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Neuromyelitis optica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676204/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-mimicking-extensive-leukodystrophy
#1
Jonathan Ciron, Olivier Colin, Marie-Pierre Rosier, Soline Lapeyrie, Damien Biotti, David Brassat, Jean-Philippe Neau
Brain MRI was originally considered to appear normal in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD). Typical brain lesions are now well described and have been integrated in the latest revision of NMO-SD criteria, but the NMO-SD MRI pattern remains not yet comprehensive. We report here extensive white matter lesions (EWML) mimicking leukodystrophy in a 50-year-old woman with long-lasting anti-AQP4+ NMO-SD. We suggest that EWML could be a possible brain MRI presentation of NMO-SD patients.
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676200/extensive-bilateral-brain-lesions-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#2
Bernhard F Décard, Tobias Derfuss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676196/contiguous-and-symmetrical-disease-expansion-and-massive-necrosis-of-the-cerebral-white-matter-in-a-patient-with-neuromyelitis-optica
#3
Chiho Ishida, Tokuhei Ikeda, Kiyonobu Komai, Kazuya Takahashi, Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Masahito Yamada
The present report discusses the case of a woman with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) who exhibited bilateral optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, and a unique pattern of white matter involvement. The disease duration was 26 years, and the patient died at the age of 65 years. Sequential magnetic resonance images obtained during the last 6 years of life revealed leukoencephalopathy-like lesions extending symmetrically and contiguously from the periventricular regions, which had begun to transform into multiple cavities with semi-annular partitions...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675599/immunoadsorption-plasmapheresis-treatment-for-the-recurrent-exacerbation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-a-fluctuating-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-level
#4
Hiroaki Nishimura, Hideki Enokida, Taiji Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Hayami, Masayuki Nakagawa
The pathogenesis in the exacerbation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) involves mainly the serum anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) immunoglobulin G antibody (anti-AQP4 antibody). If high-dose corticosteroid treatment is not achieved during remission, rescue plasmapheresis is recommended. However, there are few reports on the therapeutic efficacy of repetitive immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) for the recurrent exacerbation of NMOSD with a fluctuating anti-AQP4 antibody level. A 36-year-old man presented with a reduction of visual acuity (VA) on the right eye (OD) to 20/250...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673575/classification-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system-where-do-we-stand-today
#5
REVIEW
G Mathey, M Michaud, S Pittion-Vouyovitch, M Debouverie
The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system is challenging, and although the currently available biological and imaging tools offer considerable support to physicians, these tools often fail to provide a simple and final answer at the time of a first event. Thus, sets of diagnostic criteria have been published and tested on patient cohorts, and are now used in clinical trials and in daily clinical practice. These criteria have evolved over time to take into account physicians' and patients' needs, along with emerging paraclinical tests...
April 16, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671689/two-cases-of-anaphylactic-shock-by-methylprednisolone-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#6
Keita Takahashi, Tetsuya Asano, Yuichi Higashiyama, Shigeru Koyano, Hiroshi Doi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Fumiaki Tanaka
Steroid pulse therapy with methylprednisolone (mPSL) succinate ester is the most common treatment for neuromyelitis optica (NMO); no cases of anaphylaxis have been reported to date. Here, we report two cases of anaphylactic shock induced by mPSL pulse therapy in patients with NMO and concurrent systemic lupus erythematosus. Both patients had received several courses of mPSL pulse therapy without any problems previously. Repeated mPSL pulse therapy and comorbid humoral autoimmune disease might increase the risk of anaphylaxis...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671675/clinical-commentary-on-two-cases-of-anaphylactic-shock-by-methylprednisolone-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#7
Breogán Rodríguez-Acevedo, Jordi Río
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670575/mog-igg-associated-optic-neuritis-encephalitis-and-myelitis-lessons-learned-from-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Luana Michelli Oliveira, Bruna Klein da Costa, Samira Luisa Apostolos-Pereira, Dagoberto Callegaro, Kazuo Fujihara, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been found in some cases diagnosed as seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). MOG-IgG allowed the identification of a subgroup with a clinical course distinct from that of NMOSD patients who are seropositive for aquaporin-4-IgG antibodies. MOG-IgG is associated with a wider clinical phenotype, not limited to NMOSD, with the majority of cases presenting with optic neuritis (ON), encephalitis with brain demyelinating lesions, and/or myelitis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670463/combination-treatment-of-c16-peptide-and-angiopoietin-1-alleviates-neuromyelitis-optica-in-an-experimental-model
#9
Yuanyuan Zhang, Kewei Tian, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an α v β 3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667789/updates-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#10
Ethan Meltzer, Sashank Prasad
Optic neuritis remains a common diagnosis with controversial management. Although typical optic neuritis is often associated with "good" recovery of visual acuity, patients are often left with persistent impairments of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual field. These permanent visual deficits correlate with structural injury to the anterior visual pathway and are closely linked to visual quality of life. High dose corticosteroids are commonly used for patients with acute optic neuritis...
