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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687484/participation-of-locus-coeruleus-in-breathing-control-in-female-rats
#1
Débora de Carvalho, Luis Gustavo A Patrone, Danuzia A Marques, Mariane C Vicente, Raphael E Szawka, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
Several evidences indicate that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in central chemoreception responding to CO2/pH and displaying a high percentage of chemosensitive neurons (>80%). However, there are no studies about the LC-mediated hypercapnic ventilation performed in females. Therefore, we assessed the role of noradrenergic LC neurons in non-ovariectomized (NOVX), ovariectomized (OVX) and estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) rats in respiratory response to hypercapnia, using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - lesion model...
July 4, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683763/new-setting-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-for-noninvasive-ventilation-by-facial-mask-a-physiologic-study
#2
Federico Longhini, Chun Pan, Jianfeng Xie, Gianmaria Cammarota, Andrea Bruni, Eugenio Garofalo, Yi Yang, Paolo Navalesi, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is generally delivered using pneumatically-triggered and cycled-off pressure support (PSP) through a mask. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is the only ventilatory mode that uses a non-pneumatic signal, i.e., diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), to trigger and drive ventilator assistance. A specific setting to generate neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) was recently proposed for delivering NIV by helmet. We compared PSN with PSP and NAVA during NIV using a facial mask, with respect to patient comfort, gas exchange, and patient-ventilator interaction and synchrony...
July 7, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673877/remifentanil-effects-on-respiratory-drive-and-timing-during-pressure-support-ventilation-and-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist
#3
Roberta Costa, Paolo Navalesi, Gianmaria Cammarota, Federico Longhini, Giorgia Spinazzola, Flora Cipriani, Giuliano Ferrone, Olimpia Festa, Massimo Antonelli, Giorgio Conti
We assessed the effects of varying doses of remifentanil on respiratory drive and timing in patients receiving Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA). Four incrementing remifentanil doses were randomly administered to thirteen intubated patients (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.1μg·Kg(-1)·min(-)1) during both PSV and NAVA. We measured the patient's (Ti/Ttotneu) and ventilator (Ti/Ttotmec) duty cycle, the Electrical Activity of the Diaphragm (EAdi), the inspiratory (Delaytrinsp) and expiratory (Delaytrexp) trigger delays and the Asynchrony Index (AI)...
July 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665692/excess-ventilation-in-copd-heart-failure-overlap-implications-for-dyspnea-and-exercise-intolerance
#4
Alcides Rocha, Flavio F Arbex, Priscilla A Sperandio, Aline Souza, Ligia Biazzim, Frederico Mancuso, Danilo C Berton, Bruno Hochhegger, Maria Clara N Alencar, Luiz E Nery, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: An increased ventilatory response to exertional metabolic demand (high ventilation (⩒E)-carbon dioxide output (⩒CO2) relationship) is a common finding in patients with coexistent COPD-heart failure. We aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying high ⩒E-⩒CO2 and its impact on operating lung volumes, dyspnea and exercise tolerance in these patients. METHODS: Twenty-two ex-smokers with combined COPD and heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) undertook, after careful treatment optimization, a progressive cycle exercise test with capillary (c) blood gas collection...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623885/monitoring-the-electric-activity-of-the-diaphragm-during-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-a-case-report
#5
Fabia Diniz-Silva, Anna Miethke-Morais, Adriano M Alencar, Henrique T Moriya, Pedro Caruso, Eduardo L V Costa, Juliana C Ferreira
BACKGROUND: In patients with post-extubation respiratory distress, delayed reintubation may worsen clinical outcomes. Objective measures of extubation failure at the bedside are lacking, therefore clinical parameters are currently used to guide the need of reintubation. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) provides clinicians with valuable, objective information about respiratory drive and could be used to monitor respiratory effort. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), from whom we recorded EAdi during four different ventilatory conditions: 1) invasive mechanical ventilation, 2) spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), 3) unassisted spontaneous breathing, and 4) Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV)...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587125/equine-welfare-during-exercise-an-evaluation-of-breathing-breathlessness-and-bridles
#6
REVIEW
David J Mellor, Ngaio J Beausoleil
Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses...
