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Bowel disease

Elena Layunta, Eva Latorre, Raquel Forcén, Laura Grasa, Marta Castro, Maykel A Arias, Ana I Alcalde, José Emilio Mesonero
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serotonin (5-HT) is a chief modulator of intestinal activity. The effects of 5-HT depend on its extracellular availability, which is mainly controlled by serotonin transporter (SERT), expressed in enterocytes. On the other hand, innate immunity, mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), is known to control intestinal microbiota and maintain intestinal homeostasis. The dysregulation of the intestinal serotonergic system and innate immunity has been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the incidence of which has severely increased all over the world...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ryan Ichikawa, Christopher A Lamb, Jeff Eastham-Anderson, Alexis Scherl, Laura Raffals, William A Faubion, Miriam R Bennett, Anna K Long, John C Mansfield, John A Kirby, Mary E Keir
Background: Recent findings suggest that αE expression is enriched on effector T cells and that intestinal αE+ T cells have increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. αE integrin expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to etrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against β7 integrin that targets both α4β7 and αEβ7. We evaluated the prevalence and localisation of αE+ cells as well as total αE gene expression in healthy subjects and inflammatory bowel disease patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
Inflammation contributes to colon cancer initiation. The disease along with allergy and autoimmunity has been on the rise in Western and more recently in developing countries. This shared rise may imply a shared cause. Streptomycetes are known as soil residents and produce numerous antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive compounds, e.g. rapamycin and tacrolimus. Recently, Streptomyces has been shown in gut microbiome with a lower prevalence in humans than nonhumans whose microbiomes might be more representative of past humans' in a hunter-gatherer and farming environment...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Irene Marafini, Giovanni Monteleone
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two main clinical entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These disorders are characterized by various grades of tissue damage and development of local complications and extra-intestinal manifestations. The cause of IBD remains unknown but accumulating evidence indicates that both CD and UC arise in genetically-predisposed individuals as a result of the action of multiple environmental factors, which ultimately trigger excessive and poorly-controlled immune response against antigens of the luminal flora...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Mary Garvey
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a bacterial parasite and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease predominately found in cattle and sheep. Infection with this microorganism results in substantial farming economic losses and animal morbidity. The link between infection with this pathogen and human disease has been theorised for many years with Crohn's disease being one of many suspected resultant conditions. Mycobacterium avium may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the foodborne route of exposure represents a significant risk for susceptible populations, namely children and the immune-compromised...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Tanbeena Imam, Sungtae Park, Mark H Kaplan, Matthew R Olson
The gastrointestinal tract is a site of high immune challenge, as it must maintain a delicate balance between tolerating luminal contents and generating an immune response toward pathogens. CD4+ T cells are key in mediating the host protective and homeostatic responses. Yet, CD4+ T cells are also known to be the main drivers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when this balance is perturbed. Many subsets of CD4+ T cells have been identified as players in perpetuating chronic intestinal inflammation. Over the last few decades, understanding of how each subset of Th cells plays a role has dramatically increased...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vera Buchele, Benjamin Abendroth, Maike Büttner-Herold, Tina Vogler, Johanna Rothamer, Sakhila Ghimire, Evelyn Ullrich, Ernst Holler, Markus F Neurath, Kai Hildner
Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening, inflammatory donor T cell-mediated complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In the light of the reported efficacy of interleukin-23 (IL-23)-blockade to mitigate syngeneic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease patients, targeting IL-23 and thereby interleukin-17a (IL-17a) producing T helper (Th17) cells as the T cell subset assumed to be mostly regulated by IL-23, has emerged as a putatively general concept to harness immune-mediated mucosal inflammation irrespective of the underlying trigger...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ellen J Beswick, Carl Grim, Abinav Singh, Jose E Aguirre, Marissa Tafoya, Suimin Qiu, Gerhard Rogler, Rohini McKee, Von Samedi, Thomas Y Ma, Victor E Reyes, Don W Powell, Irina V Pinchuk
Background and Aims: The role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands in the dysregulation of T helper immune responses observed in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. Recently, a novel concept emerged that CD90+ colonic (myo)fibroblasts (CMFs), also known as stromal cells, act as immunosuppressors, and are among the key regulators of acute and chronic inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine if the level of the PD-1 ligands is changed in the IBD inflamed colonic mucosa and to test the hypothesis that changes in IBD-CMF-mediated PD-1 ligand-linked immunosuppression is a mechanism promoting the dysregulation of Th1 cell responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tara Man Kadayat, Suhrid Banskota, Ganesh Bist, Pallavi Gurung, Til Bahadur Thapa Magar, Aarajana Shrestha, Jung-Ae Kim, Eung-Seok Lee
A series of pyridine-linked indanone derivatives were designed and synthesized to discover new small molecules for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Compounds 5b and 5d exhibited strongest inhibitory activity against TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion to colon epithelial cells (an in vitro model of colitis). In TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid)-induced rat colitis model, oral administration of the compounds 5b and 5d ameliorated colitis with significant recovery in altered expressions of E-cadherin, TNF-α and IL-1β expressions, indicating 5b and 5d as potential agents for therapeutics development against IBD...
June 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Dehong Xie, Yudong Zhang, Hao Qu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to uncover new potential genes associated with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The datasets GSE36807 and GSE9686 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Totally, 24 Crohn's disease (CD) samples, 20 ulcerative colitis (UC) samples and 15 healthy controls in the two datasets were used for our analysis. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by limma package. Then, co-expression network was constructed by weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) package, and co-expression network modules were obtained via clustering method...
