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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449424/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-refractory-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-case-series-of-nine-patients
#1
Byoung Wook Bang, Jin Seok Park, Hyung Kil Kim, Yong Woon Shin, Kye Sook Kwon, Hea Yoon Kwon, Ji Hyeon Baek, Jin Soo Lee
Background/Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Despite its excellent efficacy and recent widespread use, FMT has not been widely used in South Korea thus far. We describe our experience with FMT to treat refractory/recurrent CDI. Methods: We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent FMT for refractory/recurrent CDI at Inha University Hospital, between March 2014 and June 2016...
April 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449344/endoscopic-features-and-genetic-background-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-complicated-with-takayasu-arteritis
#2
Shintaro Akiyama, Toshimitsu Fujii, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Ebana Yusuke, Mariko Negi, Kento Takenaka, Masakazu Nagahori, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Mitsuaki Isobe, Mamoru Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is occasionally complicated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study assessed the endoscopic and genetic features of IBD complicated with TA (IBD-TA). METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 142 TA patients (14 men and 128 women; median age 48.5 years [range, 18-97 years]). Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) types and a single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6871626 in the IL12B gene were assessed in 101 and 81 patients with TA, respectively...
May 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449273/systematic-review-the-safety-of-vedolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
W A Bye, V Jairath, S P L Travis
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab specifically recognises the α4β7 integrin and selectively blocks gut lymphocyte trafficking: potentially, it offers gut-specific immunosuppression. AIM: To review the safety of vedolizumab and summarise post-marketing data to assess if any safety concerns that differ from registration trials have emerged. METHOD: A systematic bibliographic search identified six registration trials and nine cohort studies. RESULTS: Integrated data from registration trials included 2830 vedolizumab-exposed patients (4811 person-years exposure [PYs]) and 513 placebo patients...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449228/azathioprine-dose-reduction-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-on-combination-therapy-an-open-label-prospective-and-randomised-clinical-trial
#4
X Roblin, G Boschetti, N Williet, S Nancey, H Marotte, A Berger, J M Phelip, L Peyrin-Biroulet, J F Colombel, E Del Tedesco, S Paul, B Flourie
BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) combined with azathioprine (AZA) is more effective than IFX monotherapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To identify the AZA optimal dose that is required for efficacy when receiving combination therapy. METHODS: Patients with IBD in durable remission on combination therapy were enrolled in a 1-year, open-label, prospective trial after randomisation into three groups: AZA steady (2-2.5 mg/kg/day, n=28) vs AZA down (dose was halved 1-1...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449214/a-rising-incidence-and-poorer-male-outcomes-characterise-early-onset-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
A Coughlan, R Wylde, L Lafferty, S Quinn, A Broderick, B Bourke, S Hussey
BACKGROUND: The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease diagnosed before age 10 years is reportedly increasing, but national data are limited. AIM: To characterise the epidemiology, phenotype and clinical outcomes of children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease before age 10 years, and compare with data from children diagnosed aged 10-16 years. METHODS: A review of all Irish cases of early onset inflammatory bowel disease (diagnosis <10 years, EO-IBD) presenting between January 2000 and December 2014 was undertaken and compared to a cohort of later onset paediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients (diagnosis between 10 and 16 years, LO-IBD)...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449192/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-pegylated-human-adrenomedullin-in-a-mouse-dss-induced-colitis-model
#6
Sayaka Nagata, Motoo Yamasaki, Kazuo Kitamura
Preclinical Research Human adrenomedullin (hAM), a hypotensive peptide, also has anti-inflammatory effects. hAM can reduce the severity of the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in animal models. Furthermore, in a clinical study, hAM treatment reduced the Disease Activity Index in ulcerative colitis. However, these therapeutic effects required continuous administration of hAM as the half-life of native hAM is quite short in blood. To resolve this problem, hAM N-terminal was conjugated with two kinds of polyethylene glycol (PEG); 5 kDa PEG or 60 kDa PEG (5 kDa PEG-hAM and 60 kDa PEG-hAM respectively)...
