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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892547/non-rapid-eye-movement-arousal-parasomnias-in-children
#1
Vijayabharathi Ekambaram, Kiran Maski
Parasomnia is a common pediatric sleep disorder that can cause parents or caregivers distress when experienced by their children. Based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, parasomnias can be divided into two subgroups: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias and rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnias. REM sleep parasomnias include nightmares, REM behavior disorder, and sleep paralysis, whereas NREM sleep parasomnias include disorders of arousal such as confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856114/total-intravenous-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-procedures-in-narcoleptic-patients-two-case-reports
#2
Sara Pedrosa, Nuno Lareiro, Pedro Amorim
INTRODUCTION: Narcoleptic patients may be at increased risk of prolonged emergence, postoperative hypersomnia, apneic episodes, and sleep paralysis after general anesthesia. Modafinil is the first-line treatment, however, the implication it has on general anesthesia is not clear. This report present 2 cases of narcoleptic patients medicated with modafinil that were submitted to total intravenous anesthesia for neurosurgical procedures. CASE PRESENTATION: Informed consent was obtained from both patients...
June 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777174/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-other-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-parasomnias
#3
Birgit Högl, Alex Iranzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnia encountered by neurologists is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and nightmares are so frequent that every neurologist should be able to differentiate them from the dream enactment of RBD. Isolated sleep paralysis is relatively common and is often mistaken for other neurologic disorders. This article summarizes the current state of the art in the diagnosis of RBD, discusses the role of specific questionnaires and polysomnography in the diagnosis of RBD, and reviews recent studies on idiopathic RBD as an early feature of a synucleinopathy, secondary RBD, and its management...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735779/a-systematic-review-of-variables-associated-with-sleep-paralysis
#4
REVIEW
Dan Denis, Christopher C French, Alice M Gregory
Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. While the causes are unknown, a number of studies have investigated potential risk factors. In this article, we conducted a systematic review on the available literature regarding variables associated with both the frequency and intensity of sleep paralysis episodes. A total of 42 studies met the inclusion criteria. For each study, sample size, study site, sex and age of participants, sleep paralysis measure, and results of analyses looking at the relationship(s) between sleep paralysis and associated variable(s) were extracted...
June 8, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726523/investigational-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy
#5
REVIEW
Stefano de Biase, Annacarmen Nilo, Gian Luigi Gigli, Mariarosaria Valente
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by a pentad of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and disturbed nocturnal sleep. While non-pharmacological treatments are sometimes helpful, more than 90% of narcoleptic patients require a pharmacological treatment. Areas covered: The present review is based on an extensive Internet and PubMed search from 1994 to 2017. It is focused on drugs currently in development for the treatment of narcolepsy...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720601/a-case-of-progressive-orthopnoea-and-shoulder-pain-secondary-to-bilateral-diaphragmatic-paralysis
#6
Anna Herbert, Waseem Asrar Khan, Salem Madi
A 45-year-old man with a raised body mass index presented with an acute history of right lower chest pain and increasing breathlessness. C reactive protein, D dimer and cardiac echocardiography were negative, with mild bibasal atelectasis the only positive reported finding from erect chest X-ray and CT pulmonary angiogram. He was discharged with antibiotics for a chest infection. He remained severely breathless and was referred to the sleep-related breathing disorders clinic. He described shoulder pain, daytime tiredness and sleeping upright due to a ââ'¬Ëœsuffocatingââ'¬â"¢ sensation...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666745/the-clinical-spectrum-of-childhood-narcolepsy
#7
REVIEW
Emanuela Postiglione, Elena Antelmi, Fabio Pizza, Michel Lecendreux, Yves Dauvilliers, Giuseppe Plazzi
Narcolepsy type 1 is a life-long, severe, multifaceted disease often arising in childhood or adolescence. Beyond the classical symptoms (excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis and nocturnal fragmented sleep), metabolic, endocrinological, psychiatric and psychosocial aspects must be considered. Despite the increased awareness after H1N1 pandemic influenza and vaccination, narcolepsy is still misdiagnosed and unrecognized. The peculiar presentation of symptoms in narcoleptic children could in part explain the misdiagnoses...
