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Renxun Chen, Nerida Cole, Debarun Dutta, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were immobilized on glass surfaces via two linkers, 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) or 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide (FNA). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the surfaces was determined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains by fluorescence microscopy. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilization was confirmed by XPS showing significant increases (p < 0...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Woan-Sub Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Kei-Ichi Shimazaki
The antimicrobial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysates (bLFH) was measured against Pseudomonas strains (P. syringae and P. fluorescens) in vitro. To compare susceptibility to bLFH, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using chemiluminescence assays and paper disc plate assays. Antimicrobial effect against P. fluorescens was not observed by either assay, suggesting that bLFH did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against P. fluorescens. However, a significant inhibition of P. syringae growth was observed in the presence of bLFH...
2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Leonard T Nguyen, Hans J Vogel
Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yide Qin, Juan Zhou, Wenxiao Zhang, Xue Yang, Jing Wang, Cai Wei, Fang Gu, Ting Lei
Some bioactive peptides derived from natural resources or synthesized by rational design have been shown to have very good anticancer effects. We designed and prepared an anticancer fusion peptide (ACFP) through genetic engineering and studied its antiovarian cancer activity by cell culture and lentivirus infection. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) and hexapeptide (PGPIPN) were connected by a flexible link arm (GGGGS) to produce an ACFP gene. ACFP was inductively expressed in Escherichia coli by the recombinant plasmid pGEX-KG-ACFP...
June 26, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Michael B Ellman, Jaesung Kim, Howard S An, Di Chen, Ranjan Kc, Xin Li, Guozhi Xiao, Dongyao Yan, Joon Suh, Andre J van Wijnen, James H-C Wang, Su-Gwan Kim, Hee-Jeong Im
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2016: Gene
Natascia Bruni, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Biasibetti, Enrica Pessione, Simona Cirrincione, Leonardo Giraudo, Antonio Corona, Franco Dosio
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
François Villemot, Riccardo Capelli, Giorgio Colombo, Arjan van der Vaart
Improvements to the confinement method for the calculation of conformational free energy differences are presented. By taking advantage of phase space overlap between simulations at different frequencies, significant gains in accuracy and speed are reached. The optimal frequency spacing for the simulations is obtained from extrapolations of the confinement energy, and relaxation time analysis is used to determine time steps, simulation lengths, and friction coefficients. At postprocessing, interpolation of confinement energies is used to significantly reduce discretization errors in the calculation of conformational free energies...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Neelabh, Karuna Singh, Jyoti Rani
Emerging drug resistance varieties and hyper-virulent strains of microorganisms have compelled the scientific fraternity to develop more potent and less harmful therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides could be one of such therapeutics. This review is an attempt to explore antifungal peptides naturally produced by prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. They are components of innate immune system providing first line of defence against microbial attacks, especially in eukaryotes. The present article concentrates on types, structures, sources and mode of action of gene-encoded antifungal peptides such as mammalian defensins, protegrins, tritrpticins, histatins, lactoferricins, antifungal peptides derived from birds, amphibians, insects, fungi, bacteria and their synthetic analogues such as pexiganan, omiganan, echinocandins and Novexatin...
June 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Winston Yan Wang, Jack Ho Wong, Denis Tsz Ming Ip, David Chi Cheong Wan, Randy Chifai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng
This study aimed to investigate fragments derived from human and bovine lactoferrins for ability to inhibit nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. It was shown that human lactoferricin, human lactoferrin 1-11, and bovine lactoferrampin reduced nuclear distribution of HIV-1 integrase. Bovine lactoferrampin could inhibit both the activity and nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. Human lactoferrampin, bovine lactoferricin, and bovine lactoferrin 1-11 had no effect on HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation...
August 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Betty R Liu, Yue-Wern Huang, Robert S Aronstam, Han-Jung Lee
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Debarun Dutta, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
The objective of this study was to immobilise and characterise a variety of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) onto poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) surfaces to achieve an antibacterial effect. Four AMPs, viz. LL-37, melimine, lactoferricin and Mel-4 were immobilised on pHEMA by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) which assisted covalent attachment. Increasing concentrations of AMPs were immobilised to determine the effect on the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus...