April 18, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665816/selective-localization-of-igg-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-brain-parenchyma
#11
Marlene Thorsen Mørch, Sofie Forsberg Sørensen, Reza Khorooshi, Nasrin Asgari, Trevor Owens
BACKGROUND: Encounter of autoantibodies with specific antigens can lead to hypersensitivity reactions and pathology. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD), immunoglobulin-G (IgG) deposition has been observed in pathological lesions in the central nervous system. The paradigmatic autoantibodies in NMOSD are specific for the water channel aquaporin-4, localized to astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier and ependymal cells at the cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663814/new-biological-agents-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
M Buc
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease induced by autoimmune processes. Their understanding has resulted in an introduction of biological agents to its treatment. Interferon beta and glatiramer acetate have been in clinical practice for more than 20 years. Nowadays, novel biologics, which target molecules involved in immunopathological processes more specifically have entered the scene. They are represented by monoclonal antibodies binding to molecules VLA4 (natalizumab), CD20 (ocrelizumab), CD52 (alemtuzumab) or alpha subunit of IL-2 receptor (daclizumab) or by small molecules such as those modulating the receptors involved in regulation of lymphocyte migration (fingolimod, ozanimod) or in induction of lymphopenia by apoptosis (dimethyl fumarate, cladribine)...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655487/frequency-of-aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin-g-in-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-with-antiphospholipid-antibodies
#13
Hilda Guerra, Sean J Pittock, Kevin G Moder, James P Fryer, Avi Gadoth, Eoin P Flanagan
Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies have historically been postulated to cause a poorly understood inflammatory myelitis. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) causes an inflammatory longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). In 2004, aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) was first reported as a highly specific (>99%) serum diagnostic biomarker of NMOSD, distinguishing it from other disorders (eg, multiple sclerosis). We sought to assess the frequency of AQP4-IgG (and thus NMOSD diagnosis) in LETM with aPL antibodies...
April 11, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627007/mutation-of-the-cellular-adhesion-molecule-necl2-is-associated-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#14
Yan Xu, Liang Li, Hai-Tao Ren, Bin Yin, Jian-Gang Yuan, Xiao-Zhong Peng, Bo-Qin Qiang, Li-Ying Cui
AIMS: To investigate the association of the Nectin/Necl family genes with the risk of developing NMOSD. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on two familial NMOSD cases and two unaffected family members. Additionally, 106 patients with sporadic NMOSD and 212 healthy controls (HCs) underwent screening for mutant Necl2. Finally, the molecular weight and cellular localization of mutant NECL2 was examined in transfected HeLa cells. RESULTS: We identified a novel deletion mutation in Necl2 (c...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623106/defining-distinct-features-of-anti-mog-antibody-associated-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#15
REVIEW
Martin S Weber, Tobias Derfuss, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Brück
Extensive research over the last decades basically failed to identify a common cause of noninfectious inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. To a great extent, this may reflect that the group of inflammatory CNS demyelinating disorders likely contains multiple pathogenetically distinct disease entities. Indeed, the greatest success so far in deciphering the pathogenesis of a CNS demyelinating disorder resulted from the discovery of anti-aquaporin (AQP)-4 antibodies (ab), which allowed progressive delineation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly considered a variant of the most common CNS demyelinating disorder, multiple sclerosis (MS), as a distinct disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621743/b-cell-depleting-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis-overlapping-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#16
Tingting Lu, Yaqing Shu, Yongqiang Dai, Xu Liu, Yanyu Chang, Qiao Huang, Allan G Kermode, Wei Qiu
Multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder are currently thought to be independent entities. Some patients display intermediate manifestations that fit the criteria for both diseases without positive relevant serobiomarkers. An overall standard and consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of these overlapping patients have not been reached. We describe a patient with frequently relapsing demyelinating episodes and repeatedly adjusted treatment regimens due to diagnostic difficulties. This case did not respond adequately to glucocorticoid plus azathioprine or to interferon...
March 26, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620080/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-in-the-elderly-associated-with-bronchiolitis-obliterans-organizing-pneumonia
#17
Aintzine Ruisanchez Nieva, Jose Luis Sanchez Menoyo, Ines Escalza Cortina, Nerea Foncea Beti, Marian Gomez Beldarrain, Juan Carlos Garcia-Monco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616233/normal-brain-imaging-accompanies-neuroimmunologically-justified-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Daiki Takewaki, Youwei Lin, Wakiro Sato, Hirohiko Ono, Masakazu Nakamura, Manabu Araki, Tomoko Okamoto, Yuji Takahashi, Yukio Kimura, Miho Ota, Noriko Sato, Takashi Yamamura
Objective: To examine cases with a clinical course, signs, and symptoms mimicking MS, but without abnormalities on conventional MRI. Methods: Among 550 people with a tentative diagnosis of MS or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), we selected patients, who met the 2010 McDonald diagnosis criteria for MS, but did not show abnormal findings on conventional brain and spinal cord MRI. After evaluating their clinical data, we analyzed fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the brain white matter on diffusion tensor MRIs and the frequencies of B-cell subsets in the peripheral blood in the corresponding cases as compared to healthy controls...
May 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616032/astrocytic-interleukin-15-reduces-pathology-of-neuromyelitis-optica-in-mice
#19
Zhiguo Li, Jinrui Han, Honglei Ren, Cun-Gen Ma, Fu-Dong Shi, Qiang Liu, Minshu Li
Astrocyte loss induced by neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is the hallmark of NMO pathology. The survival of astrocytes is thought to reflect astrocyte exposure to environmental factors in the CNS and the response of astrocytes to these factors. However, still unclear are how astrocytes respond to NMO-IgG and CDC, and what CNS environmental factors may impact the survival of astrocytes. In a murine model of NMO induced by intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG and human complement, we found dramatic upregulation of IL-15 in astrocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606515/plasma-exchange-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-chinese-patients-and-factors-predictive-of-short-term-outcome
#20
Yujuan Jiao, Lei Cui, Weihe Zhang, Yeqiong Zhang, Wei Wang, Linwei Zhang, Wenxiong Tang, Jinsong Jiao
PURPOSE: The purposes of this article were to evaluate the short-term outcome of plasma exchange (PLEX) for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in Chinese patients and to identify the factors predictive of a favorable response to therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 29 Chinese patients with NMOSD. All patients received 2 to 7 sessions of PLEX every other day. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were estimated at baseline, at relapse, and before and at follow-up after PLEX...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
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