/temporal-manipulation-of-mitochondrial-function-by-virulent-francisella-tularensis-to-limit-inflammation-and-control-cell-death
#12
Forrest Jessop, Benjamin Schwarz, Emily Heitmann, Robert Buntyn, Tara Wehrly, Catharine M Bosio
Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis (Ftt) is a highly pathogenic intracellular bacterium that suppresses host inflammation by impairing the metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Decreased mitochondrial metabolism is central to initiating a metabolic shift to glycolysis and regulating inflammation, but Ftt manipulation of host mitochondrial function has not been explored. We demonstrate using extracellular flux analysis that Ftt infection initially improves host macrophage mitochondrial bioenergetics in a capsule dependent manner...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756682/design-strategy-of-multi-electron-transfer-catalysts-based-on-a-bioinformatic-analysis-of-oxygen-evolution-and-reduction-enzymes
#13
Hideshi Ooka, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Ryuhei Nakamura
Understanding the design strategy of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes is important to develop efficient artificial catalysts for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions. Here, based on a bioinformatic analysis of cyanobacterial oxygen evolution and reduction enzymes (photosystem II: PS II and cytochrome c oxidase: COX, respectively), the gene encoding the catalytic D1 subunit of PS II was found to be expressed individually across 38 phylogenetically diverse strains, which is in contrast to the operon structure of the genes encoding major COX subunits...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756604/alkaloids-nitric-oxide-and-nitrite-reductases-evolutionary-coupling-as-key-regulators-of-cellular-bioenergetics-with-special-relevance-to-the-human-microbiome
#14
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
Typical alkaloids expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are small heterocyclic compounds containing weakly basic nitrogen groups that are critically important for mediating essential biological activities. The prototype opiate alkaloid morphine represents a low molecular mass heterocyclic compound that has been evolutionarily fashioned from a relatively restricted role as a secreted antimicrobial phytoalexin into a broad spectrum regulatory molecule. As an essential corollary, positive evolutionary pressure has driven the development of a cognate 6-transmembrane helical (TMH) domain μ3 opiate receptor that is exclusively responsive to morphine and related opiate alkaloids...
May 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755415/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-type-2-diabetes-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Michelle Williams, M Cecilia Caino
Mitochondria are bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that control various aspects of cellular and organism homeostasis. Quality control mechanisms are in place to ensure maximal mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis at the cellular level. Dysregulation of these pathways is a common theme in human disease. In this mini-review, we discuss how alterations of the mitochondrial network influences mitochondrial function, focusing on the molecular regulators of mitochondrial dynamics (organelle's shape and localization)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753719/analysis-of-respiratory-capacity-in-brain-tissue-preparations-high-resolution-respirometry-for-intact-hippocampal-slices
#16
Cândida Dias, Cátia F Lourenço, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha, Ana Ledo
The evaluation of mitochondrial function provides the basis for the study of brain bioenergetics. However, analysis of brain mitochondrial respiration has been hindered by the low yield associated with mitochondria isolation procedures. Furthermore, isolating mitochondria or cells results in loss of the inherent complexity of the central nervous system. High-resolution respirometry (HRR), is a valuable tool to study mitochondrial function and has been used in diverse biological preparations ranging from isolated mitochondria to tissue homogenates and permeabilized tissue biopsies...
May 10, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750912/ras-signalling-in-energy-metabolism-and-rare-human-diseases
#17
REVIEW
L Dard, N Bellance, D Lacombe, R Rossignol
The RAS pathway is a highly conserved cascade of protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation that is at the heart of signalling networks that govern proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Recent findings indicate that the RAS pathway plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism via the control of mitochondrial form and function but little is known on the participation of this effect in RAS-related rare human genetic diseases. Germline mutations that hyperactivate the RAS pathway have been discovered and linked to human developmental disorders that are known as RASopathies...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748969/persulfide-synthases-function-coupled-with-translation-and-mediate-sulfur-respiration
#18
REVIEW
Shigemoto Fuji, Tomohiro Sawa, Hozumi Motohashi, Takaaki Akaike
Cysteine persulfide and polysulfide are produced in cells and exist in abundance in both low-molecular-weight and protein fractions. However, the mechanism of regulation of the formation of cellular cysteine polysulfides and the physiological functions of cysteine persulfides/polysulfides produced in cells are not fully understood. We recently demonstrated that cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) is novel cysteine persulfide synthase. CARS is involved in protein polysulfidation that is coupled with translation...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748931/selenium-nanoparticles-induce-the-chemo-sensitivity-of-fluorouracil-nanoparticles-in-breast-and-colon-cancer-cells
#19
Ahmed A Abd-Rabou, Aziza B Shalby, Hanaa H Ahmed
Drug resistance is a major challenge of breast and colon cancer therapies leading to treatment failure. The main objective of the current study is to investigate whether selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se) can induce the chemo-sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil (FU)-encapsulated poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (nano-FU) in breast and colon cancer cell lines. Nano-Se and nano-FU were synthesized and characterized, then applied individually or in combination upon MCF7, MDA-MB-231, HCT 116, and Caco-2 cancerous cell lines...
May 11, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746957/in-vivo-inhibition-of-circulating-tumor-cells-by-two-apoptosis-promoting-circular-aptamers-with-enhanced-specificity
#20
Haiyan Dong, Longyu Han, Jie Wang, Jingjing Xie, Yu Gao, Fangwei Xie, Lee Jia
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are known as the root cause of cancer metastasis that accounts for 90% of cancer death. Owing to the rarity of blood CTCs and their microenvironmental complexity, the existing biotechnology could not precisely capture and apoptosize CTCs in vivo for cancer metastasis prevention. Here, we designed two double strand circular aptamers aimed to simultaneously target MUC1 and HER2 surface biomarkers on mesenchymal cancer cells. The circular aptamers are composed of a capture arm for binding and seizing CTCs and a circular body for resisting degradation by exonucleases...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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