May 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569280/respiratory-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
D Forsyth, K M Torsney
Respiratory dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease since it was first described in 1817. The respiratory symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease patients vary greatly. Most patients remain asymptomatic, whereas others present with acute shortness of breath and even stridor. In August 2016, an electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Results were screened and studies reporting on respiratory dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease were included. Respiratory dysfunction is due to a combination of factors including restrictive changes, upper airway obstruction, abnormal ventilatory drive and response to medications...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554331/outcome-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-university-and-non-university-hospitals-in-germany
#8
Konstantinos Raymondos, Tamme Dirks, Michael Quintel, Ulrich Molitoris, Jörg Ahrens, Thorben Dieck, Kai Johanning, Dietrich Henzler, Rolf Rossaint, Christian Putensen, Hermann Wrigge, Ralph Wittich, Maximilian Ragaller, Thomas Bein, Martin Beiderlinden, Maxi Sanmann, Christian Rabe, Jörn Schlechtweg, Monika Holler, Fernando Frutos-Vivar, Andres Esteban, Hartmut Hecker, Simone Rosseau, Vera von Dossow, Claudia Spies, Tobias Welte, Siegfried Piepenbrock, Steffen Weber-Carstens
BACKGROUND: This study investigates differences in treatment and outcome of ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) between university and non-university hospitals in Germany. METHODS: This subanalysis of a prospective, observational cohort study was performed to identify independent risk factors for mortality by examining: baseline factors, ventilator settings (e.g., driving pressure), complications, and care settings-for example, case volume of ventilated patients, size/type of intensive care unit (ICU), and type of hospital (university/non-university hospital)...
May 30, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515334/central-acting-therapeutics-alleviate-respiratory-weakness-caused-by-heart-failure-induced-ventilatory-overdrive
#9
Andrew J Foster, Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Ashley L Eadie, Alicia M Arkell, Nadya Romanova, David C Wright, Todd E Gillis, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
Diaphragmatic weakness is a feature of heart failure (HF) associated with dyspnea and exertional fatigue. Most studies have focused on advanced stages of HF, leaving the cause unresolved. The long-standing theory is that pulmonary edema imposes a mechanical stress, resulting in diaphragmatic remodeling, but stable HF patients rarely exhibit pulmonary edema. We investigated how diaphragmatic weakness develops in two mouse models of pressure overload-induced HF. As in HF patients, both models had increased eupneic respiratory pressures and ventilatory drive...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493943/open-lung-approach-versus-standard-protective-strategies-effects-on-driving-pressure-and-ventilatory-efficiency-during-anesthesia-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Carlos Ferrando, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann, Gerardo Tusman, Irene León, Esther Romero, Estefania Gracia, Ana Mugarra, Blanca Arocas, Natividad Pozo, Marina Soro, Francisco J Belda
BACKGROUND: Low tidal volume (VT) during anesthesia minimizes lung injury but may be associated to a decrease in functional lung volume impairing lung mechanics and efficiency. Lung recruitment (RM) can restore lung volume but this may critically depend on the post-RM selected PEEP. This study was a randomized, two parallel arm, open study whose primary outcome was to compare the effects on driving pressure of adding a RM to low-VT ventilation, with or without an individualized post-RM PEEP in patients without known previous lung disease during anesthesia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487387/different-determinants-of-ventilatory-inefficiency-at-different-stages-of-reduced-ejection-fraction-chronic-heart-failure-natural-history
#11
Alessandro Mezzani, Andrea Giordano, Klara Komici, Ugo Corrà
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether determinants of ventilation (VE)/volume of exhaled carbon dioxide (VCO2) slope during incremental exercise may differ at different stages of reduced ejection fraction chronic heart failure natural history. METHODS AND RESULTS: VE/VCO2 slope was fitted up to lowest VE/VCO2 ratio, that is, a proxy of the VE/perfusion ratio devoid of nonmetabolic stimuli to ventilatory drive. VE/VCO2 slope tertiles were generated from our database (<27...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485314/effects-of-propofol-on-respiratory-drive-and-patient-ventilator-synchrony-during-pressure-support-ventilation-in-postoperative-patients-a-prospective-study
#12
Ling Liu, Ai-Ping Wu, Yi Yang, Song-Qiao Liu, Ying-Zi Huang, Jian-Feng Xie, Chun Pan, Cong-Shan Yang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Propofol is increasingly used during partial support mechanical ventilation such as pressure support ventilation (PSV) in postoperative patients. However, breathing pattern, respiratory drive, and patient-ventilator synchrony are affected by the sedative used and the sedation depth. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiologic effects of varying depths of propofol sedation on respiratory drive and patient-ventilator synchrony during PSV in postoperative patients. METHODS: Eight postoperative patients receiving PSV for <24 h were enrolled...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483860/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-predominant-central-sleep-apnea-relieved-by-positive-airway-pressure-a-case-report