June 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Alexander Johannes Martinus Dingemans, Carlos Albert Reck-Burneo, Molly Fuchs, Alejandra Vilanova Sanchez, Victoria Alison Lane, Erin Hoover, Tassiana Maloof, Laura Weaver, Marc A Levitt, Richard J Wood
INTRODUCTION:  Previous research in children with Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and Down's syndrome (DS) has focused on colorectal outcomes. We set out to review urinary outcomes in this patient group. METHODS:  The medical records of all patients aged five years and older with HD were reviewed, and patients and caregivers filled out the Vancouver Symptom Score at intake, which is designed and validated to diagnose dysfunctional elimination syndrome. RESULTS:  A total of 104 patients with HD were included in this study...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
P Szafors, H Che, T Barnetche, J Morel, C Gaujoux-Viala, B Combe, C Lukas
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are associated with a decreased bone mineral density, but the impact on fractures is unknown. In our study, global risk of fracture is increased for patients with IBDs versus controls. This result will help to determine the appropriate assessment with early screening and management of osteoporosis. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are associated with a decreased bone mineral density (BMD). However, the impact on fracture risk is unknown and data are contradictory across studies...
June 16, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Suhrid Banskota, Jean-Eric Ghia, Waliul I Khan
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) once most extensively studied as a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, is seen to be predominantly secreted in the gut. About 95% of 5-HT is estimated to be found in gut mainly within the enterochromaffin cells whereas about 5% is found in the brain. 5-HT is an important enteric signaling molecule and is well known for playing a key role in sensory-motor and secretory functions in the gut. In recent times studies uncovering various new functions of gut-derived 5-HT indicate that many more are yet to be discovered in coming days...
June 14, 2018: Biochimie
Lili Chen, Zhengxiang He, Alina Cornelia Iuga, Sebastião N Martins Filho, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C Clemente, Madhura Deshpande, Anitha Jayaprakash, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Juan J Lafaille, Ravi Sachidanandam, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that signaling via the interleukin 23 (IL23) receptor is required for development of colitis. We studied the roles of IL23, dietary factors, alterations to the microbiota, and T cells in development and progression of colitis in mice. METHODS: All mice were maintained on lab diet 5053, unless otherwise noted. We generated mice that express IL23 in CX3CR1-positive myeloid cells (R23FR mice) upon cyclic administration of tamoxifen dissolved in diet 2019...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Yun Liu, I Sophie T Bos, Tjitske A Oenema, Herman Meurs, Harm Maarsingh, Anna K H Hirsch
Budesonide is a hydrophobic glucocorticoid with high anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. A micellar drug-delivery system based on lipid-DNA may provide a strategy to maximize its drug efficacy and reduce adverse effects. In this work, we report the use of lipid-DNA (UU11mer), featuring two hydrophobic alkyl chains and forming micelles at a comparatively low critical micelle concentration, to render budesonide water-soluble with a high loading capacity (LC)...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
P Haines Ely
The gut is the largest lymphoid organ in the body. The human microbiome is composed of trillions of bacteria. The DNA of these bacteria dwarfs the human genome. Diet and ethanol can cause rapid shifts in the number and types of bacteria in the gut. The psoriatic microbiome is similar to that seen in alcoholics; there is a decrease in bacterial diversity and overgrowth of bacteria in the small bowel. Psoriatics often have liver disease and deficiencies in bile acids. Psoriasis is a disease characterized by a leaky gut...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Mathew Wooster, Paul Armstrong, Martin Back
OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of pelvic circulation has been connected to reduced risks of ischemic colitis, buttock claudication, erectile dysfunction, and spinal cord ischemia during the treatment of extensive aorto-iliac aneurysmal disease. We evaluate the mid to late follow up of a cohort of patients treated using one preservation technique, the endovascular external (EIA) to internal (IIA) iliac artery bypass. METHODS: All patients undergoing elective retrograde EIA-IIA endovascular bypass at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed over a ten-year period from 2006-2016...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Adam K Rosenstein, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frederic Colombel
The emergence of biologic therapies is arguably the greatest therapeutic advance in the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to date, allowing directed treatments targeted at highly specific molecules shown to play critical roles in disease pathogenesis, with advantages in potency and selectivity. Furthermore, a large number of new biologic and small-molecule therapies in IBD targeting a variety of pathways are at various stages of development that should soon lead to a dramatic expansion in our therapeutic armamentarium...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Giovanna Ferrara, Serena Pastore, Lara Sancin, Lucio Torelli, Oriano Radillo, Matteo Bramuzzo, Chiara Bibalo, Alberto Tommasini, Alessandro Ventura, Andrea Taddio
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test fecal calprotectin (FC) as a screening tool to identify inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: FC level < 100 g/kg was considered normal. Patients with 2 consecutive FC dosage ≥ 100 g/kg underwent endoscopic evaluation. RESULTS: There were 113 patients with JIA enrolled. FC was raised in 7 patients out of 113. All patients had IBD. In 3/7 patients, high FC levels were the only sign consistent with IBD...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Anil Kumar Bhatta
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Approximately one-third of the patients with IBD are seen to develop extraintestinal manifestations, among which cutaneous manifestations are the most common and should be managed in close collaboration with a dermatologist. Depending upon the nature of the association, skin conditions associated with IBD can be listed under 4 categories: specific, reactive, secondary to malnutrition or malabsorption, and secondary to drug therapy...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
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