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Situation awareness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105909/on-the-inconsistency-of-%C3%A2-1-penalised-sparse-precision-matrix-estimation
#1
Otte Heinävaara, Janne Leppä-Aho, Jukka Corander, Antti Honkela
BACKGROUND: Various ℓ 1-penalised estimation methods such as graphical lasso and CLIME are widely used for sparse precision matrix estimation and learning of undirected network structure from data. Many of these methods have been shown to be consistent under various quantitative assumptions about the underlying true covariance matrix. Intuitively, these conditions are related to situations where the penalty term will dominate the optimisation. RESULTS: We explore the consistency of ℓ 1-based methods for a class of bipartite graphs motivated by the structure of models commonly used for gene regulatory networks...
December 13, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105532/machiavellian-emotion-regulation-in-a-cognitive-reappraisal-task-an-fmri-study
#2
Anita Deak, Barbara Bodrogi, Brigitte Biro, Gabor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Tamas Bereczkei
Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability...
January 19, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102530/surgeon-preparedness-for-mass-casualty-events-adapting-essential-military-surgical-lessons-for-the-home-front
#3
Kyle N Remick, Stacy Shackelford, John S Oh, Jason M Seery, Daniel Grabo, John Chovanes, Kirby R Gross, Shawn C Nessen, Nigel Rm Tai, Rory F Rickard, Eric Elster, C W Schwab
Military surgeons have gained familiarity and experience with mass casualty events (MCEs) as a matter of routine over the course of the last two conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Over the same period of time, civilian surgeons have increasingly faced complex MCEs on the home front. Our objective is to summarize and adapt these combat surgery lessons to enhance civilian surgeon preparedness for complex MCEs on the home front. The authors describe the unique lessons learned from combat surgery over the course of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and adapt these lessons to enhance civilian surgical readiness for a MCE on the home front...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095278/awareness-of-hiv-transmission-risks-and-determinants-of-sexual-behaviour-descriptive-and-multivariate-analyses-among-german-nursing-students
#4
Carolin Jacob, Katharina von Lindeman, Jörg Klewer, Joachim Kugler
AIM: Nursing students play a crucial role in sexual health education. Evidence suggests, however, that nursing students had several gaps in their knowledge of HIV transmission. This study investigates how nursing students in Germany assess the potential risks of spreading HIV in defined situations and which factors influence the self-expressed sexual behaviour patterns of these students. METHODS: A standardized anonymous questionnaire was administered to a sample (N=617) of nursing students in 2008 and 2013...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092715/-family-a-challenge-for-the-future-of-our-earth
#5
Gilberto A Gamboa-Bernal
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the family as the basic cell of society, highlighting its importance, the need to protect it, to promote it as a natural and fundamental group unit of society. To reflect on the effects that the actual culture is in the family is important from the situation as it is now presented, then move to raise the changes seen necessary to ensure their own future and that of their habitat that is Earth. To accomplish this first task some study results World Family Map 2015 is glossed...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092456/improving-biosurveillance-systems-to-enable-situational-awareness-during-public-health-emergencies
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075417/enriching-mental-health-mobile-assessment-and-intervention-with-situation-awareness
#7
Ariel Soares Teles, Artur Rocha, Francisco José da Silva E Silva, João Correia Lopes, Donal O'Sullivan, Pepijn Van de Ven, Markus Endler
Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan, a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster, an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices...
January 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074313/characterizing-clinical-genetic-counselors-countertransference-experiences-an-exploratory-study
#8
Rebecca Reeder, Patricia McCarthy Veach, Ian M MacFarlane, Bonnie S LeRoy
Countertransference (CT) refers to conscious and unconscious emotions, fantasies, behaviors, perceptions, and psychological defenses genetic counselors experience in response to any aspect of genetic counseling situations (Weil 2010). Some authors theorize about the importance of recognizing and managing CT, but no studies solely aim to explore genetic counselors' experiences of the phenomenon. This study examined the extent to which clinical genetic counselors' perceive themselves as inclined to experience CT, gathered examples of CT encountered in clinical situations, and assessed their CT management strategies...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073688/state-legal-innovations-to-encourage-naloxone-dispensing
#9
Corey Davis, Derek Carr
OBJECTIVES: The opioid overdose epidemic continues to claim the lives of tens of thousands of Americans every year. Increased access to the opioid antagonist naloxone can reduce opioid-related morbidity and mortality. In this commentary, we describe several recent legal innovations designed to encourage pharmacists to ensure that naloxone is available when and where it is needed, and dispel some common misconceptions regarding potential legal risks associated with pharmacy naloxone dispensing...
January 7, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067939/care-strategies-and-therapeutic-pathways-for-chronic-pain-patients-in-abruzzo-region-italy
#10
C Leuter, A Piroli, A Paladini, M Tudini, G Varrassi
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is considered to be among the most disabling and costly diseases in North America, Europe and Australia. A large survey was conducted on chronic pain in Europe, called Pain in Europe. Italy ranks third in Europe in terms of prevalence, with 26% of the population suffering from chronic pain at some point. In 2010 Italy passed Law 38/2010, to ensure treatment for pain control in patients with oncological diseases as well as in patients with chronic non-cancer pain through a network of care services...