#13
Noah P Jouett, Michael L Smith, Donald E Watenpaugh, Maryam Siddiqui, Maleeha Ahmad, Farrukh Siddiqui
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is characterized by intermittent apneas and hypopneas during sleep that result from absent central respiratory drive. CSA occurs almost exclusively during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep due to enhanced neuronal ventilatory drive during REM sleep that makes central apneas highly unlikely to form. A 45-year-old obese African American female presented with co-existing Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and CSA, not in the form of mixed or complex sleep apnea. Peculiarly, her CSA occurred only during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, which is exceedingly rare...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443680/periodic-breathing-during-incremental-exercise
#14
Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ugo Corrà, Michele Emdin
Periodic breathing during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a regularly recurring waxing and waning of tidal volume due to oscillations in central respiratory drive. Periodic breathing is a sign of respiratory control system instability, which may occur at rest or during exercise. The possible mechanisms responsible of exertional periodic breathing might be related to any instability of the ventilatory regulation caused by: 1) increased circulatory delay (i.e., circulation time from the lung to the brain and chemoreceptors, due to reduced cardiac index leading to delay in information transfer), 2) increase in controller gain (i...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442632/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-and-respiratory-drive-in-obese-subjects
#15
Mehdi Chlif, Anis Chaouachi, Said Ahmaidi
BACKGROUND: Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0...
April 25, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436715/controlled-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-strategies-in-obese-patients-undergoing-surgery
#16
Lígia de Albuquerque Maia, Pedro Leme Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes...
April 28, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404729/wings-as-impellers-honey-bees-co-opt-flight-system-to-induce-nest-ventilation-and-disperse-pheromones
#17
Jacob M Peters, Nick Gravish, Stacey A Combes
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are remarkable fliers that regularly carry heavy loads of nectar and pollen, supported by a flight system - the wings, thorax and flight muscles - that one might assume is optimized for aerial locomotion. However, honey bees also use this system to perform other crucial tasks that are unrelated to flight. When ventilating the nest, bees grip the surface of the comb or nest entrance and fan their wings to drive airflow through the nest, and a similar wing-fanning behavior is used to disperse volatile pheromones from the Nasonov gland...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345959/ventilatory-inefficiency-and-exertional-dyspnea-in-early-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
J Alberto Neder, Danilo C Berton, Paulo de Tarso Müller, Amany F Elbehairy, Alcides Rocha, Paolo Palange, Denis E O'Donnell
Exertional dyspnea is present across the spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity. However, without realizing it themselves, patients may decrease daily physical activity to avoid distressing respiratory sensations. Dyspnea also may be associated with deconditioning. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can uncover exertional dyspnea and its physiological determinants in patients with preserved or only mildly-reduced FEV1. Dyspnea in mild COPD can largely be explained by increased "wasted" ventilation in the physiological dead space which heightens the drive to breathe and worsens the inspiratory mechanical constraints...
March 27, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266873/alteration-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-after-hypoxia-reoxygenation-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
Jiaxing Zhang, Ji Chen, Cunxiu Fan, Jinqiang Li, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ming Fan
Zhang, Jiaxing, Ji Chen, Cunxiu Fan, Jinqiang Li, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, and Ming Fan. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity after hypoxia-reoxygenation: A resting-state fMRI study. High Alt Med Biol. 18:20-26, 2017.-The present study was designed to investigate the effect of hypoxia-reoxygenation on the spontaneous neuronal activity in brain. Sixteen sea-level (SL) soldiers (20.5 ± 0.7 years), who garrisoned the frontiers in high altitude (HA) (2300-4400 m) for two years and subsequently descended to sea level for one to seven days, were recruited...
March 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237273/sex-differences-in-leptin-modulate-ventilation-in-heart-failure
#20
Ivan Cundrle, Virend K Somers, Prachi Singh, Bruce D Johnson, Christopher G Scott, Lyle J Olson
BACKGROUND: Leptin modulates ventilation and circulating levels are higher in normal women than men. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare exercise ventilation and gas exchange in men and women with heart failure (HF) and their relation to circulating leptin concentration. METHODS: Consecutive HF patients were studied by cardiopulmonary exercise testing and assay of circulating leptin concentration. RESULTS: Fifty-seven men and 20 women were similar with respect to age, BMI, NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and peak oxygen consumption (all p > 0...
February 23, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
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