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Dose adjustment in patients with renal injury

E Durante-Mangoni, R Andini, S Signoriello, G Cavezza, P Murino, S Buono, M De Cristofaro, C Taglialatela, M Bassetti, P Malacarne, N Petrosillo, A Corcione, C Viscoli, R Utili, C Gallo
The study aimed to prospectively assess incidence and risk factors for colistin-associated nephrotoxicity. This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre, randomized clinical trial, comparing efficacy and safety of colistin versus the combination of colistin plus rifampicin in severe infections due to extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The primary end point was acute kidney injury (AKI) during colistin treatment, assessed using the AKI Network Criteria, and considering death as a competing risk...
August 18, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Katarzyna Snarska, Katarzyna Kapica-Topczewska, Hanna Bachórzewska-Gajewska, Jolanta Małyszko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated renal function and the impact of renal function on in-hospital outcomes in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: We collected data from 766 patients with stroke; 637 (83.2 %) with ischaemic and 129 with haemorrhagic one. RESULTS: The mean serum creatinine on admission in patients with both types of stroke, who died, was significantly higher than in those who survived. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of mortality in patients with ischaemic stroke were: ischemic heart disease or prior myocardial infarction, diabetes, admission glucose and eGFR on admission...
2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Parminder K Judge, Michael E Reschen, Richard Haynes, Edward J Sharples
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a cause of biopsy-proven acute kidney injury, more common in the elderly. Treatment requires immunosuppression, which can have significant toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess whether morbidity and mortality that are associated with immunosuppression for AAV varied with age. METHODS: A retrospective review of 232 patients given induction therapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide was conducted...
2016: Nephron
F Garzotto, M Ostermann, D Martín-Langerwerf, M Sánchez-Sánchez, J Teng, R Robert, A Marinho, M E Herrera-Gutierrez, H J Mao, D Benavente, E Kipnis, A Lorenzin, D Marcelli, C Tetta, C Ronco
BACKGROUND: The previously published "Dose Response Multicentre International Collaborative Initiative (DoReMi)" study concluded that the high mortality of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) was unlikely to be related to an inadequate dose of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and other factors were contributing. This follow-up study aimed to investigate the impact of daily fluid balance and fluid accumulation on mortality of critically ill patients without AKI (N-AKI), with AKI (AKI) and with AKI on RRT (AKI-RRT) receiving an adequate dose of RRT...
June 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Lenar Yessayan, Jerry Yee, Stan Frinak, Balazs Szamosfalvi
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is used to manage electrolyte and acid-base imbalances in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Although a standard solution and prescription is acceptable in most clinical circumstances, specific disorders may require a tailored approach such as adjusting fluid composition, regulating CRRT dose, and using separate intravenous infusions to mitigate and correct these disturbances. Errors in fluid prescription, compounding, or delivery can be rapidly fatal...
May 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Sven Kohler, Afshin Salsali, Stefan Hantel, Stefan Kaspers, Hans J Woerle, Gabriel Kim, Uli C Broedl
PURPOSE: The aim of this analysis was to establish the safety profile and tolerability of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to pooled data from several clinical trials. METHODS: Pooled data were analyzed from patients with T2DM treated with placebo (n = 3695), empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 3806), or empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 4782) in 17 randomized, Phase I, II, and III clinical trials plus 6 extension studies. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed descriptively in patients who took ≥1 dose of the study drug...
June 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Deepak K Nandikanti, Elvira O Gosmanova, Aidar R Gosmanov
Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. About 5% of linagliptin is eliminated by the kidneys and no dose adjustment is recommended in kidney impairment. We report a first case of linagliptin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in a patient with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that AKI was due to renal hypoperfusion from linagliptin-induced natriuresis and intravascular volume contraction in the setting of concomitant lisinopril use, which is known to impair autoregulation and potentiate hypotension-induced AKI...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Francois Beloncle, Peter Radermacher, Claude Guerin, Pierre Asfar
In patients with septic shock, a mean arterial pressure higher than 65 mmHg is recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines. However, a precise mean arterial pressure target has not been delineated. The aim of this paper was to review the physiological rationale and clinical evidence for increasing mean arterial pressure in septic shock. A mean arterial pressure level lower than renal autoregulatory threshold may lead to renal dysfunction. However, adjusting macrocirculation objectives in particular after the early phase of septic shock may not correct established microcirculation impairments...
July 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Sonja Vuč Ković, Katarina Savić Vujović, Dragana Srebro, Branislava Medić, Tatjana Ilic-Mostic
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain, inflamation and fever. They are usually well tolerated in healthy persons, but in patients with risk factors (advanced age, renal impairment, heart failure, liver disease, concurrent medications with antihypertensive drugs), NSAIDs can induce serious renal adverse effects. They include sodium and water retention with edema, worsening of heart failure, hypertension, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal papillary necrosis and acute interstitial nephritis...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Alessandra Moioli, Barbara Maresca, Andrea Manzione, Antonello Maria Napoletano, Daniela Coclite, Nicola Pirozzi, Giorgio Punzo, Paolo Menè
Metformin (MF) accumulation during acute kidney injury is associated with high anion gap lactic acidosis type B (MF-associated lactic acidosis, MALA), a serious medical condition leading to high mortality. Despite dose adjustment for renal failure, diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III-IV are at risk for rapid decline in renal function by whatever reason, so that MF toxicity might arise if the drug is not timely withdrawn. Sixteen consecutive patients were admitted to our Hospital's Emergency Department with clinical findings consistent with MALA...