April 27, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448616/abundance-profiling-of-specific-gene-groups-using-precomputed-gut-metagenomes-yields-novel-biological-hypotheses
#7
Konstantin Yarygin, Alexander Tyakht, Andrey Larin, Elena Kostryukova, Sergei Kolchenko, Vilgelm Bitner, Dmitry Alexeev
The gut microbiota is essentially a multifunctional bioreactor within a human being. The exploration of its enormous metabolic potential provides insights into the mechanisms underlying microbial ecology and interactions with the host. The data obtained using "shotgun" metagenomics capture information about the whole spectrum of microbial functions. However, each new study presenting new sequencing data tends to extract only a little of the information concerning the metabolic potential and often omits specific functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447368/optimization-of-aqueous-extraction-and-biological-activity-of-harpagophytum-procumbens-root-on-ex-vivo-rat-colon-inflammatory-model
#8
Marcello Locatelli, Claudio Ferrante, Simone Carradori, Daniela Secci, Lidia Leporini, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Giustino Orlando, Sara Martinotti, Luigi Brunetti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Menghini
Harpagophytum procumbens has a long story of use for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Considering both the antiinflammatory effects of H. procumbens in multiple tissues and the stability of harpagoside in artificial intestinal fluid, the aim of the present study was to explore the possible protective role of a microwave-assisted aqueous Harpagophytum extract (1-1000 μg/mL) on mouse myoblast C2C12 and human colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT116 cell lines, and isolated rat colon specimens challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a validated ex vivo model of acute ulcerative colitis...
April 26, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447207/prevalence-of-fibromyalgia-in-general-population-and-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Fatemeh Heidari, Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh
This study aims to estimate the reliable prevalence of fibromyalgia using meta-analysis method. Available databanks were searched using appropriate keywords. According to the heterogeneity between the results (indicated by Cochrane and I square indices), random- or fixed-effects model was applied to combine the point prevalences. Meta-regression models were used to assess the suspected factors in the heterogeneity. In 65 selected papers, 81 evidences regarding prevalence of fibromyalgia among 3,609,810 subjects from general population and specific groups were investigated...
April 26, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447053/deciphering-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-an-alternative-model-for-pathogenesis-cytokine-controlled-transepithelial-multi-feedback-loop
#10
REVIEW
Ricky McCullough, Jeremiah McCullough
A working theoretical model for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) does not exist, hampered by the lack of any clear cut invention that address all symptom and signs of the disease. Reports of cessation of symptom and signs of both major types of IBS have been published using a non-systemic, topically active agent-high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate (HPPCLS). The unique clinical effect of this non-systemic agent restricted to the luminal surface of the gut provides opportunity to elaborate on an alternative working model for the pathogenesis of IBS and FGIDs...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446062/metabolite-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-facilitators-of-diet-related-immune-regulation
#11
Jian K Tan, Craig McKenzie, Eliana Mariño, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Nutrition and the gut microbiome regulate many systems, including the immune, metabolic, and nervous systems. We propose that the host responds to deficiency (or sufficiency) of dietary and bacterial metabolites in a dynamic way, to optimize responses and survival. A family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) termed the metabolite-sensing GPCRs bind to various metabolites and transmit signals that are important for proper immune and metabolic functions. Members of this family include GPR43, GPR41, GPR109A, GPR120, GPR40, GPR84, GPR35, and GPR91...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445877/benign-exocrine-pancreatic-diseases-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#12
Raffaele Pezzilli, Nico Pagano
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the involvement of the pancreas during the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce and conflicting. AIM: To assess the frequency of benign pancreatic diseases, that is, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis (CP), and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), in a population with IBD. METHODS: A search for patients with IBD who presented at our hospital between January 2006 and January 2015 with a diagnosis of IBD was carried out...