May 8, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559867/response-commentary-how-to-make-the-ghosts-in-my-bedroom-disappear-focused-attention-meditation-combined-with-muscle-relaxation-mr-therapy-a-direct-treatment-intervention-for-sleep-paralysis
#8
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534293/psychiatric-illness-and-parasomnias-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Flavie Waters, Umberto Moretto, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known about the presence of parasomnias such as nightmare disorder, sleep paralysis, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and sleep-related eating disorders (SRED) in people with mental illness. A predominant view suggests that psychotropic medications might be contributing to parasomnias. This article summarizes knowledge regarding the relationships between psychiatric disorders and parasomnias, and possible confounds. A systematic search of the literature in the past 10 years identified 19 articles...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472332/the-spectrum-of-rem-sleep-related-episodes-in-children-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#10
Elena Antelmi, Fabio Pizza, Stefano Vandi, Giulia Neccia, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni, Marco Filardi, Gaetano Cantalupo, Rocco Liguori, Giuseppe Plazzi
Type 1 narcolepsy is a central hypersomnia due to the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons and characterized by cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. In children, close to the disease onset, type 1 narcolepsy has peculiar clinical features with severe cataplexy and a complex admixture of movement disorders occurring while awake. Motor dyscontrol during sleep has never been systematically investigated. Suspecting that abnormal motor control might affect also sleep, we systematically analysed motor events recorded by means of video polysomnography in 40 children with type 1 narcolepsy (20 females; mean age 11...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#11
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421022/commentary-how-to-make-the-ghosts-in-my-bedroom-disappear-focused-attention-meditation-combined-with-muscle-relaxation-mr-therapy-a-direct-treatment-intervention-for-sleep-paralysis
#12
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394031/degeneration-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-circuitry-underlies-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Dillon McKenna, John Peever
During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386925/vagus-nerve-stimulation-surgical-technique-of-implantation-and-revision-and-related-morbidity
#14
REVIEW
Flavio Giordano, Anna Zicca, Carmen Barba, Renzo Guerrini, Lorenzo Genitori
Indications for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy include focal, multifocal epilepsy, drop attacks (tonic/atonic seizures), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related multifocal epilepsy, and unsuccessful resective surgery. Surgical outcome is about 50-60% for seizures control, and may also improve mood, cognition, and memory. On this basis, VNS has also been proposed for the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's' disease. The vagus nerve stimulator must be implanted with blunt technique on the left side to avoid cardiac side effects through the classic approach for anterior cervical discectomy...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366334/description-of-sleep-paralysis-in-the-brothers-karamazov-by-dostoevsky
#15
A Stefani, A Iranzo, J Santamaria, B Högl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294380/oral-appliance-therapy-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-syndrome-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-on-self-reported-symptoms-of-common-sleep-disorders-and-sleep-related-problems
#16
M Nikolopoulou, A Byraki, J Ahlberg, M W Heymans, H L Hamburger, J De Lange, F Lobbezoo, G Aarab
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, sixty-four OSAS patients (52·0 ± 9·6 years) were randomly assigned to an MAD, nCPAP or an intra-oral placebo appliance in a parallel design...
June 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293186/sleep-paralysis-the-ghostly-bedroom-intruder-and-out-of-body-experiences-the-role-of-mirror-neurons
#17
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258080/measurement-of-narcolepsy-symptoms-the-narcolepsy-severity-scale
#18
Yves Dauvilliers, Severine Beziat, Carole Pesenti, Regis Lopez, Lucie Barateau, Bertrand Carlander, Gianina Luca, Mehdi Tafti, Charles M Morin, Michel Billiard, Isabelle Jaussent
OBJECTIVE: To validate the Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS), a brief clinical instrument to evaluate the severity and consequences of symptoms in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). METHODS: A 15-item scale to assess the frequency and severity of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disrupted nighttime sleep was developed and validated by sleep experts with patients' feedback. Seventy untreated and 146 treated adult patients with NT1 were evaluated and completed the NSS in a single reference sleep center...
April 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235898/gabaergic-neurons-of-the-central-amygdala-promote-cataplexy
#19
Carrie E Mahoney, Lindsay J Agostinelli, Jessica N K Brooks, Bradford B Lowell, Thomas E Scammell
Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy-sudden muscle paralysis triggered by strong, positive emotions. This condition is caused by a lack of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate cataplexy. The amygdala regulates responses to rewarding stimuli and contains neurons active during cataplexy. In addition, lesions of the amygdala reduce cataplexy. Because GABAergic neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) target brainstem regions known to regulate muscle tone, we hypothesized that these cells promote emotion-triggered cataplexy...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#20
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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