January 22, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Giangiuseppe Cappabianca, Giovanni Mariscalco, Fausto Biancari, Daniele Maselli, Francesca Papesso, Marzia Cottini, Sandro Crosta, Simona Banescu, Aamer B Ahmed, Cesare Beghi
BACKGROUND: Bleeding after cardiac surgery requiring surgical reexploration and blood component transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) has been used satisfactorily in bleeding disorders, studies on its efficacy and safety after cardiopulmonary bypass are limited. METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2013, 3454 consecutive cardiac surgery patients were included in an observational study aimed at investigating the efficacy and safety of PCC as first-line coagulopathy treatment as a replacement for fresh frozen plasma (FFP)...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Farahnak Assadi, Fatemeh Ghane Shahrbaf
The dosage of drugs in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy need to be adjusted based on a number of variables that that affect pharmacokinetics (PK) including patient weight, CRRT modality (convention, vs. diffusion), blood and/or effluent flow, hemofilter characteristics, physiochemical drug properties, volume of distribution, protein binding and half-life as well as residual renal function. There is a paucity of data on PK studies in children with acute kidney injury requiring CRRT. When possible, therapeutic drug monitoring should be utilized for those medications where serum drug concentrations can be obtained in a clinically relevant time frame...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Athena L V Hobbs, Katherine M Shea, Kirsten M Roberts, Mitchell J Daley
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) has been reported in approximately 30-65% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) despite the presence of a normal serum creatinine concentration. In certain ICU patient populations (e.g., patients with sepsis or trauma), the incidence increases to roughly 50-85%. Risk factors for ARC include the following: age younger than 50-55 years, male sex, higher diastolic blood pressure, fewer comorbidities, and a lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) or modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at ICU admission...
November 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Jamie S Hirsch, Sumit Mohan
Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy have a poor prognosis. Despite well-known factors, which contribute to outcomes, including dose delivery, patients frequently miss the target dose and volume removal. One major barrier to effective care of these patients is the traditional dissociation of dialysis device data from other clinical information systems, notably the electronic health record (EHR). This lack of integration and the resulting manual documentation leads to errors and biases in documentation and missed opportunities to intervene in a timely fashion...
2015: Nephron
Katja M Gist, Stuart L Goldstein, Melanie S Joy, Alexander A Vinks
Milrinone is an inotropic drug used in a variety of clinical settings in adults and children. The efficacy of milrinone in pediatric low-cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery is reported. Its primary route of removal from the body is through the kidney as unchanged drug in the urine. Milrinone is not known to be efficiently removed by extracorporeal dialytic therapies and thus has the potential to cause serious adverse effects and potentially worsens renal function in patients experiencing acute kidney injury (AKI)...
February 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Lajos Zsom, László Wagner, Tibor Fülöp
The introduction of novel immunosuppressive agents over the last two decades and the improvement of our diagnostic tools for early detection of antibody-mediated injury offer us an opportunity, if not a mandate, to better match the immunosuppression needs of the individual patients with side effects of the therapy. However, immunosuppressive regimens in the majority of programs remain mostly protocol-driven, with relatively little inter-program heterogeneity in certain areas of the world. Emerging data showing different outcomes with a particular immunosuppressive strategy in populations with varying immunological risks underscore a real potential for "personalized medicine" in renal transplantation...
September 24, 2015: World Journal of Transplantation
Lidia Dalfino, Filomena Puntillo, Maria Josephine Mura Ondok, Adriana Mosca, Rosa Monno, Sara Coppolecchia, Maria Luigia Spada, Francesco Bruno, Nicola Brienza
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may need relatively high colistin daily doses for efficacy against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant gram-negative rods. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may represent a major dose-limiting adverse effect of colistin. We sought to determine AKI occurrence and to identify factors influencing AKI risk in severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a recently proposed dosing strategy. METHODS: A prospective, observational, cohort study involving patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who received colistin was performed...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mohammad Hassan Nemati, Behrooz Astaneh
OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence has emphasized multifunctional therapeutic effects of statins on renal protection after cardiac surgeries. We aimed to assess the effects of preoperative administration of statins on lowering the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. METHODS: In a retrospective study, the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of 1064 consecutive patients who underwent different forms of cardiovascular surgeries were reviewed...
October 2015: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Frieder Keller, Bernd Schröppel, Ulla Ludwig
Patients with cancer have a high inherent risk of infectious complications. In addition, the incidence of acute and chronic kidney dysfunction rises in this population. Anti-infective drugs often require dosing modifications based on an estimate of kidney function, usually the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, there is still no preferential GFR formula to be used, and in acute kidney injury there is always a considerable time delay between true kidney function and estimated GFR. In most cases, the anti-infective therapy should start with an immediate and high loading dose...
July 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
Frederique Rodieux, Melanie Wilbaux, Johannes N van den Anker, Marc Pfister
Neonates, infants, and children differ from adults in many aspects, not just in age, weight, and body composition. Growth, maturation and environmental factors affect drug kinetics, response and dosing in pediatric patients. Almost 80% of drugs have not been studied in children, and dosing of these drugs is derived from adult doses by adjusting for body weight/size. As developmental and maturational changes are complex processes, such simplified methods may result in subtherapeutic effects or adverse events...
December 2015: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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