April 27, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445795/a-novel-approach-to-calculating-small-intestine-length-based-on-magnetic-resonance-enterography
#13
Nicole A Wilson, Hyung-Soon Park, Kyoung Soub Lee, Lauren K Barron, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: Bowel length is an important factor in the management of patients with intestinal failure and short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, it is difficult to accurately measure the length of the small intestine. Our purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of a dedicated software algorithm for calculating small intestine length based on magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) images. STUDY DESIGN: A custom algorithm for image thresholding, wall-identification, segmentation, and path extraction was designed and implemented...
April 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445725/nlrp6-protects-il10-mice-from-colitis-by-limiting-colonization-of-akkermansia-muciniphila
#14
Sergey S Seregin, Natasha Golovchenko, Bryan Schaf, Jiachen Chen, Nicholas A Pudlo, Jonathan Mitchell, Nielson T Baxter, Lili Zhao, Patrick D Schloss, Eric C Martens, Kathryn A Eaton, Grace Y Chen
Dysfunction in host immune responses and pathologic alterations in the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis, can both contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear how specific changes in host immunity or the microbiota cause disease. We previously demonstrated that the loss of the innate immune receptor NLRP6 in mice resulted in impaired production of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and increased susceptibility to epithelial-induced injury. Here, we show that NLRP6 is important for suppressing the development of spontaneous colitis in the Il10(-/-) mice model of IBD and that NLRP6 deficiency results in the enrichment of Akkermansia muciniphila...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445263/acupuncture-for-enhancing-early-recovery-of-bowel-function-in-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#15
Yi-Hua Liu, Yang Ye, Jia-Bin Zheng, Xue-Qian Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedure often suffer from bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus (POI). Cancer management for early recovery of bowel function is still a challenging topic. Acupuncture has been commonly used in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy to reduce the duration of POI and enhance bowel function in cancer patients. METHODS: We will systematically screen all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through electronically and hand searching...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445244/outcomes-after-primary-infliximab-treatment-failure-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Sine Buhl, Casper Steenholdt, Maria Rasmussen, Märta K Borghede, Jørn Brynskov, Ole Ø Thomsen, Mark A Ainsworth
BACKGROUND: Primary infliximab treatment failure is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and represents a challenge to clinicians. Treatment options are limited. This study assessed the prognosis, defined as surgery-free survival, in patients with primary infliximab treatment failure as compared to patients without primary failure (initial responders). Furthermore, this study assessed the specter of medical therapies used after primary infliximab treatment failure along with treatment outcomes...
April 25, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444562/infliximab-maintenance-dosing-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-example-for-in-silico-assessment-of-adaptive-dosing-strategies
#17
Jessica Wojciechowski, Richard N Upton, Diane R Mould, Michael D Wiese, David J R Foster
Infliximab is an anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody used to treat inflammatory diseases. Many patients fail during induction and others respond initially but relapse during maintenance therapy. Although anti-drug antibodies (ADA) are associated with some clinical failures, there is evidence that some failures may be due to subtherapeutic exposure. Adapting doses based on clinical outcomes and trough concentrations can improve response and reduce the proportion that develop ADA, but identification of appropriate doses in the presence of time-varying patient factors is complicated...
April 25, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444216/dietary-metabolites-derived-from-gut-microbiota-critical-modulators-of-epigenetic-changes-in-mammals
#18
Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Rajeev Kapila
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443446/yoga-may-benefit-people-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
(no author information available yet)
Yoga could help improve quality of life for people with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, a study has found.
April 26, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443096/the-microbiota-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-t-helper-17-regulatory-t-cells-in-search-of-a-balanced-immune-system
#20
REVIEW
Annie Luo, Steven T Leach, Romain Barres, Luke B Hesson, Michael C Grimm, David Simar
Immune cells not only affect tissue homeostasis at the site of inflammation but also exert systemic effects contributing to multiple chronic conditions. Recent evidence clearly supports an altered T helper 17/regulatory T cell (Th17/Treg) balance leading to the development and progression of inflammatory diseases that not only affect the gastrointestinal tract but also have whole-body manifestations, including insulin resistance. Epigenetic mechanisms are amenable to both environmental and circulating factors and contribute to determining the T cell landscape...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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