January 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063773/the-implementation-of-a-naloxone-rescue-program-in-university-students
#11
Shannon G Panther, Brenda S Bray, John R White
OBJECTIVE: Responding to the nationwide opioid overdose epidemic, Washington State University initiated a naloxone safety net project intending to increase awareness of opioid overdose, increase the availability of naloxone, and examine university students' perceptions regarding the usefulness of a novel, large-group audience-training model. SETTING: A Washington State University campus. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: In September 2014, university students were recruited to attended a large-group audience training event which included opioid overdose prevention, recognition, and first response...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059878/the-cross-cultural-societal-response-to-sci-health-and-related-systems
#12
Diana Pacheco Barzallo, Mirja H Gross-Hemmi
OBJECTIVE: The Learning Health System for Spinal Cord Injury (LHS-SCI) is an initiative aligned with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Disability Action Plan. Based on the outcomes of this initiative, countries will be able to shape their health systems to better respond to the needs of persons with SCI. This paper describes and compares the macroeconomic situation and societal response to SCI across 27 countries from all 6 WHO regions that will participate in the LHS-SCI initiative...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056650/the-differential-role-of-smell-and-taste-for-eating-behavior
#13
Sanne Boesveldt, Kees de Graaf
Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056136/visual-suppression-at-the-offset-of-binocular-rivalry
#14
Tom Alexander de Graaf, Raymond van Ee, Dennis Croonenberg, Peter Christiaan Klink, Alexander Thomas Sack
Various paradigms can make visual stimuli disappear from awareness, but they often involve stimuli that are either relatively weak, competing with other salient inputs, and/or presented for a prolonged period of time. Here we explore a phenomenon that involves controlled perceptual disappearance of a peripheral visual stimulus without these limitations. It occurs when one eye's stimulus is abruptly removed during a binocular rivalry situation. This manipulation renders the remaining stimulus, which is still being presented to the other eye, invisible for up to several seconds...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053184/current-status-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-mood-disorders-a-clinical-review
#15
Dusan Kolar
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for mood disorders and a viable treatment option especially when urgency of clinical situation requires a prompt treatment response. After acute series of ECT, the ECT long-term treatment may be considered, although this practice may vary significantly between countries or even within the same country, because there is no universal consensus about its indications, duration and frequency of administration. Continuation or maintenance ECT is common in routine clinical practice and clinicians should be aware of the risks of using ECT long term...
January 4, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051356/state-of-science-situation-awareness-in-individuals-teams-and-systems
#16
N A Stanton, P M Salmon, G H Walker, E Salas, P A Hancock
Our review addresses one of the most used, but debated, topics in Ergonomics: Situation Awareness (SA). We examine and elaborate upon key SA models. These models are divided into individual SA, team SA and systems SA categories. Despite, or perhaps because of, the debates surrounding SA it remains an enduring theme for research and practice in the domain of Ergonomics, now for over two decades. A contingent approach, which seeks to match different models of SA to different types of ergonomics problem, enables the differences between positions to be revealed and reconciled, and the practitioner guided towards optimum methodological solutions...
January 4, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050997/mortality-among-homeless-women-who-remain-unclaimed-after-death-an-insight
#17
Aayushi Garg, Chittaranjan Behera, Saurav Chopra, D N Bhardwaj
BACKGROUND: Some homeless people remain unclaimed after death. Although women constitute a minor proportion among the homeless, they represent a more vulnerable section. We reviewed the major autopsy characteristics and causes of death among women whose bodies remained unclaimed after death. METHODS: We analysed the autopsy records and inquest papers of unclaimed bodies of women for the period 2006-12 at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi...
July 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049485/the-dangers-of-accepting-a-single-diagnosis-case-report-of-concurrent-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-and-dengue-infection
#18
Soon Eu Chong, Rhendra Hardy Mohamad Zaini, Siti Suraiya, Kok Tong Lee, Jo Anne Lim
BACKGROUND: Dengue and malaria are two common, mosquito-borne infections, which may lead to mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different carrier mosquitoes. The first case reported was in 2005. Since then, several concurrent infections have been reported between the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Symptoms of each infection may be masked by a simultaneous second infection, resulting in late treatment and severe complications...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043535/delay-in-diagnosis-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-of-rayagada-district-odisha-india
#19
Dasarathi Das, Bhagirathi Dwibedi
BACKGROUND: India accounts for more than one-fifth of the world's tuberculosis (TB) burden. In spite of efforts taken by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, tribal areas of the state of Odisha report a high TB incidence over the years. One of the reasons could be delay in reporting to health facilities by the symptomatic patients. During such delays an active case may infect numerous susceptible people thereby contributing to the perpetuation of the infection. The delay in diagnosis may be as long as 2-3months and even more in hard-to-reach areas...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039297/realistic-evaluation-of-situation-awareness-for-everyone-safe-on-paediatric-wards-study-protocol
#20
J Deighton, J Edbrooke-Childs, E Stapley, N Sevdalis, J Hayes, D Gondek, E Sharples, P Lachman
INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that health outcomes for hospitalised children in the UK are worse than other countries in Europe, with an estimated 1500 preventable deaths in hospital each year. It is presumed that some of these deaths are due to unanticipated deterioration, which could have been prevented by earlier intervention, for example, sepsis. The Situation Awareness For Everyone (SAFE) intervention aims to redirect the 'clinical gaze' to encompass a range of prospective indicators of risk or deterioration, including clinical indicators and staff concerns, so that professionals can review relevant information for any given situation...
December 30, 2016: BMJ Open
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