2016: Biofouling
Jolon M Dyer, Stefan Clerens, Anita Grosvenor, Ancy Thomas, Chris Callaghan, Santanu Deb-Choudhury, Stephen Haines
Lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin are important protein components of mammalian milk. Maillard reactions, as well as redox chemistry, are of particular interest for dairy products because they are known to occur during common processing steps, notably heating procedures such as pasteurization. Using a redox proteomics approach, we characterized AA residue side-chain modification across a range of heating times and with or without the specific addition of lactose, to both map the key modification sites within these proteins and evaluate their sensitivity to process-induced modification...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yu-Hsuan Ho, Pramod Shah, Yi-Wen Chen, Chien-Sheng Chen
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) act either through membrane lysis or by attacking intracellular targets. Intracellular targeting AMPs are a resource for antimicrobial agent development. Several AMPs have been identified as intracellular targeting peptides; however, the intracellular targets of many of these peptides remain unknown. In the present study, we used an Escherichia coli proteome microarray to systematically identify the protein targets of three intracellular targeting AMPs: bactenecin 7 (Bac7), a hybrid of pleurocidin and dermaseptin (P-Der), and proline-arginine-rich peptide (PR-39)...
June 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Yan Lu, Teng-Fei Zhang, Yue Shi, Han-Wei Zhou, Qi Chen, Bu-Yun Wei, Xi Wang, Tian-Xin Yang, Y Eugene Chinn, Jian Kang, Cai-Yun Fu
LF11-322 (PFWRIRIRR-NH2) (PFR peptide), a nine amino acid-residue peptide fragment derived from human lactoferricin, possesses potent cytotoxicity against bacteria. We report here the discovery and characterization of its antitumor activity in leukemia cells. PFR peptide inhibited the proliferation of MEL and HL-60 leukemia cells by inducing cell death in the absence of the classical features of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, Annexin V staining, Caspase activation and increase of abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins...
2016: Scientific Reports
Víctor A Solarte, Jaiver E Rosas, Zuly J Rivera, Martha L Arango-Rodríguez, Javier E García, Jean-Paul Vernot
Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20-25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein...
2015: BioMed Research International
Gianluca Bello, Alice Bodin, M Jayne Lawrence, David Barlow, A James Mason, Robert D Barker, Richard D Harvey
The influence of Escherichia coli rough lipopolysaccharide chemotype on the membrane activity of the mammalian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) human cathelicidin (LL37) and bovine lactoferricin (LFb) was studied on bilayers using solid state (2)H NMR (ssNMR) and on monolayers using the subphase injection technique, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and neutron reflectivity (NR). The two AMPs were selected because of their differing biological activities. Chain-deuterated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (d62-DPPC) was added to the LPS samples, to highlight alterations in the system properties caused by the presence of the different LPS chemotypes and upon AMP challenge...
February 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Liv-Marie Eike, Nannan Yang, Øystein Rekdal, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours...
October 27, 2015: Oncotarget
Baruzzi Federico, Loris Pinto, Laura Quintieri, Antonia Carito, Nicola Calabrese, Leonardo Caputo
The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species...
December 23, 2015: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Md Moniruzzaman, Jahangir Md Alam, Hideo Dohra, Masahito Yamazaki
Enzymatic digestion of bovine lactoferrin generates lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), a 25-mer peptide with strong antimicrobial activity of unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of Lfcin B bactericidal activity, we investigated the interaction of Lfcin B with Escherichia coli and liposomes of lipid membranes. Lfcin B induced the influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli into its cytoplasm. Lfcin B induced gradual leakage of calcein from large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG)/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes...
September 29, 2015: Biochemistry
Sabrina Riedl, Regina Leber, Beate Rinner, Helmut Schaider, Karl Lohner, Dagmar Zweytick
Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity...
November 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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